Search results1 – 10 of over 1000
THIS subject would be irrelevant to airmen but for the facts that, firstly, the Japanese war is clearly a more amphibious affair than war nearer home, and secondly, the Japanese (according to British experience, doubtless confirmed by the Americans) will go to extraordinary lengths to destroy even one man and have no scruples over emptying their bombracks among surviving airmen in the water if there is no better target.
William R. Freudenburg conceived “the double diversion” as the simultaneous process of diverting environmental resources or rights shared by all to a small group of social…
William R. Freudenburg conceived “the double diversion” as the simultaneous process of diverting environmental resources or rights shared by all to a small group of social actors, which was made possible by a second diversion – the acceptance of the taken-for-granted assumption that environmental harms benefit the common good. In doing so, Freudenburg was among the first to note the importance of looking at not only the distribution of environmental harms but also environmental privileges. In this chapter, we extend the conceptualization of the double diversion to include an instance where rather than framing environmental harm as being a public good, environmental action is framed as benefiting the public writ large, while larger issues of environmental injustice are ignored. In particular, we look at the disproportionate distribution of the urban tree canopy in Worcester, Massachusetts, and the framing of the mitigation of the environmental threat of the Asian Longhorned Beetle as a problem for the commons. Through an analysis of media, we demonstrate that organizations and social actors who have tried to address the effects of this particular ecological threat have nonetheless ignored previous disproportionalities in the environment–society relationship.
We examine the stability of market prices for 35 technology and 35 industrial stocks for the period December 31, 1993 to October 31, 2002. A phase portrait plot of the…
We examine the stability of market prices for 35 technology and 35 industrial stocks for the period December 31, 1993 to October 31, 2002. A phase portrait plot of the detrended log prices and de‐meaned returns of the two sectors shows a chaotic pattern in the stock prices indicating the presence of nonlinearity. However, when we compute the Lyapunov exponents, negative values are obtained. This shows that the price fluctuations for the 70 stocks result primarily from diffusion processes rather than from nonlinear dynamics. We evaluate forecast errors from a naïve model, a neural network, and ARMA models and find that the forecast errors are correlated with average changes in closed‐end fund discounts and other sentiment indexes. These results support an investor sentiment explanation for the closed‐end fund puzzle and behavioral theories of investor overreaction.
The purpose of this paper is to identify how organizations can evaluate the green product deletion decision within an environmentally sustainable consumption and…
The purpose of this paper is to identify how organizations can evaluate the green product deletion decision within an environmentally sustainable consumption and production environment through a hybrid multistage multiple criteria evaluation approach.
This paper proposes a decision-making model by integrating “soft computation” using neighborhood rough set theory, fuzzy cluster means, and cumulative prospect theory. Literature is used to identify various factors for the decision environment. An illustrative problem provides insights into the methodology and application.
The results indicate that green products can be evaluated from both their relative environmental burdens and benefits. Sustainable consumption and production factors that play a role in this multifactor decision are identified. The results show that a comprehensive evaluation can capture an effective overall picture on which green product(s) to delete.
The opaqueness of the proposed methodology may cause less acceptance by management. The methodology made a number of assumptions related to the data. An actual application of the tool rather than just an illustrative example is needed.
The main contribution of this study is the novel integration of supply chain perspectives, both upstream (supply and production) and downstream (demand/usage), with green product deletion decision making. The hybrid multistage technique has advantages of being able to incorporate many factors that have a variety of quantitative and qualitative characteristics to help managers address green product deletion issues as well as its impact on greening of supply chains and organizational environmental sustainability. This paper adds value to product deletion, supply chain management, and sustainable production and consumption literatures.
A hybrid formulation is proposed that incorporates finite element substructuring and Galerkin boundary elements in the numerical solution of Poisson's or Laplace's…
A hybrid formulation is proposed that incorporates finite element substructuring and Galerkin boundary elements in the numerical solution of Poisson's or Laplace's equation with open boundaries. Substructuring the problem can dramatically decreases the size of matrix to be solved. It is shown that the boundary integration that results from application of Green's first theorem to the weighted residual statement can be used to advantage by imposing potential and flux continuity through the contour which separates the interior and exterior regions. In fact, the boundary integration is of exactly the same form as that found in Galerkin boundary elements.
This paper discusses statistical analyses of the effect of reductions in opening hours on book issues of public library authorities (PLAs). Monthly issue statistics over a…
This paper discusses statistical analyses of the effect of reductions in opening hours on book issues of public library authorities (PLAs). Monthly issue statistics over a three‐ to four‐year period for twenty‐six libraries in four PLAs (Sheffield, Ealing, Hereford and Worcester, and Lancashire) were analysed using graphic analysis and time series modelling. The results, with one or two exceptions, showed little, if any, significant relationship between reductions in hours and book issues. There were indications that other variables such as seasonality, patterns of opening hours and the accessibility of other libraries might be masking any impact. Annual issue and book fund statistics over a twenty‐three year period for libraries in Sheffield PLA were also analysed. This latter investigation suggests that reductions in the level of issues, related to both opening hours and materials expenditure, are discernible after a period of about two years. One model showed that the impact of opening hours cuts may be discernible within a year, materials fund cuts after a lag of one to two years. The study demonstrates clearly the difficulties involved in using statistical data to make accurate predictions of the impact of individual reductionsin opening hours on book issues. It identifies a number of variables which may affect the impact of reductions.
Zoning is typically deemed a negative‐sum game accompanied by a call for the establishment of a market for development rights. Using a formal one‐stage game of a typical zoning lottery, I demonstrate that zoning is not exclusively negative‐sum, but can also be positive‐sum, even with internalized social costs.
This paper presents a computationally efficient numerical solutionscheme to solve transient heat conduction problems using the boundary elementmethod (BEM) without volume…
This paper presents a computationally efficient numerical solution scheme to solve transient heat conduction problems using the boundary element method (BEM) without volume discretization. Traditionally, a transient solution using BEM is very computer intensive due to the excessive numerical integration requirements at each time increment. In the present work a numerical solution scheme based on the separation of time and space integrals in the boundary integral equation through the use of an appropriate series expansion of the integrand (incomplete gamma function) is presented. The space integrals are evaluated only once in the beginning and within each time increment the additional integrals are obtained from the previously evaluated space integrals by a simple calculation. Three‐dimensional applications are provided to compare the proposed strategy with that used traditionally. The CPU requirements are reduced substantially. The solution scheme presented allows for dynamically changing the time step size as the solution evolves. This feature is not practical in the traditional schemes based on boundary discretization only.
The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are standards of identity and are not to be confused with standards of quality or grade; they are so framed as to exclude substances not mentioned in the definition and in each instance imply that the product is clean and sound. These definitions and standards include those published in S. R. A., F. D. 2, revision 4, and those adopted October 28, 1936.
This survey of psychology periodicals was begun whilst the library of the British Psychological Society was still in Nottingham, and was intended to reduce the…
This survey of psychology periodicals was begun whilst the library of the British Psychological Society was still in Nottingham, and was intended to reduce the difficulties of the research worker in psychology in London. Thirty‐nine London libraries most helpfully supplied information on their holdings in seventy‐nine selected periodicals. Librarians also suggested other periodicals for inclusion in the list, and, as a growing number of individuals became interested, the list of periodicals grew during the last two years to its present total of 179.