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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

C. Majorana, A. Natali and R. Vitaliani

The aim of the present work is to describe a numerical approach to the analysis of three‐dimensional reinforced concrete structures subject to prestressing. The finite…

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to describe a numerical approach to the analysis of three‐dimensional reinforced concrete structures subject to prestressing. The finite element approach developed is described, with particular regard to the configuration of finite elements in relation to numerical model generation. An elasto‐viscoplastic material law is adopted. The non‐linear formulation is discussed, pointing out theoretical and numerical aspects. The computational examples, carried out using a specially developed code, aim at illustrating the characteristic aspects of the proposed approach.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Jaroslav Mackerle

Presents a review on implementing finite element methods on supercomputers, workstations and PCs and gives main trends in hardware and software developments. An appendix…

Abstract

Presents a review on implementing finite element methods on supercomputers, workstations and PCs and gives main trends in hardware and software developments. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on the subjects retrospectively to 1985 and approximately 1,100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

G. ZAVARISE, R. VITALIANI and B. SCHREFLER

An algorithm to calculate shape function values at specific points is presented. It applies to three‐dimensional serendipity elements with variable node numbers per side…

Abstract

An algorithm to calculate shape function values at specific points is presented. It applies to three‐dimensional serendipity elements with variable node numbers per side and, as a particular case, to plane and truss elements. The procedure is shown for the two‐dimensional case using the natural orthogonal reference system of the element and is then generalized to the three‐dimensional case. The source code of the described algorithms written in Fortran 77 is included.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

L. Maldonado, M.A. Pech‐Canul and Safaa Alhassan

Reinforcing steel bars in concrete structures exposed to tropical marine atmospheres experience very high corrosion rates due to several environmental factors. The aim of…

Abstract

Purpose

Reinforcing steel bars in concrete structures exposed to tropical marine atmospheres experience very high corrosion rates due to several environmental factors. The aim of this research was mainly to elucidate if zinc‐coated rebars may delay the onset of corrosion and/or extend the service life of infrastructure in the tropics, as the approach is promising in other atmospheres.

Design/methodology/approach

Hot‐dip zinc‐coated and plain steel rebars were embedded in concrete cylinders made with local aggregates and having four different water‐to‐cement ratios. Samples were exposed during 24 months at the marine breeze in a coastal site in the Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion behaviour of zinc‐coated and uncoated rebars was monitored by means of corrosion potential and linear polarization resistance techniques. Also, carbonation penetration and the chloride ingress were measured and correlated with the corrosion behaviour.

Findings

Only under the worst case conditions (concrete with 0.7 w/c ratio) did galvanized steel experience corrosion initiation. It was shown to resist higher chloride levels than uncoated steel and extended the onset of corrosion.

Originality/Value

The effectiveness of the zinc‐coated bar for corrosion control is controversial and its use mainly is supported by accelerated tests or application in cold or subtropical environments. This research showed the corrosion behaviour in an extremely corrosive tropical zone.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

H’mida Hamidane, Ayman Ababneh, Ali Messabhia and Yunping Xi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for predicting the chloride ingress into concrete structures, with an emphasis on the low temperature range where…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for predicting the chloride ingress into concrete structures, with an emphasis on the low temperature range where freeze-thaw cycles may cause damage.

Design/methodology/approach

The different phenomena that contribute to the rate and amount of transported chlorides into concrete, i.e., heat transfer, moisture transport and chloride diffusion are modeled using a two-dimensional nonlinear time dependent finite element method. In modeling the chloride transport, a modified version of Fick’s second law is used, in which processes of diffusion and convection due to water movement are taken into account. Besides, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles is directly incorporated in the governing equation and linked to temperature variation using a coupling term that is determined in this study. The proposed finite element model and its associated program are capable of handling pertinent material nonlinearities and variable boundary conditions that simulate real exposure situations.

Findings

The numerical performance of the model was examined through few examples to investigate its ability to simulate chloride penetration under freeze-thaw cycles and its sensitivity to factors controlling freeze-thaw damage. It was also proved that yearly temperature variation models to be used in service life assessment should take into account its cyclic nature to obtain realistic predictions.

Originality/value

The model proved promising and suitable for chloride penetration in cold climates.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Valentina A. Salomoni, Gianluca Mazzucco and Carmelo E. Majorana

This paper seeks to analyse 3D growing concrete structures taking into account the phenomenon of body accretion, necessary for the simulation of the construction sequence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse 3D growing concrete structures taking into account the phenomenon of body accretion, necessary for the simulation of the construction sequence, and carbon dioxide attack.

Design/methodology/approach

A typical 3D segmental bridge made of precast concrete is studied through a fully coupled thermo‐hygro‐mechanical F.E. model. The durability of the bridge is evaluated and carbonation effects are considered. Creep, relaxation and shrinkage effects are included according to the theory developed in the 1970s by Bažant for concretes and geomaterials; the fluid phases are considered as a unique mixture which interacts with a solid phase. The porous material is modelled using n Maxwell elements in parallel (Maxwell‐chain model).

Findings

First, calibration analyses are developed to check the VISCO3D model capabilities for predicting carbonation phenomena within concrete and the full 3D structure is modelled to further assess the durability of the bridge under severe conditions of CO2 attack.

Originality/value

The adopted numerical model accounts for the strong coupling mechanisms of CO2 diffusion in the gas phase, moisture and heat transfer, CaCO3 formation and the availability of Ca(OH)2 in the pore solution due to its transport by water movement. Additionally, the phenomenon of a sequential construction is studied and numerically reproduced by a sequence of “births” for the 3D finite elements discretizing the bridge. The fully coupled model is here extended to 3D problems for accreting bodies (as segmental bridges) in order to gather the effects of multi‐dimensional attacks of carbon dioxide for such structures.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

D.P. Mok, W.A. Wall, M. Bischoff and E. Ramm

The present study focusses on algorithmic aspects related to deformation dependent loads in non‐linear static finite element analysis. If the deformation dependency is…

Abstract

The present study focusses on algorithmic aspects related to deformation dependent loads in non‐linear static finite element analysis. If the deformation dependency is considered only on the right hand side, a considerable increase in the number of iterations follows. It may also cause failure of convergence in the proximity of critical points. If in turn the deformation dependent loading is included within the consistent linearization, an additional left hand side term emerges, the so‐called load stiffness matrix. In this paper several numerical test cases are used to show and quantify the influence of the two different approaches on the iteration process. Consideration of the complete load stiffness matrix may result in a cumbersome coding effort, different for each load case, and in certain cases its derivation is even not practicable at all. Therefore also several formulations for approximated load stiffness matrices are presented. It is shown that these simplifications not only reduce the additional effort for linearization and implementation, but also keep the iterative costs relatively small and still allow the calculation of the entire equilibrium path.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Giovanna Xotta, Valentina A. Salomoni and Carmelo E. Majorana

Knowledge of the behavior of concrete at mesoscale level requires, as a fundamental aspect, to characterize aggregates and specifically, their thermal properties if fire…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge of the behavior of concrete at mesoscale level requires, as a fundamental aspect, to characterize aggregates and specifically, their thermal properties if fire hazards (e.g. spalling) are accounted for. The assessment of aggregates performance (and, correspondingly, concrete materials made of aggregates, cement paste and ITZ – interfacial transition zone) is crucial for defining a realistic structural response as well as damage scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

It is here assumed that concrete creep is associated to cement paste only and that creep obeys to the B3 model proposed by Bažant and Baweja since it shows good compatibility with experimental results and it is properly justified theoretically.

Findings

First, the three‐dimensionality of the geometric description of concrete at the meso‐level can be appreciated; then, creep of cement paste and ITZ allows to incorporate in the model the complex reality of creep, which is not only a matter of fluid flow and pressure dissipation but also the result of chemical‐physical reactions; again, the description of concrete as a composite material, in connection with porous media analysis, allows for understanding the hygro‐thermal and mechanical response of concrete, e.g. hygral barriers due to the presence of aggregates can be seen only at this modelling level. Finally, from the mechanical viewpoint, the remarkable damage peak effect arising from the inclusion of ITZ, if compared with the less pronounced peak when ITZ is disregarded from the analysis, is reported.

Originality/value

The fully coupled 3D F.E. code NEWCON3D has been adopted to perform fully coupled thermo‐hygro‐mechanical meso‐scale analyses of concrete characterized by aggregates of various types and various thermal properties. The 3D approach allows for differentiating each constituent (cement paste, aggregate and ITZ), even from the point of view of their rheologic behaviour. Additionally, model B3 has been upgraded by the calculation of the effective humidity state when evaluating drying creep, instead than using approximate expressions. Damage maps allows for defining an appropriate concrete mixture to withstand spalling and to characterize the coupled behaviour of ITZ as well.

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Xiaofeng Wang, Haoyue Chu and Qingshan Yang

This paper aims to numerically study the effects of boundary conditions, pre-stress, material constants and thickness on the dynamic performance of a wrinkled thin membrane.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to numerically study the effects of boundary conditions, pre-stress, material constants and thickness on the dynamic performance of a wrinkled thin membrane.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the stability theory of plates and shells, the dynamic equations of a wrinkled thin membrane were developed, and they were solved with the Lanczos method

Findings

The effects of wrinkle-influencing factors on the dynamic performance of a wrinkled membrane are determined by the wrinkling stage. The effects are prominent when wrinkling deformation is evolving, but they are very small and can hardly be observed when wrinkling deformation is stable. Mode shapes of a wrinkled membrane are sensitive to boundary conditions, pre-stress and Poisson’s ratio, but its natural frequencies are sensitive to all these five factors.

Practical implications

The research work in this paper is expected to help understand the dynamic behavior of a wrinkled membrane and present access to ensuring its dynamic stability by controlling the wrinkle-influencing factors.

Originality/value

Very few documents investigated the dynamic properties of wrinkled membranes. No attention has yet been paid by the present literature to the global dynamic performance of a wrinkled membrane under the influences of the factors that play a pivotal role in the wrinkling deformation. In view of this, this paper numerically studied the global modes and corresponding frequencies of a wrinkled membrane and their variation with the wrinkle-influencing factors. The results indicate that the global dynamic properties of a wrinkled membrane are sensitive to these factors at the stage of wrinkling evolution.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

J. Pina‐Henriques and Paulo B. Lourenço

To contribute for a reliable estimation of the compressive strength of unreinforced masonry from the properties of the constituents (units and mortar).

1795

Abstract

Purpose

To contribute for a reliable estimation of the compressive strength of unreinforced masonry from the properties of the constituents (units and mortar).

Design/methodology/approach

Sophisticated non‐linear continuum models, based on damage, plasticity, cracking or other formulation, are today standard in several finite element programs. The adequacy of such models to provide reliable estimates of masonry compressive strength, from the properties of the constituents, remains unresolved. The authors have shown recently that continuum models might significantly overestimate the prediction of the compressive strength. Hence, an alternative phenomenological approach developed in a discrete framework is proposed, based on attributing to masonry components a fictitious micro‐structure composed of linear elastic particles separated by non‐linear interface elements. The model is discussed in detail and a comparison with experimental results and numerical results using a standard continuum model is provided.

Findings

Clear advantages in terms of compressive strength and peak strain prediction were found using the particle model when compared with standard continuum models. Moreover, compressive and tensile strength values provided by the model were found to be particle size‐ and particle distortion‐independent for practical purposes. It is also noted that size‐dependent responses were obtained and that shear parameters rather than tensile parameters were found to play a major role at the meso‐level of the phenomenological model.

Originality/value

This paper provides further insight into the compressive behaviour of quasi‐brittle materials, with an emphasis on the strength prediction of masonry composites. Reliable prediction of masonry strength is of great use in the civil engineering field, allowing one to reduce experimental testing in expensive wallets and to avoid the usage of conservative empirical formulae.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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