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This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of…
This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of industrial and economic democracy, which centres around the establishment of a new sector of employee‐controlled enterprises, is presented. The proposal would retain the mix‐ed economy, but transform it into a much better “mixture”, with increased employee‐power in all sectors. While there is much of enduring value in our liberal western way of life, gross inequalities of wealth and power persist in our society.
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to…
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover specific articles devoted to certain topics. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume III, in addition to the annotated list of articles as the two previous volumes, contains further features to help the reader. Each entry within has been indexed according to the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus and thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid information retrieval. Each article has its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. The first Volume of the Bibliography covered seven journals published by MCB University Press. This Volume now indexes 25 journals, indicating the greater depth, coverage and expansion of the subject areas concerned.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient algorithm based on a non-linear accepting threshold to solve the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) considering…
The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient algorithm based on a non-linear accepting threshold to solve the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) considering multiple redundancy strategies. In addition to the components reliability, multiple redundancy strategies are simultaneously considered to vary the reliability of the system. The goal is to determine the optimal selection of elements, redundancy levels and redundancy strategy, which maximizes the system reliability under various system-level constraints.
The mixed RAP considering the use of active and standby components at the subsystem level belongs to the class of NP-hard problems involving selection of elements and redundancy levels, to maximize a specific system performance under a given set of physical and budget constraints. Generally, the authors recourse to meta-heuristic algorithms to solve this type of optimization problem in a reasonable computational time, especially for large-size problems. A non-linear threshold accepting algorithm (NTAA) is developed to solve the tackled optimization problem. Numerical results for test problems from previous research are reported and analyzed to assess the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
The comparison with the best solutions obtained in previous studies, namely: genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, memetic algorithm and the particle swarm optimization for 33 different instances of the problem, demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm in finding for all considered instances, a high-quality solution in a minimum computational time.
Considering multiple redundancy strategies helps to achieve higher reliability levels but increases the complexity of the obtained solution leading to infeasible systems in term of physical design. Technological constraints must be integrated into the model to provide a more comprehensive and realistic approach.
Designing high performant systems which meet customer requirements, under different economic and functional constraints is the main challenge faced by the manufacturers. The proposed algorithm aims to provide a superior solution of the reliability optimization problem by considering the possibility to adopt multiple redundancy strategies at the subsystem level in a minimum computational time.
A NTAA is expanded to the RAP considering multiple redundancy strategies at the subsystem level subject to weight and cost constraints. A procedure based on a penalized objective function is developed to encourage the algorithm to explore toward the feasible solutions area. By outperforming well-known solving technique, the NTAA provides a powerful tool to reliability designers of complex systems where different varieties of redundancies can be considered to achieve high-reliability systems.
The March issue of the Journal of Chemical Technology contains the following article, with every word of which we cordially agree. It is gratifying to find that there is one—if only one—of our scientific Journals which has the courage and the patriotism to speak out and to do so in vigorous terms. The indictment of the flabby persons belonging to the Chemical Profession who by their ineptitude and inertia are condoning the bestial crimes of the modern Huns is well‐timed and thoroughly deserved.
The general quality of milk supplied by the cows will also affect the question, and in this connection it may be noted that Mr. Lehmann stated to the Departmental Committee that Dutch cows do not produce a milk so rich in fat as these of Switzerland; an examination of the figures given tends to corroborate this view. Dutch milks appear to require concentration to a higher degree in order to provide as large a proportion of fat as Swiss or Norwegian made milk.
A central element in the shift to a ‘personalised’ care system in the UK is the opportunity for disabled people to hold and manage budgets for the purchase of care and…
A central element in the shift to a ‘personalised’ care system in the UK is the opportunity for disabled people to hold and manage budgets for the purchase of care and support, to replace local authority services. The delivery mechanisms of ‘Direct Payments’ and ‘Individual Budgets’ have allowed many disabled people to control their care and support better, and have promoted their social inclusion. However, the particular contexts and issues for people with learning disabilities in holding personal funding have been little considered. The paper sets out the broad themes of the introduction of personalised care, and examines the limited use by people with learning disabilities of Direct Payments and the subsequent development of Individual Budgets. The paper considers the challenges to the nature, spaces and relations of care commonly used by people with learning disabilities that personal budgets present, in particular for those with more severe disabilities. The paper concludes by suggesting ways in which people with learning disabilities can use personal budgets, whilst maintaining the collective relations and spaces of caring desired by many.
Elsewhere in this issue we review the First (Interim) Report of the Joint Survey of Pesticide Residues in Foodstuffs, published by the Association of Public Analysts (Editor: Mr. D. G. Forbes, B.Sc., F.R.I.C.). The Scheme, planned with meticulous care and executed with the best spirit of co‐operation, sets a pattern for this type of investigation; there are other problems which could be studied in the same manner. Such a response from the bodies representing the major local authorities of the country and their food and drugs administrations—inspectors, food sampling officers, public analysts—is evidence of the concern felt over this particular form of contamination of food. It constitutes a public health problem of world‐wide dimensions. The annual reports of public analysts show that many are examining foods outside the Survey lists now that gas/liquid chromatography, spectroscopy and other highly refined methods of analysis are available to them.
Some months ago a national organisation established to keep a watchful eye on the Nation's diet expressed concern over the eating trends of people in what to them appeared to be developing inbalances of necessary nutrient factors and the inadeuacy not so much of calories and energy values but in the nature and quality of main food factors. It was recommended that the national diet should be improved, but the authorities pointed to the National Food Survey results to show that the diet was not deficient; that the average daily intake of protein, vitamins, minerals and overall energy requirements were satisfied; all of which is true for the not‐too‐generous levels set. Even the pensioner households included in the Survey sample appear well‐fed. What causes concern is the year‐by‐year decrease in staple foods consumed—milk, red meat, bread, fresh vegetables—and the heavy reliance on refined, processed foods. In its annual reports on NFS reviews, the BFJ has almost monotonously referred to this downward trend. Individual NFS Reports do not reveal any serious deficiencies, as yet, but in the trend over the years—and herein lies the real value of the Survey and its data—few if any of the changes have been for the better; movements in food groups have tended to be downwards. If these trends continue, the time must surely come when there will be real deficiencies; that substitution within a food group cannot make good essential foods severely rationed by high prices.