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The technological development and characteristics of an innovative process and composition for immersion plating and fusing of a solderable tin/lead deposit over copper…
The technological development and characteristics of an innovative process and composition for immersion plating and fusing of a solderable tin/lead deposit over copper are discussed. The process offers a viable alternative to hot air solder levelling, electrodeposition/selective stripping, or inhibitor coatings for maintaining solderability of printed wiring boards. A flat, uniform solderable tin/lead coating on all feature surfaces and edges is achieved. A number of important benefits are derived. The ability to coat any copper surface uniformly, including fine pitch features, is substantially enhanced. Solderability is improved because of a thick, flat, co‐planar and uniform tin/lead deposit on all copper surfaces. Typical thickness and composition of the fused alloy are 150 to 300 microinches (4 to 8 microns) and 65 to 75% tin.
The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP…
The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) at the local level, particularly in peripheral Europe where CP-UDP’s top-down standards have poor dissemination and acceptance. This paper debates how local partnerships can help reduce crime and how a CP-UDP-based model can be introduced into municipal planning.
The paper discusses the challenge of CP-UDP in the framework of a post-crisis Europe and Europe 2020. Because there is a large gap between theory and practice, lack of a shared holistic approach, and scepticism, or lack of knowledge, of public authorities, at local-level planning professionals and the police have devised bottom-up initiatives based on interdisciplinary partnerships with the community. The paper describes, discusses and compares the implementation of such approaches in Lisbon (Portugal) and Vilnius (Lithuania).
The paper addresses the processes and challenges of establishing synergies and working relationships between police officers, public officials and the community, and it discusses six main causes for its (un)success. When these conditions were met, crime and social constraints reduced.
Lessons learned are deemed crucial to disseminate knowledge and best practices, paving the way for proper top-down policies and planning legislations in these and other countries.
This paper analyses the potentialities and shortcomings of local-level implementation of CP-UDP strategies as an alternative to failed top-down strategies in two realities mostly unknown of the international scientific community. The case study material is previously unpublished internationally.