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Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of…
Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated communication is important for creating online e‐Learning opportunities; not only for relaying communication content, but also for supporting the cognitive processes associated with the necessary learning activities required for conceptualization. In Laurillard’s conversational theory, a communication loop should be established between learners and teachers. The articulation element in this loop is necessary for engaging the learner in a collaborative activity, which is essential for developing further the conceptualization process. This paper discusses the acts of communication, conceptualization and articulation within a machine mediated multimodal communication, and it proposes a framework within which a supporting set of cognitive activities can be developed.
This chapter describes five disciplinary domains of research or lenses that contribute to the design of a team tutor. We focus on four significant challenges in developing…
This chapter describes five disciplinary domains of research or lenses that contribute to the design of a team tutor. We focus on four significant challenges in developing Intelligent Team Tutoring Systems (ITTSs), and explore how the five lenses can offer guidance for these challenges. The four challenges arise in the design of team member interactions, performance metrics and skill development, feedback, and tutor authoring. The five lenses or research domains that we apply to these four challenges are Tutor Engineering, Learning Sciences, Science of Teams, Data Analyst, and Human–Computer Interaction. This matrix of applications from each perspective offers a framework to guide designers in creating ITTSs.
The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent things in their way. But while it is important that better and more scientific attention should be generally given to the preparation of food for the table, it must be admitted to be at least equally important to insure that the food before it comes into the hands of the expert cook shall be free from adulteration, and as far as possible from impurity,—that it should be, in fact, of the quality expected. Protection up to a certain point and in certain directions is afforded to the consumer by penal enactments, and hitherto the general public have been disposed to believe that those enactments are in their nature and in their application such as to guarantee a fairly general supply of articles of tolerable quality. The adulteration laws, however, while absolutely necessary for the purpose of holding many forms of fraud in check, and particularly for keeping them within certain bounds, cannot afford any guarantees of superior, or even of good, quality. Except in rare instances, even those who control the supply of articles of food to large public and private establishments fail to take steps to assure themselves that the nature and quality of the goods supplied to them are what they are represented to be. The sophisticator and adulterator are always with us. The temptations to undersell and to misrepresent seem to be so strong that firms and individuals from whom far better things might reasonably be expected fall away from the right path with deplorable facility, and seek to save themselves, should they by chance be brought to book, by forms of quibbling and wriggling which are in themselves sufficient to show the moral rottenness which can be brought about by an insatiable lust for gain. There is, unfortunately, cheating to be met with at every turn, and it behoves at least those who control the purchase and the cooking of food on the large scale to do what they can to insure the supply to them of articles which have not been tampered with, and which are in all respects of proper quality, both by insisting on being furnished with sufficiently authoritative guarantees by the vendors, and by themselves causing the application of reasonably frequent scientific checks upon the quality of the goods.
There is a huge amount of information and data stored in publicly available online databases that consist of large text files accessed by Boolean search techniques. It is…
There is a huge amount of information and data stored in publicly available online databases that consist of large text files accessed by Boolean search techniques. It is widely held that less use is made of these databases than could or should be the case, and that one reason for this is that potential users find it difficult to identify which databases to search, to use the various command languages of the hosts and to construct the Boolean search statements required. This reasoning has stimulated a considerable amount of exploration and development work on the construction of search interfaces, to aid the inexperienced user to gain effective access to these databases. The aim of our paper is to review aspects of the design of such interfaces: to indicate the requirements that must be met if maximum aid is to be offered to the inexperienced searcher; to spell out the knowledge that must be incorporated in an interface if such aid is to be given; to describe some of the solutions that have been implemented in experimental and operational interfaces; and to discuss some of the problems encountered. The paper closes with an extensive bibliography of references relevant to online search aids, going well beyond the items explicitly mentioned in the text. An index to software appears after the bibliography at the end of the paper.
The First International Conference on Bibliographic Access in Europe attracted delegates from twenty‐seven countries to the University of Bath in September 1989. The…
The First International Conference on Bibliographic Access in Europe attracted delegates from twenty‐seven countries to the University of Bath in September 1989. The conference is the successor to the earlier conferences ‘Online Public Access to Library Files’ which were held at the same location in 1983, 1985 and 1987. The changed focus of the conference reflected Philip Bryant's, (Director of the Centre for Bibliographic Management at Bath) view that a lot had been written about OPACs and that they ought to be viewed in the wider context of bibliographic access, which in turn was now an international issue. The decision to focus on Europe was timely, given moves towards greater integration within the European Community. The international nature of the gathering was emphasised by the provision of simultaneous translation between English, French and German, and papers presented by speakers from more than ten countries. The major themes of the conference were the role of networks and CD‐ROMs in providing bibliographic access, and standards associated with both the contents of records and their transfer.
Examines Just‐in‐Time (JIT) from its evolution as a Japaneseconcept through to a review of its philosophy and implementation. Citesseveral techniques of implementation…
Examines Just‐in‐Time (JIT) from its evolution as a Japanese concept through to a review of its philosophy and implementation. Cites several techniques of implementation. Includes a review of the early work of various researchers and practitioners. Concludes that JIT is a very effective manufacturing philosophy which is universal in nature encompassing all aspects of manufacturing. Suggests a few deficiencies in current literature.
In robot programming by demonstration (PbD) of small parts assembly tasks, the accuracy of parts poses estimated by vision-based techniques in demonstration stage is far…
In robot programming by demonstration (PbD) of small parts assembly tasks, the accuracy of parts poses estimated by vision-based techniques in demonstration stage is far from enough to ensure a successful execution. This paper aims to develop an inference method to improve the accuracy of poses and assembly relations between parts by integrating visual observation with computer-aided design (CAD) model.
In this paper, the authors propose a spatial information inference method called probabilistic assembly graph with optional CAD model, shorted as PAGC*, to achieve this task. Then an assembly relation extraction method from CAD model is designed, where different assembly relation descriptions in CAD model are summarized into two fundamental relations that are colinear and coplanar. The relation similarity, distance similarity and rotation similarity are adopted as the similar part matching criterions between the CAD model and the observation. The knowledge of part in CAD is used to correct that of the corresponding part in observation. The likelihood maximization estimation is used to infer the accurate poses and assembly relations based on the probabilistic assembly graph.
In the experiments, both simulated data and real-world data are applied to evaluate the performance of the PAGC* model. The experimental results show the superiority of PAGC* in accuracy compared with assembly graph (AG) and probabilistic assembly graph without CAD model (PAG).
The paper provides a new approach to get the accurate pose of each part in demonstration stage of the robot PbD system. By integrating information from visual observation with prior knowledge from CAD model, PAGC* ensures the success in execution stage of the PbD system.
In an earlier paper we reported on the application of information technology in Greek libraries. In November 1990, the British Library Research and Development Department…
In an earlier paper we reported on the application of information technology in Greek libraries. In November 1990, the British Library Research and Development Department (BLR&DD) together with the University College of Wales funded a second visit to Greece by the first author. This visit coincided with the 6th Panhellenic congress of Greek librarians meeting in Athens where the theme of the congress was ‘New technology and Greek libraries’. This visit and our attendance at the congress enabled us to report briefly on progress in the application of information technology in Greek libraries. Since this paper is intended to update the earlier paper, we have striven to avoid repetition and it may be necessary to read the earlier paper before this one.