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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1973

R.B. SHERBOURNE

AS CONCORDE HAS GROWN considerably in size and capacity since the prototype, the air conditioning system has correspondingly been revised and together with refinements to…

Abstract

AS CONCORDE HAS GROWN considerably in size and capacity since the prototype, the air conditioning system has correspondingly been revised and together with refinements to the air bleed and temperature control aspects of the system now represents as nearly as possible the final production configuration.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2004

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre, Joseph Yvard Fede and Marsha Mullings

Mental disorders collectively account for 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability and represent more than 15% of the overall burden of disease in the United States …

Abstract

Mental disorders collectively account for 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability and represent more than 15% of the overall burden of disease in the United States (SAMHSA, 1999). The first Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health reported that in 1999 nearly 20 million American adults (9.5% of the population) were clinically depressed and that, at any one time, 1 in every 20 employees is experiencing depression (SAMHSA, 1999). The indirect costs of mental disorders to the American economy amounted to an estimated $79 billion in 1990, with loss of productivity because of illness accounting for about 80% of these costs ($63 billion) (Rice & Miller, 1996). Additionally, significant costs may accrue from decreased productivity due to symptoms that sap energy, affect work habits, and cause problems with concentration, memory, and decision-making (SAMHSA, 1999).

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The Economics of Gender and Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-111-8

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Sara LeGrand, Teresa L. Scheid and Kathryn Whetten

This chapter examines the associations between gender, social support, and health outcomes for individuals living with HIV disease. We include social integration and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the associations between gender, social support, and health outcomes for individuals living with HIV disease. We include social integration and social isolation as structural measures of social support as well as perceived social support and social conflict as functional measures of social support. We include both mental health and physical health outcomes, which are too often studied in isolation of each other.

Methodology/approach

Data are from the Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast (CHASE) study; this study reports on baseline data from 611 participants collected from 2001 to 2002. We first examined differences by gender and race, and then used blocked linear regression to determine the additive effects of the social support variables on both mental and physical health outcomes while controlling for potential confounders.

Findings

There were notable differences in the significance and strength of social support variables in health outcome models for men and women. Unlike men, social conflict was the strongest predictor of greater psychological distress and poorer physical health-related quality of life among women.

Research limitations/implications

While the results from this study contribute to a greater understanding of gender differences in the relationships between social support and health outcomes, the data used for this study are limited to those living with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast.

Originality/value

Our findings suggest that social conflict may be more detrimental for the health of women than men.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2004

Carole Roan Gresenz and Roland Sturm

It is well known that mental health disorders cause substantial functional limitations and disability (Surgeon General, 1999). Less well known is the central role that…

Abstract

It is well known that mental health disorders cause substantial functional limitations and disability (Surgeon General, 1999). Less well known is the central role that mental health plays in economic disparities. The prevalence of depressive disorders is almost 3 times as high among individuals in the bottom 20% than among individuals in the top 20% of the income distribution, a much steeper gradient than for hypertension, heart disease, arthritis, chronic pain, or the number of medical problems (Sturm & Gresenz, 2002). In addition, individuals with mental disorders are less likely to have savings than individuals with physical health problems and the disparity widens with advancing age (Gresenz & Sturm, 2000).

Details

The Economics of Gender and Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-111-8

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Adam J. Vanhove, Tiffany Brutus and Kristin A. Sowden

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions…

Abstract

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions over the evaluative rigor of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of this literature, rating each relevant study (k = 111) on five evaluative rigor scales (type of control group, approach to participant assignment, outcome quality, number of measurement time points, and follow-up distality). The most frequently coded values on three of the five scales (control group type, participant assignment, and follow-up distality) were those indicating the lowest level of operationally defined rigor. Logistic regression results indicate that the evaluative rigor of intervention studies has largely remained consistent over time, with exceptions indicating that rigor has decreased. Analyses among seven military sub-populations indicate that interventions conducted among soldiers completing basic training, soldiers returning from combat deployment, and combat veterans have had, on average, the greatest evaluative rigor. However, variability in mean scores across evaluative rigor scales within sub-populations highlights the unique methodological hurdles common to different military settings. Recommendations for better standardizing the intervention evaluation process are discussed.

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Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2014

Marta B. Rodríguez-Galán and Luis M. Falcón

To examine aging Puerto Ricans’ experiences with and perceptions of depression treatment.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine aging Puerto Ricans’ experiences with and perceptions of depression treatment.

Methodology/approach

In-depth analysis of eight exemplary cases from ethnographic interviews with a subsample of 16 aging Puerto Ricans in the Boston area who are part of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.

Findings

The results show that respondents were resistant to accepting pharmacological treatment for their depression, and they often characterized antidepressants as “dope.” Moreover, they claimed that in addition to their health problems, social stressors such as financial strain, lack of jobs, housing problems, and social isolation are triggering or contributing to their depression. Because of this, they express reluctance in accepting clinical treatment only, and suggest that broader social issues and other health needs ought to be addressed as part of an effective treatment. For many, pharmacological treatment is acceptable only in the more severe forms of depression.

Research limitations/implications

These results have important implications for improving the quality of depression treatment and reducing health disparities for mainland Puerto Ricans.

Originality/value of chapter

Even though recent studies continue to show a high frequency of depression among Puerto Ricans, issues of treatment quality are still understudied and ethnographic accounts are especially lacking. Our study offers an exploratory investigation of this unresolved research issue.

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Technology, Communication, Disparities and Government Options in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-645-3

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Maura J. Mills and Leanne M. Tortez

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child…

Abstract

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child well-being. This includes recognition that for many women service members, parenting considerations often arise long before a child is born, thereby further complicating work–family conflict considerations in regard to gender-specific conflict factors such as pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and breastfeeding. Subsequently, we consider more gender-invariant conflict factors, such as the nature of the work itself as causing conflict for the service member as parent (e.g., nontraditional hours, long separations, and child care challenges) as well as for the child (e.g., irregular contact with parent, fear for parent’s safety, and frequent relocations), and the ramifications of such conflict on service member and child well-being. Finally, we review formalized support resources that are in place to mitigate negative effects of such conflict, and make recommendations to facilitate progress in research and practice moving forward.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2018

Celeste Campos-Castillo

Existing descriptions of trust in health care largely assume a straightforward association between a patient’s relationship with a regular provider and his or her trust in…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing descriptions of trust in health care largely assume a straightforward association between a patient’s relationship with a regular provider and his or her trust in health care. I extend status characteristics theory (SCT) and social identity theory (SIT) to suggest greater variability in this association by investigating the role of social differences between patients and their regular providers. Whereas the SIT extension predicts lower trust in dissimilar than similar dyads, the predictions from the SCT extension depend on status in dissimilar dyads. Further, research examining how social differences in patient–provider dyads shape trust largely emphasizes racial differences, but the theories implicate gender differences too.

Methodology/approach

I analyze a longitudinal dataset of patient–provider dyads offering a conservative test of the extensions.

Findings

Results generally support predictions from the SCT extension. Specifically, patients’ status based on differences in either race or gender: (1) is inversely related to their trust in health care and (2) influences the resiliency of their trust, whereby the degree health care met prior expectations matters less (more) for the trust of low (high) status patients than equal status patients.

Research limitations/implications

When patients and providers differ on both race and gender, findings sometimes depart from predictions. This indicates differences in two social categories is a unique situation where the contributions of each category are distinct from that of the other.

Originality/value

This research extends SCT to explain greater variability in the connection between patient–provider dyads and trust in health care, while also showing how gender compares to race.

Details

Gender, Women’s Health Care Concerns and Other Social Factors in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-175-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 May 2017

Paula Robinson

Abstract

Details

Developing Leaders for Positive Organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-241-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Melissa Graham, Beth Turnbull, Hayley McKenzie and Ann Taket

Women’s reproductive circumstances and choices have consequences for their experiences of social connectedness, inclusion and support across the life-course. Australia is…

Abstract

Women’s reproductive circumstances and choices have consequences for their experiences of social connectedness, inclusion and support across the life-course. Australia is a pronatalist country and women’s social identity remains strongly linked to motherhood. Yet the number of women foregoing motherhood is increasing. Despite this, women without children are perceived as failing to achieve womanhood as expected by pronatalist ideologies that assume all women are or will be mothers. Defying socially determined norms of motherhood exposes women without children to negative stereotyping and stigma, which has consequences for their social connectedness, inclusion and support. This chapter examines theories of social connectedness, inclusion and support, drawing on Australian empirical data to explore how women without children experience social connectedness, inclusion and support in a pronatalist society within their daily lives.

Details

Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

Keywords

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