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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

R.A. El‐Adly, E.A.M. Youssef, S.M. El‐Sayed and M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar

This paper reports on the preparation of six formulations (G1‐G6) containing mixed soap greases based on cotton soap stock, aromatic extract, heavy alkylate and lube base…

Abstract

This paper reports on the preparation of six formulations (G1‐G6) containing mixed soap greases based on cotton soap stock, aromatic extract, heavy alkylate and lube base oil. The physicochemical properties of these ingredients were characterised. The consistency, dropping point and mechanical stability of the formulated greases were assessed and tested in accordance with the National Laboratory for Grease Institute standards, and compared with the Egyptian Standards. The properties of the formulated grease G4 proved to be the best. The work reported also includes preparation of itaconyl‐o‐tolidine‐, itaconyl bisaniline‐ and itaconyl m‐phenylene‐ amide polymers. The structure of these polymers was investigated using infrared spectroscopy, micro analysis and gel permeation chromatography. The polymers prepared were evaluated as antioxidants for the optimum formulated grease G4. The study revealed that the itaconyl m‐phenylene amide polymer was a weak antioxidant, while itaconyl bisaniline‐ and itaconyl‐o‐tolidine amide polymers showed good anti‐oxidation property.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

R.A. El‐Adly, Y.M. Moustafa and A.M.A. Omar

Acid sludge produced from regeneration of used lubricating oil was chemically treated in order to convert it in to a saleable product. Investigates treatment with…

Abstract

Acid sludge produced from regeneration of used lubricating oil was chemically treated in order to convert it in to a saleable product. Investigates treatment with different inorganic formulations. Determines and discusses the optimum formulation composition. Characterizes the spectroscopic analysis, thermogravimetric and rheology behaviours, and hydrocarbon type analysis (asphaltene, oil and resin) of the extracted multicomponent resin (MCR‐1). Uses the MCR‐1 for the preparation of gilsonite varnish. The physico‐chemical properties of the latter were determined and compared with those of a standard gilsonite varnish. Concludes that treatment of acid sludge with different salt formulations provides a potentially lowest cost source of gilsonite varnish for news ink and also helps reduce an environmental problem created by re‐refining used oil.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Zujian Shen, Fei Geng, Xinxin Fan, Zhichen Shen and Haiyan Wang

This paper aims to investigate and prepare the composite polyurea greases with excellent thermal stability and tribological properties.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate and prepare the composite polyurea greases with excellent thermal stability and tribological properties.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, composite Ba-based (Ba, barium) tetra-polyurea lubricating greases were prepared with two different methods: mixing Ba-based gelatinizer and tetra-polyurea gelatinizer by a physical method; and introducing barium carboxylate into tetra-polyurea molecules by a chemical method. The properties of the products, such as heat stability, water resistance and friction performance, were analyzed with thermogravimetry, water-resistance test and four-ball friction test.

Findings

The results indicated that the products obtained by chemically introducing barium carboxylate into tetra-urea molecules showed better elevated temperature tribological properties, and the disadvantages of the polyurea greases with high temperature hardening were also obviously improved. The cone penetration rate at 180°C for 24 h is only 3 per cent. The friction coefficient can be decreased to 0.44 and the last non-seizure load value was increased from 560 N to 1,120 N without any other additives.

Originality/value

The research is significant because the prepared composite grease showed excellent performances, such as the outstanding thermal stability, water resistance and excellent extreme pressure and anti-wear properties, which may be widely applied in steel, metallurgy, bearings and other industrial fields.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Mohammed Ismail El-Adly and Amjad Abu ELSamen

This paper aims to measure customer-based brand equity in the context of hotels, and to develop and empirically validate a new scale, named guest-based hotel equity…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure customer-based brand equity in the context of hotels, and to develop and empirically validate a new scale, named guest-based hotel equity (GBHE), by incorporating the customer perceived value of hotels as a multidimensional construct in addition to its traditional dimensions (i.e. brand awareness and brand image).

Design/methodology/approach

A structured and self-administered survey was used, targeting 348 hotel guests who were surveyed about their experience with the last hotel they had stayed in during the previous year. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the research constructs dimensions, unidimensionality, convergent and discriminant validity and composite reliability.

Findings

The empirical findings indicate that GBHE is a multidimensional construct with nine dimensions, namely, hotel awareness, hotel overall image and seven dimensions of customer perceived value (i.e. the values of price, quality, self-gratification, aesthetics, prestige, transaction and hedonism). The new scale is found to have excellent psychometric properties; it has demonstrated its predictive power on behavioral intentions.

Research limitations/implications

Although the authors believe that the sample size was reasonable and adequate for conducting CFA analysis, a bigger sample would be better and might increase the robustness of the proposed scale. In addition, to avoid the retrieval failure problem, hotel guests should be surveyed just after their stay in the hotel or not long afterwards. Further, the hotel classification or hotel star rating was not considered in developing and validating the GBHE scale.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide hotel managers with a new tool to use in assessing the experiential value of the hotel brand equity, other than conventional hotel awareness and brand image. Further, using the multidimensional construct of perceived value provides hotel managers with more insights into what aspects of hotel brand equity they should focus on to influence the behavioral intentions of their guests.

Originality/value

The originality of this research is highlighted in several points. First, it develops and empirically validates a new scale to measure customer-based brand equity in the hotel context, that is, GBHE. Second, it incorporates the customer perceived value of hotels not as a unidimensional construct that is concerned only with cost, but as a multi-dimensional construct which includes in the GBHE scale dimensions that are both cognitive (i.e. of price and quality) and affective (i.e. of self-gratification, aesthetics, prestige, transaction and hedonism) in addition to its traditional dimensions (i.e. brand awareness and brand image). Third, it assesses the predictive power and relative importance of the GBHE dimensions for behavioral intentions (i.e. loyalty to hotels). Finally, no research has been done so far on the brand equity of hotels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), although it is considered a fertile soil for tourism in the Arabian region.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Nisreen Ameen, Ali Tarhini, Mahmood Shah and Nnamdi O. Madichie

The transition from multichannel to omnichannel retailing requires a better conceptualisation, especially for customer experience in smart shopping malls. Therefore, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The transition from multichannel to omnichannel retailing requires a better conceptualisation, especially for customer experience in smart shopping malls. Therefore, this study aims to propose a theoretical model that captures customers’ omnichannel experiences in smart shopping malls in terms of personal interaction, physical environment and virtual environment encounters. It examines the mediating role of flow experience on the relationship between the three types of encounters and customers’ intention to revisit smart shopping malls.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on four key theories: the service encounter model, trust-commitment theory, flow theory and experiential value theory. A total of 553 completed questionnaires were collected from customers (millennials) in the United Kingdom (UK). The data was analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings show that physical environment encounters and personal interaction encounters play a significant role in customers’ omnichannel experiences in smart malls. Also, of significance are the following aspects of virtual environment encounters: interface design, personalisation, trust, privacy, consumer–peer interaction and relationship commitment. The findings highlight the significant mediating role of flow on the relationships between these three types of encounters and intention, and the effect of flow on omnichannel service usage in smart shopping malls.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the existing literature by proposing a conceptual model: the smart shopping mall omnichannel customer experience (SSMCE) model. The findings offer practical guidance to shopping malls and retailers who wish to enhance the customer omnichannel experience.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Souad Djelassi, Delphine Godefroit-Winkel and Mbaye Fall Diallo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to shopping centres across different emerging countries. Specifically, it seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to shopping centres across different emerging countries. Specifically, it seeks to determine how the cultural context moderates the direct effects of shopping centre perceived value and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A shopping centre-intercept survey was conducted among 244 consumers in Morocco and 203 consumers in Tunisia. The proposed model was analysed using partial least squares path modelling.

Findings

The results demonstrate the impacts of perceived utilitarian and non-utilitarian value on customer satisfaction with a shopping centre, both moderated by the cultural context. Specifically, utilitarian, hedonic and relaxation values exert stronger influences on satisfaction in Tunisia than in Morocco; but socialisation value has a stronger impact on it in Morocco than in Tunisia. The influences of value dimensions on customer loyalty to the shopping centre do not vary between Tunisia and Morocco.

Practical implications

With these results shopping centre developers and retailers can develop more efficient strategies to target Maghreb emerging countries. For example, they should focus on factors that may increase the utilitarian, hedonic and relaxation values offered by shopping centres in Tunisia but address factors that facilitate socialisation value in Morocco.

Originality/value

By using a cross-culture perspective, this paper extends and enriches knowledge on shopping centre patronage in Maghreb countries. Also, it considers two non-utilitarian values (socialisation and relaxation), which are relevant in Maghreb countries.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Cristina Calvo-Porral and Jean-Pierre Lévy-Mangín

This study addresses the following question: “What factors attract customers to the shopping mall?”, since the commercial attraction of this major retailing format is an

Abstract

Purpose

This study addresses the following question: “What factors attract customers to the shopping mall?”, since the commercial attraction of this major retailing format is an undertaken variable. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical analysis of the main commercial pull factors of the shopping malls in order to attract potential customers.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, the authors provide and empirically test a conceptual model considering the variables convenience, tenant variety and specialisation, internal environment, leisure and communication. Data were analysed through structural equation modelling on a sample of 253 customers.

Findings

The findings suggest that tenant variety and the internal environment of the mall – understood as an adequate tenant mix and a pleasant, attractive environment – are the main determinants of attracting customers. However, the convenience of the shopping mall and the communication activities do not show a significant influence as pull factors.

Originality/value

The results obtained suggest that marketing managers have numerous tools to influence customers’ intention to visit and patronise shopping malls.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Neale Slack, Gurmeet Singh and Shavneet Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the impact of customer perceived value and its dimensions on customer satisfaction in a developing country, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the impact of customer perceived value and its dimensions on customer satisfaction in a developing country, and practical suggestions for marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey collected data from five-hundred supermarket customers in Fiji. SPSS was used to provide descriptive and inferential analysis.

Findings

Results reveal that customer perceived value (CPV) has a positive impact on customer satisfaction; and functional value (price/value for money) has more positive impact than social value, emotional value has a negative impact and functional value (performance/quality) has no significant impact on customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Considering this research was undertaken in the supermarket sector of only one country, other researchers are urged to replicate this research in Fiji and other developing countries, to yield further insight into the context-specific nature of CPV.

Practical implications

It is suggested that marketers note these findings (to understand better the conceptualisation and context-dependent nature of CPV, its dimensional interrelationships and its impact on customer satisfaction) in order to enhance CPV and ultimately customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to research on CPV by providing insight into how developing country customers perceive the value of supermarkets from a construct and multidimensional perspective, the inter-relatedness of CPV dimensions and the impact of CPV and its dimensions on customer satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Elisabetta Savelli, Marco Cioppi and Federica Tombari

The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether and how the website atmosphere (WA) of a shopping centre affects the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether and how the website atmosphere (WA) of a shopping centre affects the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical shopping centres. A mediating variable – individual shopper motivation – is considered in assessing this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were tested using a partial least squares – path modelling approach to structural equation modelling on a sample population of 438 individuals.

Findings

Online atmospherics, particularly concerning the social/relational attributes of the WA, positively affect the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical shopping centres. Moreover, recreational motivations strengthen this relationship more than functional motivations do.

Research limitations/implications

The sample investigated is limited with regard to diversity, age and gender. Future research can use a more representative sample to improve the findings’ relevance and generalisation. Also the development of a scale of measures for the shopping centre customers’ motivations is worthy of interest in future studies.

Practical implications

Recognising the importance of web atmospherics’ significant impact on customer loyalty should encourage shopping centre managers to develop effective website and online communication programmes.

Originality/value

Extant studies have paid little attention to the relationship between WA and customer loyalty to the physical shopping centre. This study investigates this relationship, combining the online and offline perspective into an overall research approach. Moreover, it contributes to the research on website management in the shopping centre context by providing a comprehensive analysis of WA, whereas previous studies have mainly focussed on one or a few atmospherics.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Raquel Sánchez-Fernández, Martina G. Gallarza and Francisco Arteaga

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic nature of consumer value by proposing a causal model that shows the existence of sequentiality in value dimensions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic nature of consumer value by proposing a causal model that shows the existence of sequentiality in value dimensions and in their influence on satisfaction and loyalty. The paper focuses on intrinsic dimensions of value (play, aesthetics, ethics and escapism), which are fully experiential, and therefore less studied in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model proposed was empirically tested in tourist hotel accommodations. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, analyzing the experiences of 285 hotel guests with structural equation modeling-partial least squares.

Findings

The results reveal that the reactive dimensions of value (aesthetics and escapism) influence the active ones (play and ethics), which in turn affect consumers’ satisfaction and loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is exploratory and focuses on the intrinsic dimensions of value. Future research should consider the entire extrinsic/intrinsic value duality. This paper is based on a convenience sample consisting solely of hotel accommodation. Further studies based on a random sample and on other hospitality contexts would be required to generalize the results.

Practical implications

This paper can help hotel managers to understand the role and importance of each intrinsic dimension of value to successfully implement their relationship marketing strategies, defined by the chain value-satisfaction-loyalty.

Originality/value

This paper depicts the dynamic nature of value, with concatenated (and not simultaneous) effects of value dimensions on satisfaction and loyalty, which supports research in value co-creation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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1 – 10 of 81