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Lu Yang

After the 2008 global financial crisis, the world has been through an improving economic integration. The scale of RMB cross-border transaction flows expands as well…

Abstract

After the 2008 global financial crisis, the world has been through an improving economic integration. The scale of RMB cross-border transaction flows expands as well. Countries around China are gradually accepting the RMB as a means of trading and investing. Nowadays, the phenomenon of RMB substitutes the currencies of neighboring countries has become more and more widespread. As a frontier region for China's opening up to the outside world, Hong Kong's financial market is highly transparent with perfect infrastructures. The completion of the Hong Kong offshore RMB market leads to a rise of the RMB stock in Hong Kong, so there is a clear phenomenon of RMB substituting Hong Kong dollars (HKDs) in Hong Kong. This paper studies the substitution effect of RMB and HKD from both theoretical and empirical aspects, and puts forward policy recommendations based on the research results.

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Ike Mathur and Soumen De

The Dim Sum bond market in Hong Kong, which allows China to regulate the amount of offshore yuans that flow back into the mainland, has grown steadily since its inception…

Abstract

The Dim Sum bond market in Hong Kong, which allows China to regulate the amount of offshore yuans that flow back into the mainland, has grown steadily since its inception in 2007 and is expected to surpass in 2013 the threshold level that would attract insurers and long-term issuers to the market. Yet, the market has not matured sufficiently relative to the yuan deposit market in Hong Kong that has grown at a much faster pace on account of trade liberalization and the use of yuans in China’s international trade settlements. Even though Hong Kong has fulfilled its role as an offshore currency center for the yuan, it is being challenged by Taiwan, Singapore, and London in terms of being the premier location for the issuance of yuan-denominated bonds outside of Mainland China.

Details

Risk Management Post Financial Crisis: A Period of Monetary Easing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-027-8

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Book part

Cong Wang and Xue Wang

The RMB Internationalization has a great impact on China’s domestic economy. This chapter applies the Gap Estimation approach to estimate the RMB overseas circulation…

Abstract

The RMB Internationalization has a great impact on China’s domestic economy. This chapter applies the Gap Estimation approach to estimate the RMB overseas circulation amount from 1997 to 2015, as the indicator of RMB internationalization. Using the recently developed Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) method for the model identification and contemporaneous causality analysis. The structural vector auto regression (SVAR) model is constructed between the economic indicators (the interest rate, the CPI, and the exchange rate) and the RMB overseas circulation. The dynamic relationship and degree of mutual influence are further studied between the economic indicators and overseas circulation. The results show that there exist contemporaneous causalities of “from RMB overseas circulation to inflation rate,” “from exchange rate to overseas circulation,” and “from exchange rate to the inflation rate.” The influence of interest rate adjustment on macro economy presents the time lag effect. The internationalization of the RMB encourages the currency appreciation. The China’s Central Bank passively looses monetary policy to meet the needs of internationalization and reduce the shock of the international hot money, thereby further deepening the domestic inflation.

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Guonan Ma and Robert N McCauley

The renminbi (RMB) has evolved in four phases since its mid-2005 unpegging from the US dollar. After a year's transition, the RMB's effective exchange rate traded for two…

Abstract

The renminbi (RMB) has evolved in four phases since its mid-2005 unpegging from the US dollar. After a year's transition, the RMB's effective exchange rate traded for two years within narrow bands around an appreciating trend. That is, the RMB behaved as if it were managed to strengthen gradually against trading partners’ currencies. This experiment was interrupted in mid-2008 and the RMB stabilized against a strong dollar amidst the global financial crisis. If Chinese policy were to return to effective currency stability and other East Asian countries were to pursue similar policies, regional currency stability would be enhanced. That would create more favorable conditions for an evolution towards monetary cooperation.

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Book part

Hung-Gay Fung, Derrick Tzau and Jot Yau

This chapter provides a review of the Chinese government policies that promote the internationalization of the Chinese currency, the renminbi or RMB, which include the RMB

Abstract

This chapter provides a review of the Chinese government policies that promote the internationalization of the Chinese currency, the renminbi or RMB, which include the RMB swap arrangements between the central banks, trading of the RMB across different markets, and establishment of the dim sum bond market. In particular, we update the development of the dim sum bond market in terms of the size, amount of the issues, coupon and tenor characteristics, issuers, and investment bankers of dim sum bond issues. The dim sum bond market appears to be a promising global asset class for investors.

Details

International Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-312-4

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Article

Hua Wang and Junjun Zhu

– The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of different forms of RMB foreign exchange rates on Chinese foreign trade.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of different forms of RMB foreign exchange rates on Chinese foreign trade.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructed spatial panel model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation method and collected the data of 25 countries’ (including China) quarterly macroeconomic data from first quarter of 1993 until third quarter of 2013 to conduct the data analysis.

Findings

This paper finds that USD/CNY, which is widely used in trade settlement, is more significant in effecting Chinese export. Totally, 1 percent appreciation of CNY against USD will lead to 1.532 percent decline of Chinese export, while 1 percent appreciation of CNY NEER only 0.42 percent. What is more, 1 percent increases of the volatility of USD/CNY results in 0.579 percent decline of Chinese export. As policy suggestions, we should further reform the foreign exchange derivative market in China, and provide more currency derivatives, so that the ability of Chinese economy to deal with foreign exchange risk could be improved.

Research limitations/implications

Effect of exchange rate on imports and exports relates to the future direction of China’s exchange rate policy. This paper claims that China should accelerate the construction of foreign exchange derivatives market, improving the ability to respond quickly to foreign currency risk.

Practical implications

First, denominated exchange rate has more significant impact on the Chinese export trade to other countries than effective exchange rate. Second, the RMB exchange rate fluctuations also significantly affect the export trade. Third, China’s import and export trade have significant spatial effect.

Social implications

This paper recommends the construction of the RMB currency futures market as soon as possible, providing a richer foreign exchange derivatives and other risk hedging instruments, thus to enhance the ability to respond to exchange rate risks.

Originality/value

This paper uses spatial panel model with the refined data to study various factors on the import and export trade, and thus more comprehensive analysis on the impact of the exchange rate on the import and export trade with other major countries.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Xiangyun Xu, Songyang Wu and Ye Wu

– The purpose of this paper is to analyze the “following” behavior of six currencies in East Asia to RMB before and after the “financial crisis”.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the “following” behavior of six currencies in East Asia to RMB before and after the “financial crisis”.

Design/methodology/approach

Using foreign exchange spot rate data from 2005 to 2013, the authors investigate the dynamic relationship of RMB and six East Asia currencies with method of DCC-GARCH and quantile regression.

Findings

The authors get such conclusions: first, most currencies indeed “follow” RMB in whole sample period but the correlation is “time-varying”; second, the degree of co-movement increased as a whole, which reflects that the influence of China in East Asia rose continuously; third, the East Asian currencies behaved differently before the crisis, but reveal some similarities after the crisis, and prefer to “follow” when RMB depreciates and reluctant to follow when RMB appreciates at a comparatively large degree. The authors argue that it may be related to the different macroeconomic environment faced by East Asia region before and after the crisis, the rising economic influence of China and the development of RMB internationalization’s practice.

Originality/value

The effort could strength the understanding to the “following” behavior of East Asia currencies to RMB, the authors also point out that RMB has been as regional currency anchor, but the role of anchor is unstable, and is affected by international economic circumstance, China should adapt some methods to strength RMB’s influence to East Asia currency.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Yoke Yue Kan

This report examines the recent developments and trends relating to the Chinese government’s policy actions and the key issues that determine the choice of exchange rate…

Abstract

Purpose

This report examines the recent developments and trends relating to the Chinese government’s policy actions and the key issues that determine the choice of exchange rate regime in China. An up-to-date “stock-take” of the economic indicators is conducted to determine what is suitable for China in light of the rapidly evolving nature of the world economy and trading environment. This paper discusses the role of economic development, trade competitiveness, capital flow, foreign exchange reserve, and RMB internationalization in the determination of the RMB exchange rate regime.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses an inductive approach to gain a fine-grained understanding of the complex, multifaceted aspects of China’s exchange rate policy. A combination of statistical analysis, including basic descriptive statistics, trend analysis, and a correlation study are used to explore the association between various indicators and their implications. The report also draws on analysis of a broad range of data sources and the work of numerous researchers and research institutions.

Findings

A more flexible exchange rate regime can play a complementary role towards rebalancing the Chinese economy by raising the buying capacity of families, rebalancing growth towards domestic consumption, and reducing reliance on export. China’s price elasticity of the demand for exports was relatively low that the appreciation of the Chinese currency has almost no influence on optimizing China’s trade balance. A more flexible two-way flow in RMB would be suitable under the current cash flow scenario in China. Reduced intervention will facilitate further adjustment in reserves. Lastly, in the early stage of RMB internationalization, flexibility in the exchange rate is one of the factors that influences its growth prospect as a reserve currency.

Research limitations/implications

The findings and conclusion are derived based on the latest empirical information, statistical evidence, and economic theory. This inquiry does not build on a theory, and aims to neither verify a theory, nor test hypotheses. Rather, it aims to demonstrate, assess, and explain significant roles that various economic factors play in shaping the future exchange rate regime of China.

Originality/value

This paper presents the rationale behind a more flexible two-way exchange rate, by assessing the latest empirical data and theoretical explanation that support such a move.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 9 no. 02
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article

Peijie Wang and Bing Zhang

The authors make assessment on RMB valuation and to contribute to the fierce debate on this important issue, which is perceived to have a great effect on the improvement…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors make assessment on RMB valuation and to contribute to the fierce debate on this important issue, which is perceived to have a great effect on the improvement or deterioration in trade balance. A triangular analysis approach is put forward and empirical assessment is made. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangular analysis approach based on no arbitrage conditions for three currencies, and causality and influence analysis.

Findings

First, it has been found that the movements in the RMB dollar exchange rate do influence the dollar euro exchange rate and the former do have a causality effect on the latter, in both the long run and the short term. Second, it is implied that the RMB is overvalued vis-à-vis the US dollar, as the analysis suggests that an overvalued euro vis-à-vis the US dollar would imply a kind of overvaluation of the RMB vis-à-vis the US dollar, and by any conventional measures the euro has appeared to be overvalued vis-à-vis the US dollar, especially in the months before the last financial crisis.

Practical implications

First, the peg of the RMB to the US dollar that undervalues the RMB vis-à-vis the US dollar will not help promote China's overall trade balance or export even if undervaluation of currencies can ever help improve nations' terms of trade. Second, no stability in RMB exchange rates can be claimed by pegging the RMB to the US dollar, as the exchange rate of the RMB vis-à-vis currencies other than the US dollar would be as volatile as that between the US dollar and the euro and other convertible currencies.

Originality/value

A new triangular analysis approach in international finance research. First, there is an advantage to adopt this seemingly simple analytical framework: it is highly reliable; no triangular arbitrage conditions have to be met even under exchange controls, whilst PPP may not hold even with flexible exchange rate regimes. Second, it does away with the thinking confined to small open economies that has dominated academic research for so long and is totally inapplicable to the RMB case.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Muhammad Umar and Gang Sun

– The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between country risk, stock prices and the exchange rate of the renminbi (RMB) compared to that of the US dollar.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between country risk, stock prices and the exchange rate of the renminbi (RMB) compared to that of the US dollar.

Design/methodology/approach

An extended open macroeconomic model with investment–saving, liquidity preference–money supply and aggregate supply functions was used by applying comparative static analysis. After checking the series for stationarity and cointegration, a vector autoregressive model was applied. Lag length was selected based on the Akaike information criterion, and the coefficients were calculated for the overall sample and for pre- and post-July 2005 periods.

Findings

The stock market index is a significant determinant of variation in the exchange rate: when the Chinese stock market performs well, the RMB appreciates and vice versa. Country risk is not a significant determinant of the exchange rate, but the exchange rate of the RMB is a highly significant determinant of the country risk of China: depreciation of the RMB results in higher country risk and vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

Linear interpolation was used to calculate the monthly values of some of the variables for which only annual data were available.

Practical implications

The authorities should revalue the exchange rate of the RMB against the US dollar, which will result in lower country risk for China. One way to achieve this is to strengthen the performance of stock markets.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the relationship between the country risk of China and the exchange rate of the RMB. Using an open macroeconomic model, this novel research analyzes the relationships between country risk, stock prices and the exchange rate of the RMB from a different perspective.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

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