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The continuing trend towards increasingly compact circuitry places rigorous demands on the thermal management of electronic assemblies. The problem is particularly severe…
The continuing trend towards increasingly compact circuitry places rigorous demands on the thermal management of electronic assemblies. The problem is particularly severe in power circuitry with integrated control. A number of advanced cooling mechanisms and packaging methods are available, but for consumer products the cost of these solutions is prohibitive. Traditionally, thermal management has been achieved by the attachment of large metal heatsinks, but this introduces further manufacturing processes during assembly. It is demonstrated that efficient heatsinking can conveniently be achieved through the substrate, due to both improvements in, and shortening of, the conduction paths. When used as the final level of packaging in a hybrid assembly, coated steel substrates offer an improvement in thermal performance, in comparison with alumina. The optimum thermal performance is, however, provided by polymer coated aluminium substrate materials.
In October, 1902, the Secretary of the Mineral Water Bottle Exchange and Trade Protection Society addressed a letter to the Clerk of the London County Council stating that aerated and mineral waters are, in many instances, manufactured under insanitary conditions, and suggesting that the Council should take action in the matter. The Public Health Committee of the Council thereupon directed that a number of premises where aerated waters are manufactured should be inspected, and, in February, 1903, Dr. Shirley Murphy, the Medical Officer to the Council, presented a report drawn up by Dr. Hamer, the Assistant Medical Officer, by whom the inspections ordered were carried out. Dr. Hamer came to the conclusion that it was most desirable in the interests of the consumer that the manufacture of aerated waters in London should be regulated and controlled. The quantity of aerated water sold in London is very large, and Dr. Hamer's inspection of numerous premises showed that there are many possible sources of dangerous contamination of the water used during the process of the manufacture. We are in a position to state that Dr. Hamer was thoroughly justified in drawing the conclusions which appear in his report. The enormous growth in popularity during recent years of aerated and mineral waters, while unquestionably fraught with a most important influence for good, has brought a number of firms into existence who manufacture more or less inferior and, in some instances, positively injurious and dangerous waters, and who place their products on the market at “cutting” prices, with the result that the honest and careful manufacturer on the one hand, and the public on the other, are made to suffer. Unfair “competition” of the kind referred to exists, of course, in every trade, and only by the authoritative approval of the good and, by implication, the authoritative condemnation of the bad, can such “competition” be effectively checked. But where the health of the consumer is directly threatened or affected, as it particularly is by the supply of inferior or actually injurious aerated waters, the necessity for adequate regulation and control is immediately obvious. The matter cannot be dealt with under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts. It is not one involving analysis only but, so far as analysis is concerned, the provisions of the Acts make it impossible to carry out the analytical investigations that would be required. In addition to the official registration of all manufacturers of mineral and aerated waters, a combination of inspection and analysis by an authoritative bedy of some kind, or by a recognised individual authority, is necessary to supply a sufficient guarantee to the public and efficient protection to the manufacturer and vendor of pure and high‐class waters.
States that power stations have utilized automation to achieve effective and acceptable environmental levels in the operation of power stations. Lists the advantages to be…
States that power stations have utilized automation to achieve effective and acceptable environmental levels in the operation of power stations. Lists the advantages to be gained from environmental monitoring and gives an overview of established dust and smoke sensor techniques. States the four basic methods which can be used to measure the concentration of gaseous species in a combustion gas and reviews gas measuring techniques under development.
With the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), the status of teaching has been moved towards the centre of concerns in the UK higher education (HE…
With the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), the status of teaching has been moved towards the centre of concerns in the UK higher education (HE) sector. This interest develops further the notion of teaching excellence created through various institutional and sectoral schemes such as the Higher Education Academy (HEA) fellowship. Whilst excellence schemes and the TEF all highlight the importance of teaching, they also run the danger of reducing it to lists and simplified proxies.
This chapter argues that reductive characterisations of teaching, through metrics supporting the TEF, such as the national student survey, or ‘idealised’ descriptions of the foundational aspects of ‘excellent practice’, all lead to partial accounts of the teaching process. Such characterisations might lead to creeping performativity and increasing organisational attempts to control. An alternative account of teaching is proposed based on complexity theory. This sees teaching as emergent, multifaceted and contextually based. It refutes notions of ‘best practice’ and argues that any attempt to capture ‘excellent practice’ is to reduce the holistic nature of the processes that bring teaching, learning, curriculum and assessment together.
This chapter critically engages with ways that teaching excellence has been operationalised in practice. Specific focus is on developing individual teaching excellence…
This chapter critically engages with ways that teaching excellence has been operationalised in practice. Specific focus is on developing individual teaching excellence, rewarding of success and recognition of teaching excellence and the building of evidence around what works in teaching for the benefits of students. We consider the daily interactions with students that form the basis of frameworks of teaching excellence before arguing that operationalisations of teaching excellence are highly context specific and operate at the level of institutions and the whole higher education sector. We discuss the criteria that underpin teaching excellence awards. This includes governance as well as development frameworks. After considering the complex links between research and teaching and the importance of the disciplinary dimension of teaching excellence, the chapter finally looks at the skills and attributes commonly associated with individual teacher excellence and argues that these are exceptionally difficult to pin down let alone measure. It concludes with some reflections on some of the challenges faced by institutions as they seek to develop the quality of teaching whilst meeting the requirements of the TEF.
This chapter provides an introduction to the problematic notion of teaching excellence in higher education, which is a focus of this collection. It draws on an extensive…
This chapter provides an introduction to the problematic notion of teaching excellence in higher education, which is a focus of this collection. It draws on an extensive review of relevant literature to explore how teaching excellence is defined and conceptualised and what factors underpin different conceptions. It notes that definitions are disparate, often context-specific and are influenced by a range of different ‘players’. It then examines how different conceptualisations play out at the macro, meso and micro levels and highlights the tensions between performative and transformative notions of teaching excellence. It notes the move from ‘surface’ to ‘deep’ excellence and efforts to articulate a more holistic conception of teaching excellence that emphasises the relational, emotional and moral dimensions of teaching. It suggests that, rather than seeking singular definitions and conceptions, it may be more useful to talk of ‘teaching excellences’, to reflect a stratified and plural sector, a diverse student body and different disciplinary families. Equally, it argues for further investigation of the intersections of teaching excellence with other key drivers of institutional change, such as student engagement and well-being, inclusion and diversity, widening participation and retention and success.
YORKSHIRE‐based Kluber Lubrication Great Britain Ltd welcomed nearly 50 guests to the opening recently of their new offices and depot at Hough Mills, Northawrum on the outskirts of Halifax. It is from this town that German Kluber grease products have been distributed for some 13 years. James H. Heal & Co Ltd, of Halifax, originally had the agency and from the business so generated the present Klüber Lubrication Great Britain Ltd was formed five years ago, with James Heal as shareholders.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performances of a resolution scheme able to follow the dynamics of brain tissue properties in combined ElectroEncefaloGraphic…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performances of a resolution scheme able to follow the dynamics of brain tissue properties in combined ElectroEncefaloGraphic (EEG) – MagnetoEncefaloGraphic (MEG) techniques for the brain analysis, minimizing the computation burden.
The estimation process in combined EEG‐MEG is performed by a Moore‐Penrose pseudo‐inverse computation. This is affected by the uncertain knowledge of the living tissues' electric properties. In principle, it is possible to estimate those properties from the EEG‐MEG signals. The estimation process becomes in this case non‐linear. A resolution scheme is proposed, based on the exploitation of the different dynamics characterizing sources and tissues properties.
The proposed resolution scheme provides a reasonable estimate of the sources for a computationally affordable frequency of non‐liner estimations.
The proposed approach has not been tested yet on experimental data, and as such, its sensitivity to environmental uncertainty is not known yet.
The proposed strategy can be easily implemented to perform realistic measurement processing.
The paper presents a novel strategy to estimate tissues properties and EEG‐MEG signal sources based on the exploitation of their different dynamics, possibly taking advantages from an impedance tomography preliminary analysis for the tissue properties dynamics.
The “open‐door” policy started by the late Deng Xiao Ping has not only been maintained since his death but under the new Chinese leadership it has been encouraged even…
The “open‐door” policy started by the late Deng Xiao Ping has not only been maintained since his death but under the new Chinese leadership it has been encouraged even further. Because of this China has seen an unprecedented number of tourist arrivals which in turn has led to an explosion in the construction of hotels. However, due to poor vocational educational facilities and staff for hospitality subjects there is a dearth of qualified hotel operatives. This work examines Chinese hotel employees’ perceptions of various elements of vocational education associated with the Chinese hotel industry. This was done by asking staff to rank their feelings on a bi‐polar scale and the results examined using Kelly’s Repertory Grid principal components analysis.
In 1997‐98, a series of stochastic events in the Asia‐Pacific region contributed to the end of a long period of tourism growth and 1998 saw contractions in tourist numbers…
In 1997‐98, a series of stochastic events in the Asia‐Pacific region contributed to the end of a long period of tourism growth and 1998 saw contractions in tourist numbers in several countries of the region. Extensive forest fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra prompted cancellation of many visits to the East Asia region, even to destinations unaffected by the resulting widespread havoc. The Chinese take‐over of Hong Kong had severe ramifications for tourist visitation to the former British territory, with heavy discounting evident in attempts to sustain tourist visitation. Subsequently, from July 1997, the most serious impacts began with the currency collapse in Thailand, the beginning of what is now referred to as the Asian Economic Crisis, affecting many countries in East Asia. Indonesia has been the most severely affected. Escalating economic and political crises there have seen the virtual cessation of inbound tourism outside Bali. Then the coup d’état in Cambodia effectively halted visitation to what had been the region’s second fastest growing destination country. Against all these factors, an era of growth has turned into a period of contraction, which is now presenting challenges for managers, investors and policy‐makers interested in tourism across the Asia‐Pacific region.