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Although different facets of managerial third‐party intervention in organizations have been explored, we know little about how managers should intervene in different…
Although different facets of managerial third‐party intervention in organizations have been explored, we know little about how managers should intervene in different disputes for resolving them successfully. In this study, a prescriptive model of intervention strategy selection proposed by Elangovan (1995) is tested. Data on successful and unsuccessful interventions were collected from senior managers in different organizations. The results show that following the prescriptions of the model leads to a significant increase in the likelihood that an intervention would be successful as well as in the degree of success of the intervention, thereby supporting a contingency view of dispute intervention.
The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and…
The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and practice have focused primarily on individuals’ characteristics and behaviors as a means to understand “who” is influential in organizations, with substantially less attention paid to social networks. To reinvigorate a focus on network structures to explain interpersonal influence, the authors present a comprehensive account of how network structures enable and constrain influence within organizations. The authors begin by describing how power and status, two key determinants of individual influence in organizations, operate through different mechanisms, and delineate a range of network positions that yield power, reflect status, and/or capture realized influence. Then, the authors extend initial structural views of influence beyond the positions of individuals to consider how network structures within and between groups – capturing group social capital and/or shared leadership – enable and constrain groups’ ability to influence group members, other groups, and the broader organizational system. The authors also discuss how HRM may leverage these insights to facilitate interpersonal influence in ways that support individual, group, and organizational effectiveness.
Negotiation is a ubiquitous part of work-life. As such, negotiations do not occur in a vacuum, which means that we often find ourselves negotiating again and again, in a…
Negotiation is a ubiquitous part of work-life. As such, negotiations do not occur in a vacuum, which means that we often find ourselves negotiating again and again, in a variety of situations, with varying degrees of success and failure. By taking every opportunity that presents itself, we can learn and develop our negotiation skills further as a result of our cumulative negotiation experiences – especially the more difficult ones. To date, the literature on negotiation and learning from failures has yet to be integrated. In pursuit of this goal, this chapter will firstly, identify the characteristics or specific aspects of a negotiation that could be a setback or failure, and secondly, integrate failures and setbacks into a systematic approach in which we can learn effectively from these setbacks, in which the author applies the literature on learning from failure to specific negotiation setbacks.
In this chapter, we present a model for the process of value creation in power-differentiated groups and identify affect as a key moderator. We divide the value creation…
In this chapter, we present a model for the process of value creation in power-differentiated groups and identify affect as a key moderator. We divide the value creation process into two key steps: information sharing and information processing. Further, we propose that high- and low-power group members each play a critical, albeit different, role in these processes. High-power group members are instrumental in establishing an environment that encourages all group members to share their unique information. Once that information is available, low-power group members use it to formulate solutions that create value. Further, we propose that the affective experience of each of these determines the extent to which they fulfill their role. If high-power group members are happy, they are more likely to create an open and sharing environment. If angry, they will likely squelch broad participation in information sharing. While low-power group members are naturally prone to effortful cognition, we propose that the more suspicious they are regarding the motives of those around them, the more carefully they will process available information.
Purpose – To provide a framework for organizing research on group negotiation, including the contributions of the current volume.Methodology – The organizing framework…
Purpose – To provide a framework for organizing research on group negotiation, including the contributions of the current volume.
Methodology – The organizing framework arranges past research on group negotiation and the contributions offered in this volume according to the core negotiation elements of people, processes, and places, and their impact on the integration of negotiators' preferences.
Findings – There is an extensive literature on negotiation, but historically group negotiation has represented only a small part of that dialogue. There are three general categories of group negotiation: multiparty negotiation, team negotiation, and multiteam negotiation. The core issue addressed in this chapter is how – viewed through the lens of the four identified core negotiation elements of preferences, people, processes, and places – the quantity and arrangement of negotiators involved in a negotiation qualitatively changes the negotiation experience, and specifically how (different types of) negotiating groups make more complex the challenge of identifying, agreeing to, and implementing integrative agreements.
Implications – More than dyadic negotiation, the difficulty of reaching agreements that satisfy all parties can lead to agreements that some negotiators are less than enthusiastic about implementing. It is the difficulty and importance of finding agreements that satisfy all parties in group negotiation that makes it so important to understand the influence of group negotiation by people, processes, and places.
Value of the Paper – This chapter organizes the landscape of group negotiation research by illuminating both what we know about the people, processes, and places that influence the negotiation of group members' preferences, as well as pointing the way – both theoretically and methodologically – for future researchers to fill in the blanks that remain.
As a result of sustained gender imbalance in the construction industry, research continues in the fields of attraction and retention of female employees. In Melbourne…
As a result of sustained gender imbalance in the construction industry, research continues in the fields of attraction and retention of female employees. In Melbourne, Australia, an investigative survey was carried out to evaluate the relationship between motivation at work and gender. The survey also aimed to ascertain if professional men and women in the construction industry were motivated and demotivated by the same variables. The research concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in total motivation and demotivation levels between male and female employees. There were, however, significant differences with regard to the perceived attractiveness and unattractiveness of certain work place and job characteristics. Some characteristics were not gender discriminatory in their unattractiveness. Evidence presented in this paper can lead to a useful re‐appraisal of how the construction industry can create a more attractive workplace environment that entices more employees of either gender to remain in the industry.
A survey, conducted in ten secondary schools in Nottingham andinvolving 492 respondents aged 11‐16, examined the relationship betweenadolescents′ attitudes towards food…
A survey, conducted in ten secondary schools in Nottingham and involving 492 respondents aged 11‐16, examined the relationship between adolescents′ attitudes towards food components such as fat, protein and fibre and their attitudes towards the role of specific food items containing those components in maintaining a healthy diet. The results showed that attitudes towards selected food components tended to be held more strongly than attitudes towards foods containing those components. Thus whilst nearly 80 per cent respondents favoured a reduction in fat intake, only 45.8 per cent favoured a decrease in butter consumption. Attitudes towards specific food components and specific food items are a function of a number of complex inter‐related variables which require further investigation.
Describes an in‐depth study of the attitudes to food, foodconsumption patterns and health of young vegetarian women (aged 15‐30).Studies women as the ratio of female to…
Describes an in‐depth study of the attitudes to food, food consumption patterns and health of young vegetarian women (aged 15‐30). Studies women as the ratio of female to male vegetarians is 2:1. Self‐completed questionnaires formed the basis of the study and provided information on length of time and degree of commitment to vegetarianism, affect on social relationships, and moral and health factors and food factors influencing the decision to become vegetarian. Food factors appeared to be less distinctive than moral and health factors. Concludes that more research is required, particularly into the strict vegan section of the population.
Presents the results of a self‐completed questionnaire aimed atdetermining the dietary patterns of all meals on wheels (MOW) forelderly recipients in Leicester which was…
Presents the results of a self‐completed questionnaire aimed at determining the dietary patterns of all meals on wheels (MOW) for elderly recipients in Leicester which was distributed to 1,500 people in November 1990. A response rate of 75 per cent was achieved (32.8 per cent male and 67.2 per cent female), the greatest proportion being in the 80‐89 age range, with 91.1 per cent of the total number of recipients receiving four or five meals per week from the MOW service. Seventy‐four per cent of all recipients reported consuming other meals or snacks in addition to their MOW. The remaining 26 per cent failed to report eating anything else but their MOW. Of the total who reported eating other meals or snacks, 73.9 per cent reported they had breakfast, 12.8 per cent a mid‐morning snack, 23.4 per cent a mid‐afternoon snack, 58.8 per cent an evening meal/snack and 26 per cent supper. Presents a further breakdown of the main food patterns on each of these eating occasions, the major foods being convenience (bread, biscuits, cake etc) with little evidence of hot meal preparation.