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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Tom Bramorski, Manu Madan, Jaideep Motwani and R.P. Sundarraj

Price has traditionally been the order‐winning criterion for ready‐to‐assemble (RTA) products such as furniture, bicycles, kit models, etc. In order to be able to compete…

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1495

Abstract

Price has traditionally been the order‐winning criterion for ready‐to‐assemble (RTA) products such as furniture, bicycles, kit models, etc. In order to be able to compete in today’s demanding RTA market, manufacturers must increasingly emphasize quality, not price, as the order‐winning criterion. On the other hand, the order winners for external customers are time‐based – speed of delivery and flexibility. In this paper, we discuss the dimensions of RTA products’ quality. In addition, we discuss changes in business processes, information flow and information technology necessary to effectively improve the competitiveness of RTA manufacturers.

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2009

James H. Cassing

A somewhat underappreciated aspect of the burgeoning rush to regional trade agreements (RTAs) is a discrepancy between the dispute settlement procedure (DSP) embodied in…

Abstract

A somewhat underappreciated aspect of the burgeoning rush to regional trade agreements (RTAs) is a discrepancy between the dispute settlement procedure (DSP) embodied in the original World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) and that found in the language of many RTAs. This chapter explores the issue in the context of a dynamic repeated game of trade agreements. As is well known, the institutional alternatives available in negotiating multilateral freer trade agreements – regional agreements, side agreements, trade dispute settlement punishments, and so on – can proscribe the limits and shape the nature of self-enforcing trade agreements. Here, we suggest the extent to which deviations from the WTO DSP embodied in RTAs – for example, “private interest access,” “third party procedures,” and “choice of forum” – can not only work against the interests of “weaker parties” but furthermore undermine multilateral agreements closer to free trade.

Details

Trade Disputes and the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO: An Interdisciplinary Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-206-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Colleen W. Camerson and Regina Caveny

The relationship between a new measure of money, called the Rational Transactional Aggregate (RTA), and economic activity was investigated using annual and quarterly data…

Abstract

The relationship between a new measure of money, called the Rational Transactional Aggregate (RTA), and economic activity was investigated using annual and quarterly data in selected macroeconomic models from 1973–1990. For prediction purposes, the money demand function including RTA which used lagged output changes and lagged interest rates showed the most promise.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

A.K.M. Nurul Hossain and Mohammad Abdul Munim Joarder

The authors considered three regional trading agreements (RTAs): European Union (EU-25), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors considered three regional trading agreements (RTAs): European Union (EU-25), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) to test the hypothesis that poor members within a RTA catch rich members and thereby follow the path of income convergence. Of particular interest is to test whether partial openness (i.e. formation of RTAs) or openness or political conditions are conducive to economic growth among the member countries of RTAs. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used pooled datasets from three different RTAs, namely the EU-25, the AFTA, and the SAFTA. Taking five years average for all variables, starting from 1961 to 1965 and extending to 2001-2005, the authors tested the hypothesis that the growth rate of per capita GDP is negatively related to the initial level of per capita GDP. Constructing a dynamic behavioral equation and forming the reduced form equation, the authors calculated the s-convergence, and both conditional and unconditional convergence.

Findings

The authors found that both the EU-25 and the AFTA exhibit s-convergence, and both conditional and unconditional convergence, while the reverse evidence was observed in the case of the SAFTA. However, the speed of convergence of the AFTA was found to be much higher than that of the EU-25.

Originality/value

Formation of RTA by countries should be considered as an essential condition to achieve sustained economic growth. In addition, political rights, trade openness, and more importantly benevolence of the member countries within the RTA must be shown to sustain economic growth and convergence; otherwise with the passage of time, divergence among the RTA members will be evident.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Manohar Madan, Tom Bramorski and R.P. Sundarraj

The problems involved in assembly of packaged ready‐to‐assemble(RTA) products such as bicycles, furniture, etc., are well known. Someof the factors that contribute to the…

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1078

Abstract

The problems involved in assembly of packaged ready‐to‐assemble (RTA) products such as bicycles, furniture, etc., are well known. Some of the factors that contribute to the difficulty in assembly are unclear assembly instructions and poor grouping of parts in packages. Typically, RTA products are packed in one bulky carton with some parts, such as hardware, grouped in a separate package within the carton. As a result, consumers often spend a significant portion of the assembly time on searching for the right part. Through an experimental study we demonstrate that the assembly time can be significantly reduced by forming logical part groups (packages within the carton) according to the sequence of assembly operations. Our result is significant in the context of recent surveys that indicate customer dissatisfaction with the assembly of RTA products.

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International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Andrew Greasley

Business process simulation (BPS) is used to evaluate the effect of the redesign of a police road traffic accident (RTA) reporting system. The new system aims to provide…

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2012

Abstract

Business process simulation (BPS) is used to evaluate the effect of the redesign of a police road traffic accident (RTA) reporting system. The new system aims to provide timely statistical analysis of traffic behaviour to government bodies and to enable more effective utilisation of traffic police personnel. The simulation method is demonstrated in the context of assisting process change enabled by the use of information systems in an organisation in which there had been a historically mixed pattern of success in this activity.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Viet Van Hoang

This study aims to (1) identify the agricultural competitiveness of ASEAN countries in the global markets; (2) analyze the dynamics of these indicators for the period…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to (1) identify the agricultural competitiveness of ASEAN countries in the global markets; (2) analyze the dynamics of these indicators for the period 1997–2015; and (3) test the consistency between trade indices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses RCA, RTA, and NRCA for the first objective; OLS method and Markov matrix for the second objective; and statistic tool for the final purpose.

Findings

The results show that: (1) ASEAN countries achieve the strongest competitiveness in rice, rubber, spices, vegetable fat and oils, wood, fuel wood, fish, and crustacean. Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia are the strongest competitive whilst Brunei, Singapore, and Cambodia are the weakest competitive; (2) They have convergent patterns in agricultural competitiveness; (3) They successfully maintain rankings of the strong competitive sectors; and (4) ASEAN countries obtain benefits from the regional integration and the specialization in competitive products.

Research limitations/implications

ASEAN countries with strong competitiveness should specialize in and maintain their rankings to enhance competitiveness and maximize social welfare while the countries with weak agricultural competitiveness should specialize in the processed products and services based on their advantages of economic resources.

Originality/value

Comprehensive results of the static and dynamic agricultural competitiveness of ASEAN countries as a whole are provided. The findings and policy recommendations can be used by policymakers and enterprises to improve competitiveness and benefit. The discussions and findings should be a significant reference for economists.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Ellen McArthur

– The purpose of this paper is to present historical research on marketing practices in department stores of the 1880-1930 period using primary source records from Australia.

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1225

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present historical research on marketing practices in department stores of the 1880-1930 period using primary source records from Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws from primary records including retail trade journals, mass circulation newspapers, and other contemporary sources, but mainly from the archives of The Master Retailers' Association (MRA). The MRA was the dominant industry employers' organisation in Australia, and possibly the first retail association of its kind in the Western world. Secondary sources have also been used to supplement the primary records, and to provide context, and cross-cultural comparisons.

Findings

The findings demonstrate the antecedents of a range of marketing practices that today we presume are modern, including sales promotion, trade promotion, direct mail, destination retailing, advertising, and consumer segmentation. This supports other scholars' research into marketing's long history.

Originality/value

This paper contributes original knowledge to the neglected field of Australian marketing history and connects the pioneering practices of retailers to the broader field of marketing. While some outstanding retail histories exist for the USA, UK, and France, the Australian story has remained largely uncovered.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Zabihollah Rezaee, Rick Elam and Ahmad Sharbatoghlie

Technological advances (e.g. e‐commerce and the Internet) have changed business practices and the process of recording and storing business transactions. Extensible…

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10893

Abstract

Technological advances (e.g. e‐commerce and the Internet) have changed business practices and the process of recording and storing business transactions. Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) will soon be built into accounting and reporting software which would allow on‐line real‐time preparation, publication, examination, and extraction of financial information. Thus, outside, independent auditors should use continuous, electronic auditing when most financial information exists only in electronic form under real‐time accounting systems. Continuous auditing and its implications for independent auditors, including internal control considerations and audit procedures, are described and analyzed.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Papanasam E. and Binsu J. Kailath

Al2O3 used as gate dielectric enables exploitation of higher electric field capacity of SiC, improving capacitive coupling and memory retention in flash memories…

Abstract

Purpose

Al2O3 used as gate dielectric enables exploitation of higher electric field capacity of SiC, improving capacitive coupling and memory retention in flash memories. Passivation of traps at interface and in bulk which causes serious threat is necessary for better performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (PDA) and post-metallization annealing (PMA) on the structural and electrical characteristics of Pd/Al2O3/6H-SiC capacitors.

Design/methodology/approach

Al2O3 film is deposited by ALD; PDA is performed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in N2 at 900°C for 1 min and PMA in forming gas for 10 and 40 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements data are studied in addition to capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the fabricated Pd/Al2O3/SiC capacitors. Conduction mechanism contributing to the gate leakage current is extracted for the entire range of gate electric field.

Findings

RTA forms aluminum silicide at the interface causing an increase in the density of the interface states and gate leakage current for devices with an annealed film, when compared with an as-deposited film. One order improvement in leakage current has been observed for the devices with RTA, after subjecting to PMA for 40 min, compared with those devices for which PMA was carried out for 10 min. Whereas, no improvement in leakage current has been observed for the devices on as-deposited film, even after subjecting to PMA for 40 min. Conduction mechanisms contributing to gate leakage current are extracted for the investigated Al2O3/SiC capacitors and are found to be trapfilled limit process at low-field regions; trapassisted tunneling in the mid-field regions and Fowler–Nordheim (FN) tunneling are dominating in high-field regions.

Originality/value

The effect of PDA and PMA on the structural and electrical characteristics of Pd/Al2O3/SiC capacitors suitable for flash memory applications is investigated in this paper.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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