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Article

SEBASTIAN MACMILLAN, JOHN STEELE, PAUL KIRBY, ROBIN SPENCE and SIMON AUSTIN

This paper reports the outcome of a 2‐year research project that set out to provide a process map of the concept stage of building projects. From a literature review…

Abstract

This paper reports the outcome of a 2‐year research project that set out to provide a process map of the concept stage of building projects. From a literature review, comparison of current process maps, and through interviews and case study analyses, a tentative new framework for the concept stage was developed and tested. It comprises 12 activities in five phases. The framework formed the basis of a graphical method used to plot the activities of design teams in a series of workshops. This graphical method illustrates design iteration in a way which we believe has not been undertaken before, and the patterns it reveals are intuitively understood by design team members themselves, helping them reflect on their own design process. We have also constructed a prototype internet‐based decision support tool for the concept stage of design. This is intended to be inherently flexible and supportive of non‐linear routes through concept design, while also offering a structured approach, design tools to broaden the solution space or evaluate competing options, team management advice, and the recording of decision making. Initial testing of this tool showed it to be well‐received, although it was criticized for focusing too much on the gates between activities and too little on the issues and decisions within each activity.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Dov Zohar

As an epilogue to this special issue, this paper aims to provide a summary and set of conclusions to the papers contained in the issue.

Abstract

Purpose

As an epilogue to this special issue, this paper aims to provide a summary and set of conclusions to the papers contained in the issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews the papers and comments about the findings and research implications.

Findings

The study of workaholism has a long way to go yet and there is much to do. There are still problems with shared understandings so much so that even after 25 years convergence has still to be achieved.

Originality/value

Provides a more objective commentary on the papers and stresses the areas that still need research and work.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Krishna S. Vatsa

Households are exposed to a wide array of risks, characterized by a known or unknown probability distribution of events. Disasters are one of these risks at the extreme…

Abstract

Households are exposed to a wide array of risks, characterized by a known or unknown probability distribution of events. Disasters are one of these risks at the extreme end. Understanding the nature of these risks is critical to recommending appropriate mitigation measures. A household’s resilience in resisting the negative outcomes of these risky events is indicative of its level of vulnerability. Vulnerability has emerged as the most critical concept in disaster studies, with several attempts at defining, measuring, indexing and modeling it. The paper presents the concept and meanings of risk and vulnerability as they have evolved in different disciplines. Building on these basic concepts, the paper suggests that assets are the key to reducing risk and vulnerability. Households resist and cope with adverse consequences of disasters and other risks through the assets that they can mobilize in face of shocks. Asustainable strategy for disaster reduction must therefore focus on asset‐building. There could be different types of assets, and their selection and application for disaster risk management is necessarily a contextual exercise. The mix of asset‐building strategies could vary from one community to another, depending upon households’ asset profile. The paper addresses the dynamics of assets‐risk interaction, thus focusing on the role of assets in risk management.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Peter H. van der Meer and Rudi Wielers

– The purpose of this paper is to test forward-looking incentives against backward-looking incentives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test forward-looking incentives against backward-looking incentives.

Design/methodology/approach

Wage growth model to estimate forward-looking effects of unpaid overtime and a probit model of participation in unpaid overtime controlling for excessive pay to estimate backward-looking effects. The authors use data form the OSA labour supply panel (years 1994, 1996 and 1998).

Findings

The importance of backward-looking incentives is demonstrated in an empirical analysis of participation in unpaid overtime. The authors show that employees who have relatively good wages now or who have had relatively good wages in the recent past participate more often in unpaid overtime. The authors also show that participation in unpaid overtime does not lead to extra wage growth.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that involvement in unpaid overtime is to be explained from backward-looking incentives, not from forward-looking incentives. The paper concludes that backward-looking incentives deserve more attention in the economic literature, especially as they are well-accepted as work motivation devices by employees. Limitations are the length of the panel study (four years) and the fact that the data are restricted to one country (the Netherlands).

Social implications

Personnel policies should focus more on the intrinsic motivation of personnel rather than on extrinsic motivation.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to test both forward- and backward-looking incentives simultaneously.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part

Shane Connelly and Brett S. Torrence

Organizational behavior scholars have long recognized the importance of a variety of emotion-related phenomena in everyday work life. Indeed, after three decades, the span…

Abstract

Organizational behavior scholars have long recognized the importance of a variety of emotion-related phenomena in everyday work life. Indeed, after three decades, the span of research on emotions in the workplace encompasses a wide variety of affective variables such as emotional climate, emotional labor, emotion regulation, positive and negative affect, empathy, and more recently, specific emotions. Emotions operate in complex ways across multiple levels of analysis (i.e., within-person, between-person, interpersonal, group, and organizational) to exert influence on work behavior and outcomes, but their linkages to human resource management (HRM) policies and practices have not always been explicit or well understood. This chapter offers a review and integration of the bourgeoning research on discrete positive and negative emotions, offering insights about why these emotions are relevant to HRM policies and practices. We review some of the dominant theories that have emerged out of functionalist perspectives on emotions, connecting these to a strategic HRM framework. We then define and describe four discrete positive and negative emotions (fear, pride, guilt, and interest) highlighting how they relate to five HRM practices: (1) selection, (2) training/learning, (3) performance management, (4) incentives/rewards, and (5) employee voice. Following this, we discuss the emotion perception and regulation implications of these and other discrete emotions for leaders and HRM managers. We conclude with some challenges associated with understanding discrete emotions in organizations as well as some opportunities and future directions for improving our appreciation and understanding of the role of discrete emotional experiences in HRM.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Article

Neil Pollock and Robin Williams

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual issues arising in an empirical study of the emergence of a distinctive new form of expertise – of industry analysts and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual issues arising in an empirical study of the emergence of a distinctive new form of expertise – of industry analysts and in particular the leading firm Gartner Group that exercises enormous influence over the Information Technology (IT) market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper critically reviews existing analytical frameworks and especially work from the Sociology of Professions. This has largely focused upon groups which have already succeeded in gaining wide acceptance of the effectiveness of their methods and knowledge. For emerging expert groups a key challenge is to create an audience for whom they are expert (Turner, 2001). The study contributes to a “third wave” of studies that shift the focus of enquiry from the operation of professional institutions to the conduct of expert work – and how knowledge is produced, validated and consumed. The paper draws upon an extended ethnographic study of Gartner Inc., and other industry analysts to characterise some key features of their expertise. Data sources include over 100 hours of participant observation of industry analysts and their interactions with vendors and technology adopters at IT industry conferences; interviews with over 20 industry analysts from Gartner (including a telephone interview with its founder Gideon Gartner) and other analyst organisations; a substantial body of interviews with technology vendors and clients (particularly in relation to the Customer Relationship Management technology sector); together with a review of Gartner documentation and reports.

Findings

The paper compares the empirical findings of industry analysts with accounts from current literature on management consultants and other groups such as journalists and financial analysts. Industry analysts, like consultants, have not sought to follow a classical professional model. Thus the brand reputation of big (industry analyst or consultancy) firms provides an alternative warrant of the quality of expertise to professional institutions. However, Gartner analysts identify differences as well as similarities between their work and management consultants. Gartner’s ability to rank the offerings of IT vendors requires them to adopt formal methodologies and internal review procedures to produce defensible knowledge and demonstrate their independence. Industry analysts need to establish cognitive authority over rapidly changing technological fields. This imparts some “public good” elements to their knowledge.

Originality/value

The paper suggests ways forward for analysing new forms of knowledge intermediary in business and accounting, applying perspectives from the “third wave” of studies, and involving detailed study of the “epistemic systems” through which such knowledge is produced, consumed and validated (Knorr Cetina, 2010).

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part

Huub J. M. Ruël and Robin Visser

In a globalized world where emerging markets are more important than ever, there is an increasing pressure on international businesses and governments to work together…

Abstract

Purpose

In a globalized world where emerging markets are more important than ever, there is an increasing pressure on international businesses and governments to work together. The set of facilities known as commercial diplomacy combines the interests of both by highlighting new markets and investment opportunities.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, we present a literature review based on 56 relevant publications to assess what we currently know of this important activity.

Findings

The results indicate that research on commercial diplomacy consists of many subtopics, resulting in a patchy understanding of the topic as a whole.

Research limitations/implications

We discuss why integrative research focusing on the business–government relationship and the organization and the value of commercial diplomacy are needed from an international business perspective.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

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Article

James M. Kurtenbach and Robin W. Roberts

Accounting researchers have performed many studies related to public sector budgeting and financial management. Public sector accounting research seeks to explain the role…

Abstract

Accounting researchers have performed many studies related to public sector budgeting and financial management. Public sector accounting research seeks to explain the role of accounting and auditing in the public sector. For example, researchers examine issues such as (1) the use of accounting information by elected officials, (2) the demand for auditing, and (3) the determination of bond ratings. This review of the public sector accounting literature describes some of the theoretical foundations utilized in public sector accounting research and reviews a sample of selected empirical studies.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article

Marilyn M. Helms and Betty A. Hutchins

Suggests that declining product quality and manufacturers′ socialresponsibility is of increasing concern to consumers and tomanufacturers, who must bear the cost of such…

Abstract

Suggests that declining product quality and manufacturers′ social responsibility is of increasing concern to consumers and to manufacturers, who must bear the cost of such faulty practice. Reviews documented cases of poor quality products and matches them with the ethical theories of utilitarianism, universalism, rights, justice and Natural Law. Obligations to stakeholders are examined, and future research suggested.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

Cruelty has often been understood as the result of incurable bad character by those able to distinguish right from wrong. Recent research suggests a way of thinking about…

Abstract

Cruelty has often been understood as the result of incurable bad character by those able to distinguish right from wrong. Recent research suggests a way of thinking about it as a form of disability in which people are unable to learn empathy, cognitive social skills and associated behaviour, which qualifies it as a form of learning disability. It is suggested that accepting this classification opens up the possibility that selected interventions might be successful in enabling people to understand, practise and appreciate affiliative behaviour.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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