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J.I. Steinberg, S.J. Horowitz and R.J. Bacher
Modern complex integrated circuits require more input/output connections and operate at faster switching speeds and higher power levels than was the case before LSI and…
Modern complex integrated circuits require more input/output connections and operate at faster switching speeds and higher power levels than was the case before LSI and VLSI devices. As a result, there is a need for packages with high electrical conductivity, low dielectric constant, high thermal conductivity, precise line resolution and low unit cost. Ideally, it should also be possible to include resistors and for the package to be manufactured in‐house for maximum control. Multilayer printed circuit boards, complex multilayer hybrid circuits and high temperature co‐fired ceramic packages have been used to accomplish the interconnection of complex ICs. A new technology has been developed which combines the benefits of thick film with the processing advantages of co‐fired ceramic. The thick film process begins with a bare substrate, usually 96% alumina, upon which gold, silver alloy or copper metallisation, and screen‐printable dielectric paste are applied. Processing is a series of printing and firing operations; the firing temperature is usually between 800°C and 1000°C. Interconnecting vias are typically formed by screen printing and are usually a minimum of 250 ?m (10 mil) in diameter. The high temperature co‐fired approach uses no substrate. Printing of tungsten, molybdenum or molymanganese metallisation is carried out on alumina tape dielectric. The vias are formed by mechanical punching and are typically a minimum of 200 ?m (8 mil) in diameter. A single firing is performed in a special atmosphere, usually at 1500°C. This paper describes a new materials system which consists of a tape dielectric and gold, silver and silver/palladium inner layer and via fill conductor compositions. Circuits and packages made with the system are fired in an air atmosphere in standard thick film furnaces and are compatible with other conventional thick film materials. The process for making these parts is described and critical process parameters are identified. The results of reliability testing under temperature, humidity and bias are discussed and supporting microstructural analysis is presented.
E. Giani, S. Kielar and J.P. Mathurin
Hybrid manufacturers are uncertain as to whether laser‐drilled holes on 96% alumina are suitable for mixed‐bonded thick film conductor metallisation, or whether they…
Hybrid manufacturers are uncertain as to whether laser‐drilled holes on 96% alumina are suitable for mixed‐bonded thick film conductor metallisation, or whether they require further treatment before metallisation if reliable circuitry is to be produced. Moreover, although the metallisation of holes on ceramic through the use of screen printed thick films is fairly common in the hybrid industry, this paper shows that published information on this topic is scant, at times contradictory, and, because of proprietary constraints, generally of little use. The authors report on an extensive study in which both as‐laser‐drilled holes and thermally‐treated laser‐drilled holes are metallised using a mixed bonded Pd‐Ag conductor paste. Both encapsulated and non‐encapsulated metallised holes are then subjected to various accelerated life tests, followed by ‘power‐up’ tests to the extreme of circuit destruction. An account is also given of a printing set‐up which allows volume production of printed through‐holes without the need for special skill or attention on the part of the printing operator.
Y.L. Wang, A.F. Carroll, J.D. Smith, Y. Cho, R.J. Bacher, D.K. Anderson, J.C. Crumpton and C.R.S. Needes
Substrates with high thermal conductivity continue to be in great demand for their ability to enable smaller and denser high power circuits. BeO has been used for this…
Substrates with high thermal conductivity continue to be in great demand for their ability to enable smaller and denser high power circuits. BeO has been used for this purpose for many years with thick film materials. However, due to health and environmental concerns with BeO, many manufacturers feel compelled to switch to alternative substrates. This paper will discuss a thick film system consisting of conductors, dielectric, and resistors developed specifically for use with the most likely alternative, AlN substrates. This system will soon find broad use in applications such as power resistors for telecom, optoelectronic submounts, and high‐power automotive applications.
P. Palanisamy and D.H.R. Sarma
A major drawback of current copper thick‐film technology is the inefficient removal of the organic binder associated with the dielectric material in the low‐oxygen inert…
A major drawback of current copper thick‐film technology is the inefficient removal of the organic binder associated with the dielectric material in the low‐oxygen inert gas (N2) atmosphere of the furnace. In processing large area and/or multilayer substrates, the incomplete binder removal causes deleterious effects which have been well documented. Therefore, it is necessary to remove hydrocarbons and residual carbon from the films in the burn‐out section of the furnace before the films begin developing their characteristic microstructures. However, the atmosphere currently employed is not capable of removing all the carbon and hydrogen in the form of gaseous oxides. In literature, in addition to furnace modifications, several atmosphere modifications and manipulations have been proposed to achieve optimum properties for the fired films. With few exceptions, the scientific basis for such atmosphere modifications and manipulations has been left either unaddressed or obscure. With this background, this paper examines the feasibility of using a reactive gas mixture in the furnace to achieve efficient organic binder removal. Phase stability diagrams are presented to illustrate the stability of (i) carbon, (ii) thick film copper ingredients, (iii) active phases of resistors, and (iv) components of glassy and crystalline phases of dielectrics in selected reactive atmospheres. The stability of certain furnace belt constituents is also addressed. Mass balance calculations are shown to demonstrate the extent of carbon removal and copper oxidation in typical nitrogen atmospheres. Based on the interpretation of thermodynamic data and reaction mechanisms involved, a specific H2‐H2O mixture with nitrogen as the carrier gas is recommended. The approach presented here constitutes a general analytical scheme to understand materials‐atmosphere interactions occurring across a temperature range. Several issues in furnace design are also discussed from the standpoint of gas‐solid reaction kinetics. These deal with the design of gas‐flow systems that facilitate removal of organic binders.
A. Dziedzic, J. Nijs and J. Szlufcik
Different techniques applied for the fabrication of thick‐film fine lines have been analysed. The basics, achievements, advantages and disadvantages of improved screen…
Different techniques applied for the fabrication of thick‐film fine lines have been analysed. The basics, achievements, advantages and disadvantages of improved screen printing, screen printing with metal masks, the direct writing method, offset printing and photoformed or photoetched thick‐film are presented. In addition, current trends in front metallisation of silicon solar cells are described. Based on a critical review, the use of thick‐film fine lines for this purpose is discussed.
This paper addresses three main technologies of large scale interconnects that have been evaluated at the Microelectronics Department of Crouzet Aerospace for chip and…
This paper addresses three main technologies of large scale interconnects that have been evaluated at the Microelectronics Department of Crouzet Aerospace for chip and wire or LCCCs (Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers). The P/I (Packaging and Interconnect) structures that will be discussed are either ceramic multilayer with MLTF multilayer thick film, and CMC (Cofired Multilayer Ceramic) or advanced PWBs. The paper will present the R&D that has been carried out on MLTF and advanced PWBs and the evaluation programme now in progress for CMC. Test results are given, technology status and next generation interconnects are described and some aerospace applications are presented.
M. Tudanca, R. Gonzalez and N. Ortega
The new Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic process combines the advantages of thick film standard and cofired ceramic technologies for the implementation of high…
The new Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic process combines the advantages of thick film standard and cofired ceramic technologies for the implementation of high interconnection density hybrid circuits, at a reasonable cost. Due to the wide diversity of devices required in the telecommunications field, it is important to have for drilling and scribing a system capable of being easily integrated onto a LAN, in order to reduce the machine preparation time, using all the information already existing in CAD. As laser systems are standard in thick film production, the investments involved to implement a new technology are minimised. This paper describes the use of laser technology for drilling green ceramic to achieve interconnection paths between different levels, manufacturing of screen mask (via metallisation), and scribing of substrates already synthesised. A preliminary characterisation of Telettra's technology follows.
A set of rules is presented for printing thick film resistors, whose implementation minimises losses due to resistors firing too high or too low, and also results in the…
A set of rules is presented for printing thick film resistors, whose implementation minimises losses due to resistors firing too high or too low, and also results in the shortest possible set‐up times. To the best of the authors' knowledge, some of the concepts and relations reported here are nowhere to be found spelled out in the published literature, let alone presented in quantitative form. One example is the relationship between sheet resistance vs resistor length curves and the mesh/emulsion of the screen used to obtain such curves. Another example is the relationship between the choice (or lack of it) of resistors used to set up thickness at the beginning of a print, and the spread in resistance values. Then there are better known relationships, like the dependence of thickness on resistor width or print direction—still no quantitative data are available and the potential relevance of these effects is generally not appreciated. Long set‐up times and yield losses need not exist, as they arise from non‐rigorous printing rules which call for a standard dry thickness (usually 25±3 µm) regardless of resistor dimensions, print direction and ink jar value, and which only call for a range of screen mesh/emulsion values, rather than for specific ones. In fact, for any given sheet resistance vs resistor length curve, only one choice of screen mesh/emulsion and resistor thickness is logically possible. Also reported are experimental data relating resistor thickness to resistor length as a function of screen mesh/emulsion, resistor width and print direction as well as data on sheet resistance as a function of resistor dry thickness. Finally, results from thirty‐eight production runs are reported and discussed.
F. Rotman, D. Navarro and S. Mellul
This paper reports the results of development work conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick film systems through continuous…
This paper reports the results of development work conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick film systems through continuous furnaces. The proposed solution is particularly suitable for industrial production conditions since it allows variations of the material quantity processed per unit time, resulting not only in an improvement in quality but also in productivity. Such improvements have been achieved by using a new gas distribution system which provides both zone control and regulation of oxygen additions in the nitrogen furnace atmosphere. An efficient set‐up of this system has become possible thanks to precise control of the oxygen profile in relation to the temperature cycle, taking into account various inks' characterisation, and owing to an extensive study of the effects of oxygen additions on copper thick film properties. The solution was tested in a muffle‐lined belt furnace with several commercial dielectric and copper inks, and for increasing oxygen additions into the furnace preheat zone. Different sample patterns were designed to test both monolayer and multilayer systems. The test programme includes measurements of resistivity, bondability, solderability, dielectric breakdown voltage and adhesion of copper films on alumina and on dielectric layers before and after ageing. Ink characterisation by thermogravimetry and by several gas analyses has confirmed that the organic vehicle removal mechanism under nitrogen atmospheres doped with oxygen is a burnout. Indeed, significant oxygen consumption occurs within the temperature range of the removal, as a function of the amount of ink processed. Oxygen additions in the furnace burnout zone greatly improve both the dielectric breakdown voltage and the adhesion of copper on alumina and on dielectric (especially after ageing), while sheet resistivity, wire bondability and soft solderability are not altered below a defined O2 level. It is therefore possible to determine an optimum oxygen addition range for which the thick films fired under such conditions will have the best characteristics. This optimum oxygen window is achieved thanks to a new regulation system which operates whenever variations occur in the quantity of paste processed.
The purpose of this paper is to study the workspace and dexterity of a microhexapod which is a 6-degrees of freedom (DOF) parallel compliant manipulator, and also to…
The purpose of this paper is to study the workspace and dexterity of a microhexapod which is a 6-degrees of freedom (DOF) parallel compliant manipulator, and also to investigate its dimensional synthesis to maximize the workspace and the global dexterity index at the same time. Microassembly is so essential in the current industry for manufacturing complicated structures. Most of the micromanipulators suffer from their restricted workspace because of using flexure joints compared to the conventional ones. In addition, the controllability of micromanipulators inside the whole workspace is very vital. Thus, it is very important to select the design parameters in a way that not only maximize the workspace but also its global dexterity index.
Microassembly is so essential in the current industry for manufacturing complicated structures. Most of the micromanipulators suffer from their restricted workspace because of using flexure joints compared to the conventional ones. In addition, the controllability of micromanipulators inside the whole workspace is very vital. Thus, it is very important to select the design parameters in a way that not only maximize the workspace but also its global dexterity index.
It has been shown that the proposed procedure for the workspace calculation can considerably speed the required calculations. The optimization results show that a converged-diverged configuration of pods and an increase in the difference between the moving and the stationary platforms’ radii cause the global dexterity index to increase and the workspace to decrease.
The proposed algorithm for the workspace analysis is very important, especially when it is an objective function of an optimization problem based on the search method. In addition, using screw theory can simply construct the homogeneous Jacobian matrix. The proposed methodology can be used for any other micromanipulator.