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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2014

Gary D. Holt

Construction management research (CMR) surveys frequently use questionnaires that employ “Likert-type” items, Likert-items, and Likert scales to capture…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction management research (CMR) surveys frequently use questionnaires that employ “Likert-type” items, Likert-items, and Likert scales to capture respondents ' self-reported attitudes. This Editorial builds substantially on earlier observations by Holt regarding the significance of appropriate questionnaire response scale design and, use of the relative importance index (RII) method to analyse those data such scales yield. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Several RII models are examined by their application to a data set. Objectives include to contrast their practicality in use, compare outputs, highlight limitations of some models and discuss methods of RII data analysis, interrogation and interpretation.

Findings

Principal messages are: all components of response scales should be carefully designed; alternative RII models can produce similar results of analysis; “simple percentage” RII models may not yield “real” percentages; the minimum rating scale integer should accurately reflect its descriptor; only rating scales offering a “0” response, or an “adjusted percentage” RII model can achieve unity; and RII outputs should be interpreted cautiously.

Research limitations/implications

Uncertain application of the RII has been observed within CMR literature, so implications of the Editorial will be of direct relevance to this research community (and beyond).

Originality/value

Aside from that cited above, no additional literature has been identified that specifically links RII usage to CMR.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Parvaneh Shahsavand, Akbar Marefat and Majid Parchamijalal

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the main causes of delays in the projects are from the client (relative importance index (RII)=0.716), labor and equipment (RII

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the main causes of delays in the projects are from the client (relative importance index (RII)=0.716), labor and equipment (RII=0.701) and contractor (RII=0.698). Hence determining the contractual responsibility of delay is the most likely source of dispute in construction projects and many techniques have been used in the courts to demonstrate the criticalities of a delay event on the project schedule. Therefore, authors try to investigate all process-based techniques of delay claims and evaluated and conformed them with principles by Society of Construction Law (SCL) protocol and Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International (AACEI) in order to choose the best techniques based on the specific circumstances of each project.

Design/methodology/approach

This section is divided into two distinct parts: refers to the methods used to assess the perceptions of clients, consultants, and contractors on the relative importance of causes of delay in construction industry; and refers to advantages and disadvantages of various techniques used to analyze delays and their conform with SCL protocol. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceptions of clients, consultants, and contractors on the relative importance of causes of delay in Iranian construction industry. The respondents were asked to indicate their response category on 78 well-recognized construction delay factors identified by authors.

Findings

In total, 78 causes of delay were identified through research. The identified causes are combined into seven groups. The field survey included 58 contractors, 55 consultants, and 62 client. Data collected were analyzed by RII and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The authors identified main causes of delay and ten most important causes, according to Table AII, from the perspective of three major groups of participants (clients, consultants and contractors). The ranking of categories of causes of delay, according to Table I, were: client-related causes (RII=0.716); labor and equipment category causes (RII=0.701); contractor-related causes (RII=0.698); material-related causes (RII=0.690); design-related causes (RII=0.666); external causes (RII=0.662); and consultant-related causes (RII=0.662). But according to the discussions and given that determining the contractual responsibility of delay is the most likely source of dispute in construction industry and many techniques have been used in the courts to demonstrate the criticalities of a delay event on the project schedule.

Originality/value

All process-based techniques of delay analysis have been present in this paper and categorized in 11 groups. In order to understand the advantages and disadvantages of them by clients, contractor and consultant, a thorough review conducted to reveal the nature of techniques. In the next step, given that selecting the most appropriate technique based on constraints and specific conditions of each project is one of the most important steps to carry out a successful delay analysis. The authors conformed, all process-based techniques of delay analysis, by SCL protocol and AACEI principles. Finally, the result of this match was brought in order to choose the best technique based on the specific circumstances of each project.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2014

Hans Jochen Scholl and Beth Joy Patin

Disasters of catastrophic scope and scale have occurred more frequently in recent years. Governmental and non-governmental response management has struggled, and affected…

Abstract

Purpose

Disasters of catastrophic scope and scale have occurred more frequently in recent years. Governmental and non-governmental response management has struggled, and affected communities have severely suffered during extreme events. Colossal damage and loss of lives have been inflicted, and the recovery efforts require extended periods of time. In post hoc analyses, actionable information has been found a critical resource requiring resilient information infrastructures (RIIs) that do not break down even under extreme duress. RIIs encompass both tangible and less tangible (for example, social) elements. The purpose of this paper is to pave the way for empirical research on the subject and to conceptually develop a framework for the analysis of information infrastructures and their resiliency, when impacted by catastrophic incidents (also known as extreme events).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literatures of disaster research and related fields. They synthesize the literatures from the information perspective and develop a framework of RII.

Findings

The synthesis revealed that extreme event-ready RIIs have to be redundant and resourceful both in terms of social, organizational, and knowledge assets as well as in the information and communication technologies. RIIs combine tangible and non-tangible elements, whose interplay is so far incompletely understood.

Research limitations/implications

Roles and criticality of RIIs under the impact of an extreme event need to be studied empirically.

Practical implications

The study holds the promise to be of great potential utility for responders and recovery managers as well as affected communities in preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation efforts as timely and actionable information is still the scarcest and most sought resource during a catastrophic incident.

Originality/value

Disaster research so far has mostly focused on the technical, organizational, social, and socio-psychological effects of disasters. The authors are adding the information perspective as a unique and distinctive contribution to extreme event research, which connects the tangible elements of information infrastructures with its not so tangible elements, captures their interplay, and analyzes their role and criticality for the resiliency of the information infrastructures when under extreme duress.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Adekunle Sabitu Oyegoke and Naseer Al Kiyumi

Project delay is becoming a problem in the Sultanate of Oman as evidenced by many delayed projects across the country. The purpose of this study is to examine causes and…

Abstract

Purpose

Project delay is becoming a problem in the Sultanate of Oman as evidenced by many delayed projects across the country. The purpose of this study is to examine causes and effects of delays in megaprojects in the Sultanate of Oman with recommendations to mitigate same.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of literature identifies through main stakeholders the numerous causes, impacts and methods of mitigating delay from previous studies. A questionnaire survey on Oman was carried out to sample opinions from the practitioners; 53 questionnaires were received and analysed using the relative importance index (RII) method.

Findings

The five most frequent causes of delay in the Sultanate of Oman, in rank order, are: selection of the lowest bid, instead of best bid for the client (RII: 0.698); the financial condition of the main contractor (RII: 0.664); delay in decision-making by the client (RII: 0.656); and poor construction planning by the main contractor (RII: 0.649). Also, the findings indicate that extra cost (RII: 0.754) and project time overrun (RII: 0.724) are the most significant effects of the delay in the Oman megaprojects. The use of experienced contractors and consultant (RII 0.675), efficient construction planning by the main contractor and effective site management and supervision (RII: 0.667) are essential mitigation methods of construction delay in Oman megaprojects.

Originality/value

The study recommends three-part novel solutions to mitigate delay in the Oman construction industry.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Adnan Enshassi, Sherif Mohamed and Ala'a El Karriri

The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that affect the bid/no bid decision according to their relative importance from the perspective of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that affect the bid/no bid decision according to their relative importance from the perspective of the contracting parties operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives of this research were investigated through a postal questionnaire, which covered a randomly selected sample of 63 contractors, 29 clients and 13 consultants operating in the construction industry in the Gaza strip. The questionnaire was structured based on related literature, the pilot study and actual factors affecting bidders' decisions to bid or not that arise from special conditions in the Gaza Strip. A total of 78 factors that affect the bid/no bid decision were identified. These factors were then ranked according to their relative importance to contracting parties operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

Findings

The results illustrate that the financial capability of the contractors, the financial capability of the clients, the financial values of the project, the due date of the payments, the availability of construction raw materials in local markets, and the stability of the construction industry were the most critical factors affecting the bid/no bid decision, as agreed by all respondents.

Originality/value

The paper provides supportive practical solutions for contractors, clients and consultants to enhance and improve bidding decisions. It is recommended that clients and consultants consider the financial capabilities, technical capabilities and staff competencies of the contractors during the awarding stage, and not simply focus on the lowest bid.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Samuel Famiyeh, Charles Teye Amoatey, Ebenezer Adaku and Collins Sena Agbenohevi

In Ghana, the duration of construction projects from inception to completion is becoming a great concern, recently, especially among clients and beneficiaries, because of…

Abstract

Purpose

In Ghana, the duration of construction projects from inception to completion is becoming a great concern, recently, especially among clients and beneficiaries, because of the rising interest rates, inflation, development plan targets, among other factors. Hence the need to understand the causes of delays and cost overrun in the construction sector has become more important than ever. This study therefore aims to identify the major factors underlying time and cost overruns in projects related to the education sector in Ghana to proffer practical solutions in addressing them.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted a survey among clients’ consultants and representatives of the contractors working on about 60 government school projects. A relative importance index was used to determine the relative effects of the factors causing construction time and cost overruns.

Findings

The key factors causing construction time overrun were: financial problems, unrealistic contract durations imposed by clients, poorly defined project scope, client-initiated variations, under-estimation of project cost by consultants, poor inspection/supervision of projects by consultants. Other factors were underestimation of project complexity by contractors, poor site management, inappropriate construction methods used by contractors and delays in the issuance of permits by government agencies. Factors affecting cost overruns were financial difficulty by client, delays in payments of completed works, variations in designs, lack of communications plans, poor feasibility and project analysis, poor financial management on site and material price fluctuations.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited to only the educational sector projects.

Practical implications

Practically, this study highlights for the construction sector the critical factors causing project time and cost overruns in Ghana. Identification of these factors provides the basis for pragmatic solutions to enhance the chances of project success.

Social implications

The identification and solutions to project time and cost overruns, especially for educational sector projects, contribute toward making public goods more affordable and accessible to most citizens, particularly in developing countries.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the debate on factors causing project time and cost overruns in the construction sector especially from a developing country’s perspective.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Adnan Enshassi, Faisal Arain and Bassam Tayeh

Subcontractors play a significant role in the Palestinian construction industry as about 90 per cent of the work is performed by subcontractors. The main objective of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Subcontractors play a significant role in the Palestinian construction industry as about 90 per cent of the work is performed by subcontractors. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the major problems which exist between the contractors and subcontractors in the construction industry in the Gaza Strip.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed to elicit contractors' and subcontractors' viewpoints regarding the most important causes of problems that affect the relationship between them. A total of 53 problems were identified based on a literature review, a pilot study was considered in this study and was listed under five groups. A total of 150 questionnaires were randomly sent to contractors and subcontractors. The respondents had extensive experience in the construction industry with average working experience of 20 years. The questionnaire was validated by the criterion‐related reliability test that measures the correlation coefficients between the factors selected for in each group and for all groups as one entity, and structure validity test (Spearman test).

Findings

The result of the survey indicated that, assigning part of the works to new subcontractor without informing the original subcontractor, contractor's financial problems, delay in contract progress payments, non‐adherence to the conditions of the contract, non‐adherence of the subcontractor to the time schedule, and lack of construction quality work were the most important causes of interface problems, while involvement in several projects with the contractor at the same time, weather conditions, and geological problems on site were considered as trivial causes of potential interface problems. Spearman's rank correlation tests showed that there are no differences in the viewpoints between contractors and subcontractors.

Originality/value

The research findings might assist practitioners to focus on major problems which have existed between the contractors and subcontractors in the construction industry in their present and future projects. By eliminating or minimizing these problems, subcontractors are encouraged to contribute significantly to the capital risk, resources, managerial effort, and business expertise supporting the largest industry in Palestine. The paper would be valuable for all academics and industry professionals involved in construction business in general.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Binoy BV, Naseer MA and Anil Kumar PP

Land value is a measure of the specific features of a property, excluding buildings and other developments. Land value varies depending on the economic, geographic and…

Abstract

Purpose

Land value is a measure of the specific features of a property, excluding buildings and other developments. Land value varies depending on the economic, geographic and political aspects of a particular location. The primary purpose of the paper is to identify the general and location-specific attributes impacting property prices in urban Kerala.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of the current study was achieved through a three-cycle Delphi survey and relative importance index (RII) approach. The experts who aided in the survey had a mutual interest in the subject but came from different backgrounds like property valuation, real estate, urban and environmental planning. The initial group of variables identified from the literature was expanded and scrutinized in the first cycle of the Delphi survey. The variables were grouped into five major categories and 13 subcategories based on the literature and expert opinion. In the subsequent stages, the short-listed variables were rated on a seven-point Likert scale until a consensus was attained. The top-ranked variables were identified through the RII method as the critical factors influencing land value in urban Kerala.

Findings

The results indicate that road accessibility and proximity to nuisance sources are the most crucial parameters. The outcome of the study will provide a better understanding of the dynamics of land value and the influencing factors in urban areas.

Originality/value

Previous studies do not give much consideration for the location-specific variability on the influencing parameters. Property management research has not considered the usage of expert opinion and RII for variable selection.

Details

Property Management, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Tashmika Ramdav and Nishani Harinarain

The purpose of this study is to analyse the survival of the quantity surveying profession using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis in an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the survival of the quantity surveying profession using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis in an attempt to define the key strengths and weaknesses of the quantity surveying profession based on professional consultants’ experience and to determine the key opportunities and threats which are perceived to impact the quantity surveying profession significantly.

Design/methodology/approach

The positivist paradigm was used for this study. The researchers chose quantitative research in the form of questionnaires. A probability sampling method was used. The desired method that was used was the random sampling method. The data were analysed with SPSS using factor analysis and descriptive analysis. A sample of 58 quantity surveyors was randomly selected from the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS) for this study.

Findings

Four categories of strengths exist, namely, the ability to plan and solve problems, core quantity surveying measuring skills, project viability and interpersonal skills. Three categories of weaknesses exist, namely, technical inadequacies of quantity surveyors, resistance to change and lack of knowledge of and about the profession. Three categories of opportunities exist, namely, greater demand for quantity surveyors, the need for quantity surveyors and new and existing roles in and out of the profession. Three categories of threats exist, namely, lack of the quantity surveying profession to market itself where new roles require an advancement of core quantity surveying services, external factors that hinder the performance of the profession and the lack of quantity surveying skills in the new generation.

Research limitations/implications

Only members of the ASAQS were included in this research.

Originality/value

The quantity surveying profession requires a strategic framework that will overcome their threats and weaknesses and embrace the strengths and opportunities of the profession to ensure they survive and remain relevant in the ever-changing construction industry. This study aided the quantity surveying profession by identifying the strengths and opportunities and determining the weaknesses and threats faced by the profession.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Sohail Anwar Malik and Syyed Sami Ul Haq Kaka Khel

The purpose of this research is to rank the most significant factors of organizational structure that can reduce time and cost overruns (nonphysical waste) in road…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to rank the most significant factors of organizational structure that can reduce time and cost overruns (nonphysical waste) in road projects of the developing countries. Additionally, the effect of factors of organizational structure on nonphysical waste in road projects is also measured.

Design/methodology/approach

Factors of organizational structure causing time and cost overrun are extracted through a content analysis of the published literature. Moreover, a questionnaire survey is carried out involving 128 professionals to assess the effect of organizational structure factors on time and cost overrun. Finally, to obtain a more objective evaluation, relative importance index and regression analysis techniques are utilized, and the most severe factors influencing time and cost overrun are indicated.

Findings

This study found out that top management support and procurement procedures are the most significant factors influencing time and cost overruns in road projects of the developing countries.

Originality/value

A small number of studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of factors of organizational structure on time and cost overrun in the construction industry. And even more, its relation with respect to road projects of the developing countries is limited. This research highlights the effect of most significant factors of organizational structure that influence the nonphysical waste in road projects of the developing countries. Therefore, this study adds to the body of knowledge by recommending that all the stakeholders of construction project should pay close attention toward these factors to control the enigma of time and cost overrun. It might also prove helpful, if implemented to its full extent, in all the road construction activities undertaken.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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