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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Rachel Dodds

The purpose of this paper is to review the past literature of the tourist experience and propose a new model of behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the past literature of the tourist experience and propose a new model of behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

It is proposed that understanding of the visitors experience from a development standpoint may be useful in understanding how tourism destinations or indeed products may be experienced so differently. Therefore, a tourist experience life cycle has been put forth as a model.

Findings

This model may help to outline how tourists, like destinations, also go through a life cycle. The implications may help destinations better understand the different motivations of their visitors.

Originality/value

While the literature has discussed the tourism experience and how the customer experience has changed, there has been little focus on the longitudinal development of how the actual tourist experiences a destination.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Rachel Dodds and Richard Butler

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of overtourism, outline the issues and contributing factors, as it relates to cities, and to suggest possible…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of overtourism, outline the issues and contributing factors, as it relates to cities, and to suggest possible mitigation measures that might be taken by policy makers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws from a review of literature looking at longitudinal issues of tourism development overtime and what has contributed to the phenomena of overtourism. A discussion of implications is provided from this review.

Findings

As tourism is an industry which has historically been poorly managed, greater political will and actual acknowledgement of the problem, as well as action by all levels of government are the necessary first steps to address overtourism.

Practical implications

This paper outlines key elements that contribute to overtourism and provides global examples which may help practitioners identify key critical issues in their own destinations and identify appropriate actions.

Social implications

This paper identifies issues raised by local resident populations and possible responses.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical overview of overtourism issues, as it relates to cities and discusses potential mitigation and reduction efforts, thereby providing an explanation of why overtourism has become so prevalent.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Rachel Dodds, Michelle Novotny and Sylvie Harper

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of online communication by festivals regarding their sustainability practices using Cultivation Theory as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of online communication by festivals regarding their sustainability practices using Cultivation Theory as the framework to determine perceived value creation.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method approach was utilized to achieve data triangulation through a content analysis of websites, content analysis of social media sites as well as interviews.

Findings

Findings indicated that 64% of festivals did not communicate any sustainable practices through their websites and only 6% communicated via social media. The most common sustainability practices communicated were waste management and sustainable transportation, yet few festivals engaged in effective, consistent and sufficient marketing of initiatives to festivalgoers. Best practice festivals (having communicated 5.47 initiatives or more) were found to have been significantly more likely than non-best practice festivals to be music festivals and have been in operation longer. Best practice festivals were also more likely than non-best practice festivals to have sustainability engrained into their corporate philosophy via a communicated sustainable vision and mission. Interviews revealed that most festivals did not have a designated role responsible for all sustainable initiatives and the responsibility was often taken on by volunteers or festival organizers. Festival organizers that communicated sustainability initiatives efficiently, consistently, and sufficiently perceived these efforts to benefit the festivals value amongst festivalgoers and host communities. Propensity to communicate sustainability initiatives was found to have been impacted by awareness, categorization, timing, policy and funding.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings are limited to the country of Canada and the extent of communication on websites and social media platforms as well as those festivals who participated, interviews helped to overcome these limitations as they gained an understanding of what was undertaken but not necessarily communicated.

Practical implications

The findings generated from this study could be used as a guide for establishing a benchmark for festivals regarding sustainable communication as well as strategies for overall corporate responsibility. Content regarding sustainability at festivals is scarce, as is information on festival communication. As a result, this paper seeks to understand the sustainable initiatives that are being communicated by festivals.

Originality/value

This is the first time Cultivation Theory was used within a tourism context and may be a useful tool to determine value creation. Through Cultivation Theory, festival organizers believed to have the ability to impact perceived value of the festival by implementing efficient, consistent and sufficient communication of sustainability initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Deborah de Lange and Rachel Dodds

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between social entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism and to examine the Canadian context in this regard.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between social entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism and to examine the Canadian context in this regard.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology entails a case study approach that includes a thorough review of the related literature and of any existing Canadian sources of hospitality and tourism social entrepreneurship/intrapreneurship projects to determine the state of the Canadian industry with respect to sustainability.

Findings

Findings show that there are limited showcased hospitality and tourism social entrepreneurship projects in Canada. Two main assumptions related to the Canadian context can be drawn from this search: (1) There is a lack of hospitality and tourism social entrepreneurship projects and/or, (2) hospitality and tourism social entrepreneurship projects and/or businesses are not recognized and/or there is a lack of awareness of them.

Research limitations/implications

This study assessed the situation in Canada and although it was comprehensive under conditions of limited data availability, it cannot speak to social entrepreneurship in sustainable hospitality and tourism globally, which is a future research opportunity.

Practical implications

The design of a national incentive program would encourage industry sustainability through tax breaks. This voluntary system would require that firms provide standardized annual reports with their tax filings so that reliable industry data could be collected for analysis and understanding of the sustainability of the industry. Participating firms would be distinguished on a public list.

Originality/value

This research has theorized on the connection of social entrepreneurship to sustainable hospitality and tourism such that social entrepreneurship drives sustainable industry growth. This is also the first study of its kind to explore social entrepreneurship’s potential contribution to the sustainability of this industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Rachel Dodds and Jacqueline Kuehnel

The purpose of this paper is to provide an exploratory case study of mass mainstream tour operators in the Canadian market and evaluate their awareness level of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an exploratory case study of mass mainstream tour operators in the Canadian market and evaluate their awareness level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. The research aims to address the structure and ownership of mass Canadian tour operators, how it may influence the adoption of CSR practices, key issues and concerns and awareness level and participation of CSR practices. Although the Canadian outbound leisure mass market is relatively small compared with that of the UK, Canadian travelers are a significant source of tourism to Mexico and the Caribbean islands such as Cuba and the Dominican Republic.

Design/methodology/approach

Canadian mass tour operators were contacted through interviews and questionnaires to assess the structure and ownership of mass Canadian tour operators, how it may influence the adoption of CSR practices, key issues and concerns and awareness level and participation of CSR practices. Existing responsible tourism practices in the destinations they operate were also gauged.

Findings

CSR is gaining momentum worldwide as companies begin to realize that their stakeholders are demanding accountability that goes beyond shareholders' interests. Subsequently, reporting levels are increasingly being regulated and corporate strategic initiatives focusing on improving their social and environmental responsibility are on the rise. In the case of tour operators, however, initiatives of this nature are preliminary and there is little implementation of CSR practices.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines Canadian mass tourism package tour operators and further research is needed to assess all tour operators (inbound and outbound) to determine whether the level of participation in responsible travel is higher or whether size is an implicating factor. As issues such as climate change and responsible tourism have only started to influence consumer demand in the past few years, the study's findings may be changing. Therefore a further follow‐up study would be beneficial in order to determine any barriers to action.

Originality/value

To date, little research has been done on the tourism industry, and that mainly on hotels. There is a need to understand the structure and contribution of tour operators to the industry and their level of CSR practices and movement towards more responsible tourism.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Rachel Dodds and Sonya Graci

This chapter discusses the creation of The Icarus Foundation, a not-for-profit organization that was founded in 2007 to address the issues of climate change and tourism in…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the creation of The Icarus Foundation, a not-for-profit organization that was founded in 2007 to address the issues of climate change and tourism in Canada. As Canada's first nongovernmental organization in this area, the role of the foundation will be described and current initiatives undertaken will be outlined. Challenges to starting a nongovernmental organization in Canada will also be discussed, such as lack of funding, an unmotivated tourism industry, relaxed government regulations, concern about climate change, and its impacts on the tourism industry. The Icarus Foundation began and continues to operate with skeletal staff and the manpower of a few individuals, precariously facing the potential to become extinct if action and support are not provided.

Details

Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-620-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2018

Rachel Dodds, Brittany Jenkins, Wayne Smith and Robert E. Pitts

Sales and purchases of socially and environmentally responsible festival clothing are a way for festival attendees to engage in ethical consumption and for event…

Abstract

Sales and purchases of socially and environmentally responsible festival clothing are a way for festival attendees to engage in ethical consumption and for event organizers to undertake sustainable procurement. Although there have been a number of studies examining willingness-to-pay (WTP), few of them examine this in a festival setting, and there is a gap in existing research regarding the determination of actual behavior. The goal of this study is therefore to explore participants’ willingness-to-pay for apparel based on more external motivations (visible environmental messages) and then ascertain whether this behavior was actually replicated in a natural field setting. This study first collected surveys from 427 festival-goers in 2015, then used a natural field experiment in 2016 to investigate whether attendees at the Mariposa Folk Festival in Ontario, Canada, would actually be prepared to pay a premium for ethical festival T-shirts over a conventional alternative. The findings reveal that attendees not only showed a willingness-to-pay but they also did actually pay a premium for such T-shirts.

Details

Contemporary Challenges of Climate Change, Sustainable Tourism Consumption, and Destination Competitiveness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-343-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Anna Gibson, Rachel Dodds, Marion Joppe and Brian Jamieson

Applying the practices of ecotourism to an urban environment is a relatively new concept but a concept that merits development in multiple cities. The concept of urban…

Abstract

Applying the practices of ecotourism to an urban environment is a relatively new concept but a concept that merits development in multiple cities. The concept of urban green tourism (urban ecotourism), as pioneered by Toronto’s Green Tourism Association, is a working example that demonstrates how a city can promote itself, individual businesses and attractions to provide a unique tourism experience and generate demand for sustainability. This paper seeks to outline how urban green tourism can be an effective approach to addressing the issues of tourism in cities – growth, waste, etc., and demonstrates how sustainable tourism options can capitalize on the existing features of a city. The association promotes local businesses, organizations, natural and cultural features through its green map, green guidebook and Website to educate travellers and industry toward greener practices.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Naomi Berghoef and Rachel Dodds

The purpose of this paper is to explore the degree of consumer interest in an eco‐labeling program for the Ontario wine industry and determine whether there is a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the degree of consumer interest in an eco‐labeling program for the Ontario wine industry and determine whether there is a willingness‐to‐pay a premium for eco‐labeled Ontario wines.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was a quantitative survey of 401 wine consumers in Ontario, collected at Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) retail stores and winery retail stores. Results were analyzed using quantitative non‐parametric statistical analyses.

Findings

It was revealed that while most Ontario wine consumers do not presently purchase eco‐labeled wine regularly, the majority (90 per cent) are at least somewhat interested in purchasing eco‐labeled wine and that the majority would be willing to pay a premium of $0.51 or more (65 per cent). Consumers also indicated a preference for a seal of approval style label with multiple levels that contained a website from which they could obtain detailed information on certification.

Practical implications

These results provide valuable insights into wine consumers' purchasing behaviours and purchasing preferences with regards to environmentally friendly products. This information can be useful to those involved in implementing the Ontario wine industry's sustainability initiative, Sustainable Winemaking Ontario (SWO), and to wineries and winegrowers who are interested in promoting their actions taken to improve sustainability.

Originality/value

There is presently no published research investigating the potential role for an eco‐labeling and certification program for the Ontario wine industry, or any other Canadian wine industry. There is also a limited research on willingness‐to‐pay within the food and beverage sector.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Rachel Dodds and Lee Jolliffe

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Methodology/approach

Creative tourism in cities is profiled through a literature review and further investigated by means of a case study at a local attraction in Toronto, Canada. The choice of a site was one of a creative city and the re-purposing of a formerly industrial site for visitation.

Findings

The study of Evergreens Brickworks demonstrated the use of marketing techniques to identify markets and match visitors with experiences. The visitor segmentation method determined that pre-scheduled and bookable activities offered for locals need to be offered on a different basis for tourists, who may be one time visitors to the site. The product-market match process suggested areas in which products could be modified or indeed created.

Practical implications

This practical study offers lessons for other local visitor attractions and their managers desiring to identify market segments and match them with appropriate activities creating experiential tourism at the site level within the creative city context.

Originality/value

While many studies of the creative tourism concept and cities have been undertaken within the context of destinations this research offers a site-specific perspective as well as marketing perspective that will be of practical value to attraction managers.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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