This chapter reviews marketing scholarship on environmental sustainability. The literature covers several themes of both consumer behavior and firm-level topics. Consumer…
This chapter reviews marketing scholarship on environmental sustainability. The literature covers several themes of both consumer behavior and firm-level topics. Consumer issues include their assessment of efficacy and the extent to which they are aware and sensitive to environmental issues. Numerous interventions and marketing appeals for modifying attitudes and behaviors have been tested and are reported. Consumers and business managers have both been queried regarding attitudes of recycling and waste. Firm-level phenomena are reflected, including how brand managers can signal their green efforts to their customers, whether doing so is beneficial, all in conjunction with macro pressures or constraints from industry or governmental agencies. This chapter closes with a reflection on the research.
Automation of arc welding jobs is accelerating rapidly now that sensory feedback systems are beginning to become available. However, many of these systems have limited…
Automation of arc welding jobs is accelerating rapidly now that sensory feedback systems are beginning to become available. However, many of these systems have limited capabilities. A new laser‐based optical profile sensor developed in Holland not only tracks all types of seams but also modifies weld process parameters on the basis of profile information.
This chapter examines recent citizenship policy change in Europe in order to address two important questions. First, are immigrant-receiving states undergoing a…
This chapter examines recent citizenship policy change in Europe in order to address two important questions. First, are immigrant-receiving states undergoing a “restrictive turn,” making citizenship less accessible to foreigners? Our analysis finds that while certain restrictive developments have certainly occurred, a broader comparative perspective shows that these hardly amount to a larger restrictive trend. Second, regardless of what the restrictive changes amount to, what explains why certain countries have added more onerous requirements for citizenship? In answering this question, we focus on the politics of citizenship. We argue that once citizenship becomes politicized – thus mobilizing the latent anti-immigrant sentiments of the population – the result will likely be either the blocking of liberalizing pressures or the imposition of new restrictive measures. We support this argument by focusing on three countries: a case of genuine restrictiveness (Germany), another where the anti-immigrant rhetoric's bark has been more noticeable than the citizenship policy's bite (the United Kingdom), and one where proposed policy change in the restrictive direction does not add up to a restrictive policy overall, but rather a normalization with other liberal citizenship regimes in Europe (Belgium). We argue that politics accounts for why states adopt restrictive policies, and we conclude that it is premature and inaccurate to suggest that policies of exclusion are converging across Europe.
This paper aims to argue that certain insights offered by Kuhn and Foucault may be of use to those seeking to resist a global paradigm of inequality in access to the…
This paper aims to argue that certain insights offered by Kuhn and Foucault may be of use to those seeking to resist a global paradigm of inequality in access to the outcomes of pharmaceutical development. It is further argued that these relationships are not independent of certain power relationships. This critical review seeks to highlight certain of these power relationships, and to suggest how they might be better managed to ensure more equitable outcomes for those in society that are most vulnerable to innovation failure.
This research takes the form of a critical review paper, seeking to develop theory though a synthesis of literature.
Unlike market incentives, it might be the research process itself that is most vulnerable to stakeholder resistance to slow and unequal delivery of life-saving pharmaceutical development. Given that a lack of responsiveness to societal needs can itself be considered unethical, Kuhnian theory predicting pharmaceutical innovation failure is related to what Foucault describes as a system of oppression, whereby power relationships disadvantage those most vulnerable and powerless.
Given the rise of movements like citizen science and participant-led research, as well as new ethical frameworks premised on increasing accountability in science, Foucault’s principles are considered to echo a general trend towards the democratisation of science, and towards increasing the responsiveness of pharmaceutical development to societal needs.
A novel synthesis of literature is undertaken, offering useful theoretical insights into how social actors might contribute to enabling a more responsive system of international healthcare business.
The Pica Library Automation Network originated from a research project on catalogue automation on behalf of some Dutch research libraries in the years 1969–1975. The name Pica derives from this project: Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation. Since 1976 Pica has been a non‐profit‐organisation, sponsored by the Dutch government, for the realisation of an online automated library network in The Netherlands, based on a centralised bibliographic database in which information is stored only once. Satellite library systems as well as other associated systems are provided with information from this central database. Duplication of efforts needs to be eliminated. In 1983 the following Pica‐systems became operational:
Union catalogues form the main instrument of interlending in the Netherlands. The most important ones are maintained by the Royal Library in The Hague, the Technical…
Union catalogues form the main instrument of interlending in the Netherlands. The most important ones are maintained by the Royal Library in The Hague, the Technical University at Delft, and the Library of the Agricultural University at Wageningen. On‐line library automation will have an increasing impact on interlending, and the challenge is being met by these libraries by setting up an on‐line catalogue of serials, monographs and conference publications combined with an on‐line system for handling interlibrary loan requests developed by the Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation (PICA). The first phase — the serials system — came on‐line in May 1983, and it is hoped the monograph system will be in operation by early 1986.
At least 20% of individuals living with HIV pass through prison and jail doors every year, in any nation, worldwide. Therefore, interventions that improve access to HIV…
At least 20% of individuals living with HIV pass through prison and jail doors every year, in any nation, worldwide. Therefore, interventions that improve access to HIV testing, HIV care, and education can have a broad impact on public health in every country. The benefits of these interventions in correctional settings have already been well documented. For example, improved access to HIV testing, treatment by an HIV specialist, preventive vaccinations and prophylactic medications, screening for concomitant infections such as HCV, and pre‐release planning services have been shown to decrease HIV‐related mortality and morbidity, to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and to decrease recidivism. Education of at‐risk individuals has also been shown to reduce HIV risk behaviors. Safe distribution of condoms and needle‐exchange programs have also been demonstrated to be safe and effective, although few such programs have been implemented in the United States. While all the available evidence has demonstrated that these public health‐oriented interventions can be and are successful in correctional settings, implementation on a national and international level lags far behind the evidence. The time has come to take an evidence‐based approach to improving HIV management in correctional settings. Implementations of the HIV management interventions described in this article make good medical sense and will have a positive impact on the health of inmates and the communities to which inmates return.