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The UK construction industry has significantly increased the number of women that it attracts, due to an active marketing campaign by the industry’s representative bodies…
The UK construction industry has significantly increased the number of women that it attracts, due to an active marketing campaign by the industry’s representative bodies. However, this initiative does not appear to have been based on sound empirical evidence that women professionals will be afforded equal opportunities once they have entered the industry. This article reports on a research project which explored women’s careers in construction. Interviews were held with over 40 matched pairs of male and female construction professionals in order to establish the gender differentiated influences on career progression within the industry. The analysis revealed a hostile and discriminatory environment for women, in which pressures created by the demanding work environment were compounded by overt resentment from male managers and colleagues. It is argued that women’s careers are unlikely to progress in parity with men’s until the male culture of the industry has been moderated.
In order to retain and motivate employees, organizations must respond to their expectations, both in terms of meeting formal aspects of their employment contracts and in…
In order to retain and motivate employees, organizations must respond to their expectations, both in terms of meeting formal aspects of their employment contracts and in addressing their less formal expectations of the employment relationship. Within the current human resources management (HRM) literature, these informal expectations are known as psychological contracts. This paper reports on research that explored psychological contracts within the construction industry. In‐depth interviews were held with more than 80 construction managers and professional staff who worked for five large UK contracting organizations. The interviewees were asked to describe their career histories, and to discuss any tensions between the personnel policies of their organizations and their personal career aspirations and expectations. It emerged that responsibility for human resource development (HRD) had been largely devolved to divisional and operational management. This led to HRD becoming fragmented and unresponsive, and to employees becoming disillusioned by their employers' failure to meet their expectations. It is argued that construction companies require a more sophisticated understanding of their employees' expectations of the employment relationship if they are to be retained in the long term.
There have been a number of significant research projects that have explored aspects of women’s under‐representation and underachievement within the UK construction…
There have been a number of significant research projects that have explored aspects of women’s under‐representation and underachievement within the UK construction industry. These have demonstrated that, given an appropriate level of knowledge and insight, women could be attracted to the sector in greater numbers. However, they have also suggested that if women are to remain in the sector in the long‐term, then efforts must be made to ensure an equitable workplace environment. Presents the findings of research that explored the attitudes of both male and female construction professionals to a range of equality measures. There was a significant difference between their responses to most of the measures, as men were opposed to initiatives that threatened the current culture of the industry’s operating environment. A strategy of selectively implementing measures with some degree of consensus between men and women is suggested. Measures to promote equality in construction must offer mutual benefits to men and women if they are to be successful.
The past 20 years have seen a period of fundamental change for many construction businesses as they have restructured, downsized, de‐layered, merged and de‐merged to…
The past 20 years have seen a period of fundamental change for many construction businesses as they have restructured, downsized, de‐layered, merged and de‐merged to survive turbulent markets and rapidly changing demand cycles. Such change places significant new pressures, challenges and constraints on the employer/employee relationship. This paper argues that these changes are likely to have reconstituted employee expectations of the less formal aspects of the employment relationship, known collectively as the psychological contract. Explores this inductive research which examines the psychological contract of 30 construction project managers.
Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester…
Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester formulated two successive internationalisation strategies.
The strategies were developed using a research-oriented method: grounded in the literature and an institutional development model, the work included a comprehensive survey of the university’s existing international engagement, two rounds of structured discussions with senior staff, and a formal organisational development process.
The survey of the university’s international engagement was a most useful exercise. It revealed a substantial and diverse range of engagement which provided confidence that the aim to be a “fully internationalised university” was realistic. There was general agreement that Winchester must demonstrate strong levels of engagement through five strategic priorities related to: curriculum and student mobility; European Union/international staff and students; collaboration with international organisations; academic and social integration of students and staff; coordination of practices and processes.
This is a case study of one UK university.
The process by which the strategies were developed should be relevant to other universities.
Winchester is “Values Driven University”: “We value freedom, justice, truth, human rights and collective effort for the common good”. Internationalisation is consistent with these values, fostering an understanding of diverse cultures and an awareness of global issues.
The authors found no published work describing such a structured and participative process for developing internationalisation strategies within a university.
This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While…
This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While there is a wealth of criminological literature focusing on whether older people experience high levels of fear of crime, much of it conflicting in its conclusions, such studies tell us little about the social and physical cues for feelings of fear that are evoked in older people on a community level. To provide a richer understanding of these issues the study adopted a predominantly qualitative approach to identify community characteristics that shaped older people's views of personal safety. This was supplemented by quantitative data regarding their actual experiences of crime. The main finding was that personal safety concerns were overwhelmingly related to the social connotations of specific community locations, such as those associated with the presence and behaviour of perceived 'undesirable others', rather than specific locations themselves or their physical characteristics. This raises questions and challenges about the development of appropriate and effective crime and fear reduction strategies that enable older people to feel safer in their communities, and so facilitate their community engagement and social inclusion.
Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing…
Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing diversity to enhance business performance. To date, research evidence has failed to provide consistent support for the value of diversity to organizational effectiveness. Accordingly, scholars have shifted their attention to diversity management as a means to fully realize the potential benefits of diversity in organizations. The principal aim of this chapter is to review the current wisdom on the study of diversity climate in organizations. Defined as the extent that employees view an organization as utilizing fair personnel practices and socially integrating all personnel into the work environment, diversity climate has been proposed as a catalyst for unlocking the full value of diversity in organizations. During our review, we discuss the existent individual- and aggregate-level research, describe the theoretical foundations of such work, summarize the key research findings and themes gleaned from work in each domain, and note the limitations of diversity climate research. Finally, we highlight the domains of uncertainty regarding diversity climate research, and offer recommendations for future work that can enhance knowledge of diversity climate effects on organizational outcomes.
States that there has been a recent explosion in the publication of reference works in the field of African American studies which indicates the mature field of…
States that there has been a recent explosion in the publication of reference works in the field of African American studies which indicates the mature field of scholarship being achieved in this area. Provides a bibliographic guide for those wishing to identify and use research tools for studying African American literature.
The inaugural meeting of the newly established National Party was held in the Queen's Hall, Langham Place, on Thursday, October 25th, under the presidency of Admiral Lord Beresford. There was a large and distinguished audience numbering about 3,000 persons, among those on the platform being Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, Brigadier‐General Page Croft, M.P., Mr. Havelock Wilson, Miss Constance Williams, the Hon. G. J. Jenkins (all of whom addressed the meeting), Earl Bathurst, Sir C. Allom, Major Alan Burgoyne, M.P., Colonel Cassal, Mr. G. K. Chesterton, Sir R. Cooper, M.P., Capt. Viscount Duncannon, M.P., Sir W. Earnshaw Cooper, Mr. H. A. Gwynne, Mr. Rowland Hunt, M.P., Lieut.‐Col. Lord Leconfield, Lord Leith of Fyvie, Admiral Sir H. Markham, The Earl of Northesk, Colonel R. H. Rawson, M.P., Lord Edward St. Maur, Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, Lord Stafford and others.
The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model on the impact of diversity over performance using a Portuguese national wide comprehensively matched…
The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model on the impact of diversity over performance using a Portuguese national wide comprehensively matched employee–employer dataset of small businesses.
The study uses structural equation modeling to analyze the relationships between variables. The study addresses the impact of top managers and employees' diversity on firm performance considering two dimensions of diversity: knowledge diversity and social diversity.
The study provides a clear understanding of how workforce diversity affects performance differently at the two hierarchical levels. Both employees' diversities have stronger relations to performance than the diversity of top managers. Results point out to idiosyncratic aspects of services firms' dynamics that should be further explored.
The study presents some limitations, since it uses data from a single country and the dataset provides limited variables.
The study offers evidence on the effects of diversity in small businesses alerting managers to acknowledge such influence when recruiting, selecting and training. With regard to services firms, managers should pay close attention to negative impacts of diversity over performance.
Never before to the authors' knowledge the managers' level diversity and employees' level diversity (considering two dimensions each) effect on performance have been addressed in a single national wide study.