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THE trend of design in the modern aeroplane has been toward improved performance realised through external cleanness. It is apparent that the number of essential units…
THE trend of design in the modern aeroplane has been toward improved performance realised through external cleanness. It is apparent that the number of essential units comprising a modern aeroplane is nearly a minimum at the present stage of the art, and it appears also that the possibilities of further striking reductions in the drag of these units, due to change in form or shape either individually or in combination, are not great.
(7) Separate Openings in the Skirt.—A number of equally spaced rectangular openings were cut in the skirt. Openings of this sort could be closed by a rotating shutter…
(7) Separate Openings in the Skirt.—A number of equally spaced rectangular openings were cut in the skirt. Openings of this sort could be closed by a rotating shutter. Separate openings of this type were found to be less effective in producing flow and considerably less efficient. Such openings might be closed by doors opening in the manner of flaps. This last arrangement is somewhat less effective than trailing‐edge flaps and also less efficient. Nevertheless, doors of this type may be made to produce large increases in flow. Tests with varying number and sizes of doors disclosed that, if the doors are placed too far apart, good cooling will be obtained for cylinders immediately in front of the doors, but the cooling of the other cylinders will be much less. Therefore, two or three doors are likely to be insufficient, and the use of four or more is preferable.
THE remarkable strides made by designers of commercial and military aircraft during recent years have been most strikingly evidenced by the ever‐increasing performance of…
THE remarkable strides made by designers of commercial and military aircraft during recent years have been most strikingly evidenced by the ever‐increasing performance of their products. This progress has been gained, to a great extent, in two ways: by improving the aerodynamic cleanness of the aeroplane and by increasing the specific power output of the engine. However, the successful utilisation of both methods has been complicated by the difficulty of providing the higher‐powered engines with proper cooling and accessibility while retaining the cleanness of the aeroplane. Each addition to the power‐plant output has not only further complicated that unit and made necessary more controls and accessories, but has also made the engine harder to cool. Designing the cowl to favour the cleanness of the aeroplane has often proved to be detrimental to both proper cooling and accessibility.
The writer of “Seaplane Design” is to be congratulated on the industry and care with which he has consulted the published literature on his subject. He gives a full…
The writer of “Seaplane Design” is to be congratulated on the industry and care with which he has consulted the published literature on his subject. He gives a full account of most of the recent work, both experimental and theoretical, which has been done in the United States and Germany. Unfortunately, he has not taken into account the still more recent work published in this country, possibly because his book was prepared some time ago. Research work on seaplanes, both model and full scale, is advancing so rapidly that in some respects a book on seaplane design is almost out‐of‐date before it is published.
This paper, which is a structural‐functional attempt to explain a restricted domain of interpersonal perception within the school as an organization, presents some of the…
This paper, which is a structural‐functional attempt to explain a restricted domain of interpersonal perception within the school as an organization, presents some of the author's findings as a clue to one possible effect of the hierarchically contrived authority system of the school on certain of the organizational participants' perceptions of one another. If the findings and theory are valid, they may help to explain one of the explicit ways in which the school may he exploitive of the individual—exploitive in the sense that not all of the individual's interpersonal needs may be equally relevant to the organization's strivings towards goal attainment. The economy necessarily associated with organizational goal attainment and the resulting expediency for an adequate flow of organizational authority may operate to induce a lack of organizational recognition of certain of the individual's vital interpersonal needs. The author proposes his notes toward a theory in an effort to explain how and why people come to perceive certain other people as they do within the context of the school as an organization.
Service firms operating on low margins per transaction mustgenerate a high volume of business to survive the competitiveenvironment of the 1990s. Firms must raise the…
Service firms operating on low margins per transaction must generate a high volume of business to survive the competitive environment of the 1990s. Firms must raise the expectations of consumers to increase patronage, then successfully meet these expectations. Examines the antecedents to consumer expectations of low‐margin, highvolume service firms, and gives managerial implications, illustrating how to manage a service firm, successfully operating on low margins successfully.
This chapter explores institution as a religious phenomenon. Institutional logics are organized around relatively stable congeries of objects, subjects, and practices…
This chapter explores institution as a religious phenomenon. Institutional logics are organized around relatively stable congeries of objects, subjects, and practices. Institutional substances, the most general object of an institutional field, are immanent in the practices that organize an institutional field, values never exhausted by those practices, and practices premised on a practical belief in that substance. Like religion, an institution's practices are ontologically rational, that is, tied to a substance indexed by the conjunction of a practice and a name. Institutional substances are not loosely coupled, ceremonial, legitimating exteriors, but unquestioned, constitutive interiors, the sacred core of each field, unobservable, but socially real.
Examines the influence of several size‐related factors on retailmanagement′s choice of the organization′s functional division structureand multiunit operating system based…
Examines the influence of several size‐related factors on retail management′s choice of the organization′s functional division structure and multiunit operating system based on data collected from a sample of retail department store personnel managers in the United States. Suggests that the retail organization′s size and the number of functional divisions employed are directly related. After nearly two‐thirds of a century, department stores continue to use the basic functional‐division organization developed by Paul Mazur which has been modified into a model that includes: merchandising, publicity and promotion, store operations, finance and control, and personnel. The study further reveals a link between the organization′s size and retail management′s choice of a multiunit operating system. Implications are provided to assist management in evaluating the appropriateness of the firm′s functional division structure and operating system in response to several key factors.
This chapter addresses how small businesses resist city regulations by using material things, by making craft knowledge claims about material things, and by letting…
This chapter addresses how small businesses resist city regulations by using material things, by making craft knowledge claims about material things, and by letting material things organize their political activity. Chefs successfully resisted a foie gras ban in Chicago, where political resistance shaped the production and use of material things. Bakers successfully resisted a trans fat ban in Philadelphia, where material properties of things structured political resistance. We bring together analytic tools from the sociology of culture and science and technology studies to demonstrate how materiality can be both an instigator and an instrument of legal and political resistance.
A clamp comprising in combination a guide having parallel upper and lower members and inter‐connecting side member forming a closed guide frame, said lower member carrying a plane clamping surface, a plunger passing through the said lower member of said frame, a second plane clamping surface carried on one end of said plunger and positioned adjacent said first mentioned clamping surface carried by said frame, a spring in said guide frame surrounding said plunger and extending between said lower member and an abutment carried by said plunger adapted normally by applying force between said lower member and said abutment to force said clamping surfaces together and means carried by said plunger and movably associated with said frame to compress said spring and force said clamping surfaces apart whereby they may be placed over objects to be clamped.