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Article

R.R. Bricknell

THE sample submitted consisted of a short length of 2‐in.‐bore stainless steel pipe which had been sawn in half longitudinally. There was a fracture at one end of the…

Abstract

THE sample submitted consisted of a short length of 2‐in.‐bore stainless steel pipe which had been sawn in half longitudinally. There was a fracture at one end of the sample, whilst at the other it had been threaded externally to take a heavy stainless steel nozzle. Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically the position of the sample relative to the adjacent components. This assembly was part of a fertiliser plant handling a mixture of chemicals consisting chiefly of ammonium nitrate but also including potassium chloride.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Abstract

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Egg Freezing, Fertility and Reproductive Choice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-483-1

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Book part

Ros Madden

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was published in 2001 after over a decade of international discussion and field testing (see…

Abstract

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was published in 2001 after over a decade of international discussion and field testing (see, for instance, Bickenbach, Chatterji, Badley, & Ustun, 1999). Its ratification by the World Health Assembly was keenly awaited in Australia, by people interested in working with a model of disability attuned to a human rights and equal opportunities approach, and by people wanting to use the new model in disability and health policy and information systems. This paper outlines developments being implemented and ideas being discussed in Australia, particularly with the Australian Collaborating Centre (ACC).1

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International Views on Disability Measures: Moving Toward Comparative Measurement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-394-5

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Article

Paschal Ohalehi

Despite the increasing awareness of fraud in organisations and the potential benefits of strong fraud management through deterrence and prevention in the UK, there remains…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increasing awareness of fraud in organisations and the potential benefits of strong fraud management through deterrence and prevention in the UK, there remains limited research on fraud in small charities. This paper aims to examine astonishing cases of fraud in small charities whilst raising awareness of the impact of fraud and its wider implication in the charity sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a qualitative approach amongst randomly selected 24 charity trustees with income of £0-250,000 and over £250,000. Recent statistics from fraud survey published in Annual Fraud Indicator by the National Fraud Authority and the United Kingdom Fraud Costs Measurement Committee were presented and the theory of why people commit fraud is described.

Findings

This paper summarises evidence that shows the frequency and severity of fraud in charities, which remains increasingly high. Furthermore, smaller charities are not immune from fraud and suffer losses due to lack of segregation of duties and weak control systems when compared to larger charities with stronger control systems and better governance structure. This paper addresses a very important topic in the charity sector. Whilst fraud and fund misappropriation receive significant media coverage in large charities, smaller charities also suffer losses occasioned by fraud even in large proportion albeit with less reporting in the media.

Practical implications

Charity managers and trustees will benefit from having sufficient knowledge in deterrence and prevention of charity fraud.

Originality/value

This is a novel research as it looks into the nature of fraud in small charities of which there is limited research both in the voluntary and fraud literature.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article

Bishnu Sharma and David Gadenne

This study aims to investigate the impact of quality management practices on performance and the extent to which industry rivalry and entry barriers moderate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of quality management practices on performance and the extent to which industry rivalry and entry barriers moderate the relationship between the implementation of quality management practices and quality management performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire was administered for this research using Powell's quality management framework. The respondents were required to indicate their degree of implementation of quality management practices and to rate their TQM performance in relation to overall performance, the firm's competitive position and the nature of the impact of quality management on the organisation. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that firms with high levels of executive commitment to quality management and those that pay close attention to customer needs tend to improve their competitive position, view quality as being positive for the organisation, and improve overall performance. The results suggest that the degree of quality management implementation is positively associated with entry barriers, which would mean reduced level of threat from new entrants; whereas the industry rivalry issues were not significantly associated with either quality management or organisational performance. The findings also show that existing firms' ability to create entry barriers facilitates increased opportunities to improve their organisational performance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was relatively small, subjective measures of organisational performance were used which may be biased due to respondents' interpretation of their own firm's performances, and there is a possibility that many firms with low levels of QM implementation may not have participated in the study, leading to self‐selection bias. These factors may limit the generalisability of the research findings to other settings. Therefore further research is required to ascertain whether the same practices are evident across organisations of different sizes and industry groups within a broader sampling frame.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that quality management implementation by firms within an environment where higher levels of entry barriers exist results in higher organisational performance due to the firms' relative protection against new competitors.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few papers to investigate the role of Porter's industry analysis framework in relation to quality management implementation and firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article

P. Mabb

Probably the most popular view concerning corrosion is that its promotion is largely the result of atmospheric conditions and oxidation. Only too frequently is the fact…

Abstract

Probably the most popular view concerning corrosion is that its promotion is largely the result of atmospheric conditions and oxidation. Only too frequently is the fact ignored that treatments and processes are often a major cause of trouble developing. Again, the degree of corrosion which may cause trouble is quite relative and in many large and heavy equipments slight corrosion may in no way impair efficiency. On the other hand, in light electrical apparatus, particularly that concerned with the telecommunications industry and with accurate sensitive instruments, trouble can be caused by a very slight degree of corrosion which may not be readily visible. It is, of course, common practice to attempt to seal hermetically delicate equipment to prevent oxidation and corrosion occurring due to polluted atmospheres and relatively high humidity. Even so, no matter how effectively an instrument or equipment may be sealed hermetically, the absence of corrosion will, to a very great extent, depend upon the purity of the materials used, the processes to which the parts have been subjected, the standard of finish and the nature of the protective coatings. In this article it is proposed to discuss some aspects of the care required to prevent contamination of components and the standards of quality which must be imposed upon the materials used. This is necessary to ensure the absence of deleterious substances which, in the presence of moisture and with the possibility of a d.c. leak developing, may cause a degree of corrosion sufficient to cause breakdown or sufficient contact resistance to impair the functioning of the equipment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 3 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Hélène de Burgh‐Woodman and Jan Brace‐Govan

The purpose of the paper is to expand existing qualitative parameters in current marketing research discourse by integrating Barthesian theory into the study of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to expand existing qualitative parameters in current marketing research discourse by integrating Barthesian theory into the study of subcultural marketplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

While essentially conceptual in nature, this paper adopts a comprehensive intertextual, semiotic approach which argues for the substantive investigation of the marketing text as a foundation for understanding consumption in a subcultural context.

Findings

To date, the integration of Barthesian intertextual theory has proved to be an effective method of interrogating subculturally‐oriented materials.

Practical implications

Marketers, in commercial contexts, will access a greater depth of insight into the subcultural market by applying an intertextual, semiotic framework as demonstrated in this paper.

Originality/value

While marketing discourse has taken interest in semiotics, this has typically occurred via the work of US semiologists, rather than the French school in their organic form. This is one of the first papers to locate Barthes within the marketing paradigm as a potential analytical framework. The paper suggests ways in which his influential theories may be applied as a viable analytical tool in qualitative research.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

M.C.M. Bricknell

Compares the methodology of the medical decision‐making process with that of the military. The key to both professions is reliable, efficient decision making. Effective…

Abstract

Compares the methodology of the medical decision‐making process with that of the military. The key to both professions is reliable, efficient decision making. Effective decision makers use the hypothetical‐deductive approach which utilizes intuition to generate ideas which are tested by the available evidence. Medicine is developing a holistic, conceptual and student‐centred education process which compares with the more rigid, external system of military training. The military system has a better methodology for communication both verbally and in writing than medicine. Suggests that both professions may benefit from an examination of each professional culture.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article

Stephane M. Shepherd and Susanne Strand

The psychopathy checklist: youth version (PCL: YV) checklist is an assessment of youth psychopathic traits and is regularly validated by way of its associations with…

Abstract

Purpose

The psychopathy checklist: youth version (PCL: YV) checklist is an assessment of youth psychopathic traits and is regularly validated by way of its associations with re-offending and violence. Yet existing research has been conducted with predominantly white Caucasian cohorts and extant evidence suggests that associations with recidivism are stronger in samples with greater proportions of white offenders. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigated the cross-cultural validity of the PCL: YV for an ethnically diverse Australian sample of 175 young male offenders in custody. Participants were assessed in custody with the PCL: YV and offending data were collected post-release for up to 18 months.

Findings

PCL: YV total and domain scores were comparable across ethnicity; however the instrument demonstrated stronger relationships with recidivism for Australian participants with an English speaking background compared to Indigenous and culturally and linguistically diverse participants.

Practical implications

The authors advocate the cautionary employment of the PCL: YV as a violence risk prediction instrument with minority young offenders regionally, pending further evidence.

Originality/value

This study addresses the capacity of the PCL: YV to predict violence across different ethnic groups. Cross-cultural youth psychopathy research is currently inadequate and existing studies suggest that the PCL: YV is a weaker predictor of violence in culturally diverse samples. This investigation provides much needed information on the capacity of the PCL: YV to extend to different ethnic groups who are represented Australia’s youth prison population. This is the first study of its kind regionally, and more importantly is the first PCL: YV study with an Indigenous Australian comparison group. This is particularly important given that Indigenous Australians are heavily overrepresented in Australia’s criminal justice system and require appropriate risk assessment measures to ensure they are not misclassified. Research such as this is now of particular interest given the recent judicial decision made in Ewert vs Canada.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article

Frederic Lemieux, Samantha Bricknell and Tim Prenzler

– The purpose of this paper is to compare the incidence and main characteristics of mass shooting events in Australia and the USA in the period 1981-2013.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the incidence and main characteristics of mass shooting events in Australia and the USA in the period 1981-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a conservative definition of mass shootings derived from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, covering four or more fatalities not including the offender. Australian cases were accessed from the Australian Institute of Criminology’s National Homicide Monitoring Programme (NHMP) database and several secondary sources. The US data were collected from the Mother Jones database, a report prepared for Mayors Against Illegal Guns and a New York Police Department report. The time series data were related to changes in firearms regulations in the two jurisdictions.

Findings

For Australia, the study identified 13 mass shooting events and 104 fatalities from gunshot wounds. For the USA, there were 73 events and 576 victims. Of note is the fact that all cases in Australia pre-dated the implementation of the restrictive 1996 National Firearms Agreement. In the USA, a small decline was evident during the 1994-2004 Federal Assault Weapon Ban. Incidents and fatalities increased after 2004.

Research limitations/implications

Of necessity, the paper adopts a conservative FBI-based definition of mass shootings that limits the number of cases captured. The absence of an official government US database also most likely limits the number of cases identified.

Practical implications

The findings lend support to policy considerations regarding regulating access to firearms.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in comparing mass shootings in these two jurisdictions over three decades in association with changes in firearms regulation.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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