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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Yi Lin

The concept of L‐fuzzy systems is introduced as a generalisation of that of general systems. A universal structure of a special kind of L‐fuzzy system is given, some…

Abstract

The concept of L‐fuzzy systems is introduced as a generalisation of that of general systems. A universal structure of a special kind of L‐fuzzy system is given, some mapping properties of L‐fuzzy systems are studied and a number of open questions posed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2009

Joris Aertsens, Koen Mondelaers and Guido Van Huylenbroeck

The organic product market can be considered as an emerging market. Since the 1990s it has experienced rapid growth, and supermarket chains have become the sales channel…

4782

Abstract

Purpose

The organic product market can be considered as an emerging market. Since the 1990s it has experienced rapid growth, and supermarket chains have become the sales channel with the largest market share and are the main driver for further growth. However, different supermarket retail groups have very different strategies concerning the marketing of organic products. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the different strategies of retailers who are active in the organic product market and to explain the drivers which may underlie them.

Design/methodology/approach

The strategies of the three most important Belgian retailers that market organic products, and in particular organic beef, are analyzed. Data were collected through interviews with the retailers' staff and through observations in retail outlets. Also, GfK‐household panel data which recorded all purchases of 3,000 Belgian households and a postal survey with 529 respondents were used as data sources.

Findings

The different strategies used by retailers to market organic foods are associated with the overall characteristics and marketing strategies of the retail groups. Some retail groups have clear “first mover” advantages from engaging in the organic product line, while for others an adaptive strategy is more appropriate.

Research limitations/implications

The insights from this paper will help the understanding and facilitate the development of future strategies for organic and other high‐value or premium products, which will be of interest to researchers and stakeholders who are active in these markets.

Practical implications

The retail sector is not a single homogeneous block, but instead consists of retailers who pursue quite different strategies. This concept may have major implications for the future development of high‐value markets.

Originality/value

Existing relevant theories were applied to the adoption of the organic product line, a segment in the portfolio of retailers that is becoming more important. The empirical material collected sheds new light on the drivers behind retail strategies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

D.S. Malik, J.N. Mordeson and M.K. Sen

Studies the concept of the Cartesian composition of fuzzy finite state machines. Shows that fuzzy finite state machines and their Cartesian composition share many…

Abstract

Studies the concept of the Cartesian composition of fuzzy finite state machines. Shows that fuzzy finite state machines and their Cartesian composition share many structural properties. Some of these properties are singly generated; retrievability, connectedness, strong connectedness, commutativity, perfection and state independence. Thus a fuzzy finite state machine which is a Cartesian composition of submachines can be studied in terms of smaller machines.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2006

Zhengjun Zhang

In this paper, the gamma test is used to determine the order of lag-k tail dependence existing in financial time series. Using standardized return series, statistical…

Abstract

In this paper, the gamma test is used to determine the order of lag-k tail dependence existing in financial time series. Using standardized return series, statistical evidences based on the test results show that jumps in returns are not transient. New time series models which combine a specific class of max-stable processes, Markov processes, and GARCH processes are proposed and used to model tail dependencies within asset returns. Estimators for parameters in the models are developed and proved to be consistent and asymptotically joint normal. These new models are tested on simulation examples and some real data, the S&P 500.

Details

Econometric Analysis of Financial and Economic Time Series
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-388-4

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1936

In hydraulically‐operated retractable wheels for aircraft the actuating member comprises a jack having a piston connected on one side with a motive pump and an exhaust…

Abstract

In hydraulically‐operated retractable wheels for aircraft the actuating member comprises a jack having a piston connected on one side with a motive pump and an exhaust, and on the other side with a hydro‐pneumatic pressure accumulator into which the liquid is forced by the jack during each lifting operation, the stored energy in the accumulator actuating the jack to assist the action of gravity when lowering the wheels. The retractable wheels R (Fig. 1) are each pivoted at A and connected to a fluid‐operated piston in a cylinder V pivoted at T, the wheels being drawn up into the machine through spring‐operated doors C1, D1 which are opened by fluid‐operated means G2 (Fig. 2) when the wheels are lowered. The cylinder V is connected by pipe 3 and non‐return valve 4 to a pump 1 supplied from a reservoir 2, surplus liquid being bye‐passed from the pump through a pipe 16. A pipe 5 for exhausting the cylinder V is connected through a manually‐operated valve 6 to the reservoir 5 and a branch 3a from the pipe 3 is connected to a cylinder 8 whereby pressure is applied to move valve 12 and non‐return valve 10 to place the other end of the cylinder V to discharge through pipes 3b, 3e to a pneumatic accumulator 9 supplied with air from a cylinder 14. When pressure is supplied by the pump 1 to the cylinder V to retract the wheels, a projection on the valve 12 opens the valve 10 and the liquid in the other end of the cylinder is forced into the accumulator 9, and when the wheels are to be lowered the valve 6 is opened by the lever 7 to exhaust one end of the cylinder into the reservoir 2 while the other end of the cylinder is supplied with pressure fluid from the accumulator. A pipe 17 from the pump 1 is connected to a cylinder G2 and is provided with a branch 18 and manually‐operated valve 19 whereby the cylinder may be exhausted. The cylinders G2 (Fig. 5) are connected by links to the doors C1, C2 maintained in the closed position by springs r1, r2, the doors C1, C2 being interconnected to open smaller doors D1 (Fig. 1) which remain open when the wheels R are lowered. The levers 25, 20, 7 (Fig. 2) are connected to a single control lever. In Fig. 10, the wheel arm J is pivoted at A and is connected by piston rod P to the cylinder V pivoted at T. A wire 35 connected to the arm J passes over pulleys 36, 37, and is connected to a piston in a horizontal cylinder 41 open to a pneumatic reservoir 9. When the wheel R is raised to the position R1 by the admission of fluid under the piston P, the wire 35 rapidly withdraws the piston in the cylinder 41 to compress the air in the accumulator 9, and since the effect of gravity is not so pronounced between the positions R, R1 as between R1, R2 and the fact that the air pressure on R tends to raise the wheel, the pressure applied to the piston P is mainly stored in the accumulator 9. From the position R to R1 the effect of air pressure is less and gravity greater, so that between these positions the wire 35 is adapted to lap around a pulley 43 on the axis A whereby the movement of the piston in the cylinder 41 is small and less power is stored in the accumulator 9, the pressure on the piston P being primarily expended in raising the wheel from R1 to R2. Similarly when lowering the wheel the accumulator expends the greatest power between R1, R. A device for recovering any leakage from the pump 1 when the reservoir 2 is at a higher level is shown in Fig. 9. A leakage pipe 28 is connected by a housing 29 and pipe 30 to the suction pipe 33, and the housing contains a float 31 with upper and lower needle valves. When the housing 29 is full of liquid, the pipe 28 is closed by the upper needle valve and the liquid in the housing is withdrawn through pipe 30 and when the housing is empty the float falls and closes the pipe 30.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

C. West and P. Surtees

This article comprises an attempt to find a practical method of applying the decision in the case of the Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service v Woulidge (63…

Abstract

This article comprises an attempt to find a practical method of applying the decision in the case of the Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service v Woulidge (63 SATC 483) (‘Woulidge’) to limit the application of section 7(3) of the Income Tax Act (‘the Act’). It is proposed in this article that Woulidge would also apply to the provisions of section 7(5) and paragraphs 69 and 70 of the Eighth Schedule to the Act. The approach proposed is illustrated by means of examples. The approach adopted by the Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service is also discussed. A conclusion is drawn regarding the practicality of applying Woulidge in the light of the examples.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1957

J.F. Norbury

TURBINE disks are subject to stresses due to two causes; the inertia effects of rotation, and the radial variation of temperature across the disk. Elastic stresses due to…

Abstract

TURBINE disks are subject to stresses due to two causes; the inertia effects of rotation, and the radial variation of temperature across the disk. Elastic stresses due to each of these effects may be determined separately and superposed to obtain the resultant stress distribution.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Yi Lin

Systems with the so‐called “additive” property are studied. This kind of system is an abstract in the language of systems theory of some useful structures in mathematics…

Abstract

Systems with the so‐called “additive” property are studied. This kind of system is an abstract in the language of systems theory of some useful structures in mathematics, such as topology. Some mapping properties between additive systems are given and open questions are posed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Iyappan Gunasekaran, Govindaraj Rajamanickam, Santhosh Narendiran, Ramasamy Perumalsamy, Kiruthika Ramany and Radha Sankararajan

Various approaches have been made to alter the vibration sensing properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) films to achieve high sensitivity. This paper aims to report the…

Abstract

Purpose

Various approaches have been made to alter the vibration sensing properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) films to achieve high sensitivity. This paper aims to report the experimental study of the fabrication of precursor molar ratio concentration varied ZnO nanostructures grown on rigid substrates using the refresh hydrothermal method. The effect of these fabricated ZnO nanostructures-based vibration sensors was experimentally investigated using a vibration sensing setup.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO nanostructures have been grown using low temperature assisted refresh hydrothermal method with different precursor molar concentrations 0.025 M (R1), 0.075 M (R2) and 0.125 M (R3). Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene polystyrene sulfonate, a p-type material is spun coated on the grown ZnO nanostructures. Structural analysis reveals the increased intensity of the (002) plane and better c-axis orientation of the R2 and R3 sample comparatively. Morphological examination shows the changes in the grown nanostructures upon increasing the precursor molar concentration. The optical band gap value decreases from 3.11 eV to 3.08 eV as the precursor molar concentration is increased. Photoconductivity study confirms the formation of a p-n junction with less turn-on voltage for all the fabricated devices. A less internal resistance of 0.37 kΩ was obtained from Nyquist analysis for R2 compared with the other two fabricated samples. Vibration testing experimentation showed an improved output voltage of the R2 sample (2.61 V at 9 Hz resonant frequency and 2.90 V for 1 g acceleration) comparatively. This also gave an increased sensitivity of 4.68 V/g confirming its better performance when compared to the other fabricated two samples.

Findings

Photoconductivity study confirms the formation of a p-n junction with less turn-on voltage for all the fabricated devices. A less internal resistance of 0.37 kΩ was calculated from the Nyquist plot. Vibration testing experimentation proves an increased sensitivity of 4.68 V/g confirming its better performance when compared to the other fabricated two samples.

Originality/value

Vibration testing experimentation proves an increased sensitivity of 4.68 V/g for R2 confirming its better performance when compared to the other fabricated two samples.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Reto Felix

The purpose of this study is to understand consumers' product use, practices, identity, and brand meanings in the context of a brand community dedicated to a mainstream…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand consumers' product use, practices, identity, and brand meanings in the context of a brand community dedicated to a mainstream Japanese motorcycle brand.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach was used in the form of netnography (i.e. ethnography adapted to the study of online communities).

Findings

On the product level, consumers experience multiple conflicts and negotiations of meaning related to the use of the product. These findings are reproduced on the brand level, where members of the brand community present a more differentiated look on the brand, accompanied by lower levels of admiration and identification with the brand, as in previous reports of brand communities for brands such as Apple, Jeep, or Harley‐Davidson. The results suggest that consumers for mainstream brands may be more prone to multi‐brand loyalty instead of single‐brand loyalty.

Practical implications

Marketers should monitor motivations, attitudes, and decision‐making processes on both the product and the brand level. Further, non‐company‐run online communities such as the Yamaha R1 forum bear the risk of community members transmitting brand information in a way not desired by the company. Thus, marketers should consider sponsoring an entire discussion website, a forum, or part of a forum.

Originality/value

Whereas previous studies on brand communities have concentrated predominantly on highly admired and differentiated brands, such as Apple or Harley‐Davidson, this study investigates consumer practices, identities, and negotiations of meaning on both the product and brand level for a less differentiated mainstream brand.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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