Influenced by postmodern and poststructuralist perspectives, cultural studies and humanities researchers have critiqued ways that old age plays out in lived realities ā including effects of ageism and power loss in both private and public spheres. Generally, older people are perceived negatively and as less powerful than younger people. Age tends to trump most other social identity dimensions in negative ways so that aging is an eventuality that many people the world over dread or fear.
In recent years, age has been treated as a social, political and economic issue that draws from anxiety and fear associated with the advancing life course. Some nations outlaw age discrimination in the workplace, but others do not. So, while improved sanitation, diet and health care means that many people live longer, they still face enduring negative stereotypes about aging processes. Chapter 8 sharpens the focus on social identity marked by age and dimensions that overlap with age ā in the larger social milieu and in organizational contexts. Several theoretical ties bind this chapterās exploration of age and aging, including critical/cultural studies, feminism, critical gerontology, and postmodern and poststructuralist perspectives. To explore research on aging and identity, this chapter is divided into subthemes: sociocultural perspectives on and theorizing about aging, age categories and birth cohorts, aging effects for organizations, aging effects for employees, and age with other social identity intersectionalities.
IāV characteristics of GaAs nāiān structures are calculated by considering impact ionization of carriers. Impact ionization at reverseābiased nāi junction becomes a cause…
IāV characteristics of GaAs nāiān structures are calculated by considering impact ionization of carriers. Impact ionization at reverseābiased nāi junction becomes a cause of steep current rise when an acceptor density in the iālayer is high. It is shown that an optimum acceptor density exists to keep a good isolation. Photoconduction transients of GaAs nāiān structures are also simulated, and are shown to be strongly affected by existence of nāi junctions.
While interest in and demand for entrepreneurial universities has gained prominence in recent years (e.g. Clark, 1998; Etzkowitz, 2008; Thorp and Goldstein, 2010), there…
While interest in and demand for entrepreneurial universities has gained prominence in recent years (e.g. Clark, 1998; Etzkowitz, 2008; Thorp and Goldstein, 2010), there is minimal research on the learning experiences and career-making events that transform traditional faculty members into faculty entrepreneurs who are able to successfully apply their research knowledge toward endeavors that intersect with the private market. As a result, the purpose of this paper is to understand, from the perspective of faculty entrepreneurs, the lived learning experiences that contributed to their development from traditional faculty member to faculty entrepreneur. Specifically, this study explored the question on how faculty members who were founders or co-founders of a business learned āto work in entrepreneurial waysā (Rae and Carswell, 2000, p. 220). In general, individuals who are interested in pursuing a career as a professor are not generally socialized during graduate school to engage in technology transfer activities or encouraged to start businesses (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2008). This study also sought to understand how faculty entrepreneurs learn to persist in an organizational culture that does not always support entrepreneurial endeavors outside the scope of researching, teaching, and service.
A phenomenological qualitative research design was employed using in-depth, semi-structured interview questions. Entrepreneurial learning was the theoretical framework that grounded this study.
The data analysis process revealed six themes which offer insights on the learning experiences, contextual factors, and patterns of behavior that helped the participants to develop and to persist as faculty entrepreneurs.
First, the data were dependent upon the learning experiences identified and articulated by the faculty entrepreneurs. There is a possibility that significant learning or career-making experiences were omitted or unintentionally not reported by the participants. Second, the author used a broad net when searching and recruiting for faculty entrepreneurs. Any faculty member who was in a tenure-track position and who had founded or co-founded an organization was eligible to participate in this study. However, the data analysis process may have yielded different results if the author had elected to study faculty entrepreneurs from a specific academic discipline or if the author had chosen to only interview faculty entrepreneurs who had founded a specific type of business. Third, this study focussed only on tenured faculty members who are currently involved with the businesses that they founded or co-founded. Subsequently, this study did not include any faculty members whose entrepreneurial pursuits were unsuccessful (i.e. closing the business). There is the possibility that former faculty entrepreneurs may have had similar learning experiences as the individuals who were interviewed for this study.
The findings may be instructive for traditional faculty members who are interested in applying their research findings and expertise with an entrepreneurial endeavor such as starting a business. In addition, these findings may be useful for higher education administrators who seek to cultivate an entrepreneurial learning environment in their institutions and for future researchers who want to expand the study of faculty entrepreneurs.
There is a gap in the literature on how traditional faculty members learn to couple their research knowledge and expertise with an entrepreneurial endeavor such as starting a small business. In addition, there has been minimal research that delineates how the faculty entrepreneur comes into existence at the individual level (Clarysse et al., 2011; Pilegaard et al., 2010). Subsequently, this is one of the first phenomenological qualitative research studies to examine the lived learning experiences of faculty entrepreneurs.
As part of the selection process for a computer system for Sandwell Libraries, we invited the three suppliers we had shortlisted to demonstrate their systems to staff. The demonstrations were meant to have various purposes:
When entrepreneurs create new ventures, they struggle with making consequential decisions under severe restrictions such as tight deadlines, limited resources, and lack of…
When entrepreneurs create new ventures, they struggle with making consequential decisions under severe restrictions such as tight deadlines, limited resources, and lack of information. Making challenging decisions inherently requires creativity as entrepreneurs improvise and work around the limitations they face. Under these conditions, entrepreneurs resort to their heuristics and biases instead of rational decision models. Entrepreneurs employ ā sometimes for better and sometimes for worse ā a myriad of rule-setting heuristics and experience-based biases to navigate the difficult path between novelty and utility. In this chapter, the authors answer Shepherd, Williams, and Patzeltās (2015) call for research into how entrepreneurs leverage heuristics and biases in decision-making and the benefits they gain as a result. The authors explore how entrepreneurs introduce heuristics and biases at different stages of their decision-making process using a qualitative study of 21 new ventures. The results attest to entrepreneursā ingenuity and creativity in managing complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty.
This chapter shares work carried out to use the discipline of Informing Science as a lens to carry out an analysis of the discipline of entrepreneurship. Focusing first at…
This chapter shares work carried out to use the discipline of Informing Science as a lens to carry out an analysis of the discipline of entrepreneurship. Focusing first at the level of the entrepreneurship discipline itself, recently advanced frameworks for practice-as-entrepreneurial-learning and for the scholarship of teaching and learning for entrepreneurship (SoTLE) are built upon using Gillās work on academic informing systems to develop a framework that encourages viewing the entrepreneurship discipline as a system that informs entrepreneurial practice. While this may sound self-evident, we will explore how it implies something quite different from the teachingāresearchāscholarship paradigm to which most of us are accustomed.
DISCUSSION The chromium coating thicknesses used in this work were comparable to those used commercially, being between 70 and 170 micrometres approximately. Even after…
DISCUSSION The chromium coating thicknesses used in this work were comparable to those used commercially, being between 70 and 170 micrometres approximately. Even after oxidation for the temperatures and times stated the chromium concentrations at the metalāoxide interface were between 20% and 60%. These concentrations fell steadily to approximately 13% over the approximate depth stated above before reducing sharply to zero at what was the ferriteāaustenite transformation boundary during the coating process. This is contrary to the structure observed in aluminized stainless steels where a complex structure is produced due to the existence of intermetallic phases. Hence during all the oxidation experiments performed the chromium level of the surface offered for oxidation was never below 13% and complete oxidative breakdown therefore did not occur, excluding spalling effects. Many workers have shown that the oxidation rate of ironāchromium alloys initially drops sharply with increasing chromium but eventually reaches a minimum of about 20% chromium and then rises for more chromium rich alloys. From the graph of oxidation rate in pure oxygen against chromium content given by Mortimer et al., from 13% chromium to 100% chromium the oxidation rate increases by approximately 6 Ć 10ā9 g.cmā2 sec.ā1 It is reasonable to assume that for a diffusion coating the oxidation behaviour will be markedly affected by the composition at its outer surface layer and much less by the composition gradient. If oxidation was continued for sufficiently long periods the latter could affect the general availability of chromium ions for the oxidation process. Over the first 5?m the average chromium levels were between 63% and 20% for the chromised and chromeāaluminized respectively. From the figures given by Mortimer et al the oxidation rate of the 63% chromium coating would be expected to be 0.5 Ć 10ā9 g.cmā2 secā1 greater than the 20% chromium coating on the chromeāaluminized specimens at 600Ā°C, on the basis of the chromium content alone. The results obtained here vary in this manner, hence it is reasonable to conclude that the general oxidation behaviour of the coatings will be very similar to that of pure ironāchromium alloys containing the same chromium content as in the outer few micrometres of the respective coatings. Even though the true surface area is greater with diffusion treated specimens their oxidation rates are lower that for the corresponding pure alloys.
WHEN the Public Library was in its infancy it was looked upon as being a mere storehouse, and the librarian a distributor of books. The librarian of today, however, must not only guard and preserve the books in his charge, but make them and their contents, as far as possible, accessible to all those who desire to consult them.