Examines the generic advertising campaign for tea conducted under the auspices of the Tea Council (UK) between 1965 and 1968. Contends that this innovation had a…
Examines the generic advertising campaign for tea conducted under the auspices of the Tea Council (UK) between 1965 and 1968. Contends that this innovation had a statistically significant effect on the trend of tea consumption, but was insufficient to halt the overall decline – this is attributed to the demand for coffee. Purports to investigate, as far as possible, the impact of this generic campaign on the demand for tea. States the analysis is concerned with the period from 1958 onwards and is based on quarterly data. Concludes that it seems unlikely that tea has been broadly competing with all drinks in any effective sense over the period studied.
Seeks to provide some insight as to the scope for population policyin post‐war Kuwait, where officially the Government is committed toreducing the expatriate population…
Seeks to provide some insight as to the scope for population policy in post‐war Kuwait, where officially the Government is committed to reducing the expatriate population. Specifically attempts to determine which public services were most likely to be responsive to increases in the foreign population. Were these services provided to both Arab and Asian workers alike or were the patterns of supply somewhat different by nationality? Did public services adjust quickly to increases in the foreign population or were the increased provisions spread out gradually over time? Mainly finds that, despite the early post‐liberation statements of Kuwaiti officials, it will not be possible to dispense entirely with foreign workers. There is a good chance, however, that the Government′s political policy of replacing Palestinian workers with those from Asia will provide the unintended benefit of considerable budgetary savings.
Assesses the main factors affecting employment in the Arab Gulfregion. In particular: What are the main determinants of employment inthe region? How do these determinants…
Assesses the main factors affecting employment in the Arab Gulf region. In particular: What are the main determinants of employment in the region? How do these determinants vary between national and foreign workforces? Have these determinants changed over time? The results, particularly for the 1980‐85 period, suggest that labour market mismatches may be increasing in the Arab World. This is essentially the problem of too many PhDs and too few mechanics. The symptom of this would be relatively high levels of disguised unemployment among the highly educated, coupled with a shortage of artisans. The damage arising from these skill mismatches lies in the way the various economic sectors are likely to expand while faced by labour constraints. These findings suggest that reforms of both the educational system and the hiring practices of Government agencies will be critical to restoring increases in productivity and ultimately expanded rates of non‐oil income.
Systems with the so‐called “additive” property are studied. This kind of system is an abstract in the language of systems theory of some useful structures in mathematics, such as topology. Some mapping properties between additive systems are given and open questions are posed.
The concept of L‐fuzzy systems is introduced as a generalisation of that of general systems. A universal structure of a special kind of L‐fuzzy system is given, some mapping properties of L‐fuzzy systems are studied and a number of open questions posed.
Forecasting future period profitability is widely identified as an aim of financial statement analysis, and these forecasts are typically relied upon for the estimation of…
Forecasting future period profitability is widely identified as an aim of financial statement analysis, and these forecasts are typically relied upon for the estimation of firm value. To facilitate this, the decomposition of earnings into its components or drivers, is typically advocated. This paper investigates the existence of systematic differences in persistence across the components of earnings. If components of earnings experience differences in persistence, this may provide insights into the determinants of aggregate earnings level and persistence. This paper provides evidence of differences in persistence between components of earnings. Differences are found between components formed on the basis of: financial ratios; operating and financing activities; and cash and accruals. Furthermore, there is evidence that earnings components improve the explanatory power of models evaluating aggregate earnings persistence, with this result being strongest for firms with extreme income decreasing accruals. Due to the pivotal role of earnings in firm valuation, the results from this paper have direct implications for valuation.
A major theme in the literature on bank regulation is that greater reliance on market forces can mitigate the moral hazard problem inherent in government sponsored deposit…
A major theme in the literature on bank regulation is that greater reliance on market forces can mitigate the moral hazard problem inherent in government sponsored deposit insurance. Specific proposals to impose greater market discipline on banks include minimum requirements on (1) uninsured subordinated debt financing (either fixed-term or with option-type features), and (2) private coinsurance on deposits. Both proposals amount to delegating the responsibility for bank regulation to various private sector claimholders. The results suggest that such delegation (with or without claims that include option-type features) may be ineffective in lowering bank risk, at least within the present regulatory and institutional framework. Alternative mechanisms exist that can mitigate the moral hazard problem; however, it may be necessary for the regulator/deposit insurer to be an integral part of the solution.