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The simulation of fracture processes for discrete crack propagation is well established for linear‐elastic cracking problems. Applying finite element techniques for the…
The simulation of fracture processes for discrete crack propagation is well established for linear‐elastic cracking problems. Applying finite element techniques for the numerical formulation, at every incremental macro‐crack step the element mesh has to be adapted such that the crack path remains independent of the initial mesh. The accuracy of the obtained results has to be controlled by suitable error estimators and error indicators. Considering the dependence of the predicted crack path on the precision of the displacement and stress computation, quality measures for the computed results are recommended. In this research the use of the Babuska/Rheinboldt error indicator in combination with linear‐elastic crack propagation problems is demonstrated. Based on this error measure an adaptive mesh refinement technique is developed. In comparison with classical discrete crack propagation simulations the advantages of the new concept can be clearly observed.
WITH tailless aeroplanes, all known aerodynamic control devices possess the peculiarity of not only producing moments about one axis, but of also causing secondary moments about one or both of the other axes. Horizontal controllers forming part of the wing near the tips in wings having sweep‐back or sweep‐forward, for instance, do not produce rolling moments alone, when differ‐entially deflected; they also cause yawing and pitching moments. Similarly, wing‐tip disk rudders operated on such wings not only produce yawing moments, but may cause rolling and even pitching moments.
A high level of low compliance with continuing professional development (CPD) among construction professionals in developing countries is well acknowledged in existing…
A high level of low compliance with continuing professional development (CPD) among construction professionals in developing countries is well acknowledged in existing literature. In spite of several interventions in CPD implementation, reforms and approaches in recent times, there does not seem to be an immediate improvement. This development calls for a re-think among stakeholders to adopt strategies that can yield the best results in uptake. Though several strategies have been proposed to potentially result in CPD uptake and compliance among construction professionals, these possible strategies have not been considered in an integrated manner. This study aims at identifying CPD delivery and implementation strategies that can significantly contribute to compliance and uptake among construction professionals in South Africa.
Using a quantitative research design and a questionnaire survey, this study sought to identify effective CPD implementation strategies for construction professionals from a plethora of suggested ones that can engender increased uptake and compliance.
By using multiple regression analysis, the results revealed “flexible e-learning platforms”, “standardisation of CPD model and formats by professional institutions”, “inclusion of CPD in tertiary curriculum to easily understand its importance” and “encouraging practices to have frequent in-house training sessions sharing experiences” as the most significant strategies that are likely to improve CPD uptake and compliance.
Against the backdrop of the need to increase CPD uptake and compliance among professionals through flexible integrated approach comes to the fore the understanding and knowledge of the strategies that can engender CPD uptake and compliance among construction professionals in the construction industry in South Africa.
The practical behaviour of problems exhibiting bifurcation with secondary branches cannot be studied in general by using standard path‐following methods such as arc‐length…
The practical behaviour of problems exhibiting bifurcation with secondary branches cannot be studied in general by using standard path‐following methods such as arc‐length schemes. Special algorithms have to be employed for the detection of bifurcation and limit points and furthermore for branch‐switching. Simple methods for this purpose are given by inspection of the determinant of the tangent stiffness matrix or the calculation of the current stiffness parameter. Near stability points, the associated eigenvalue problem has to be solved in order to calculate the number of existing branches. The associated eigenvectors are used for a perturbation of the solution at bifurcation points. This perturbation is performed by adding the scaled eigenvector to the deformed configuration in an appropriate way. Several examples of beam and shell problems show the performance of the method.
This paper provides evidence on the impact of regulatory environment on financial reporting quality of transitional economies. This study compares the financial reporting…
This paper provides evidence on the impact of regulatory environment on financial reporting quality of transitional economies. This study compares the financial reporting quality of Hong Kong firms which are cross-listed in mainland China with those of Hong Kong firms cross-listed in China using specific earnings management metrics (earnings smoothing, timely loss recognition, value relevance and managing towards earnings targets) under pre- and post-IFRS regimes.
The financial reporting quality of Chinese A-share companies and Hong Kong listed companies are examined using earnings management measures. Using 2007 as base year, the study used a cumulative of −5 and +5 years of convergence experience which provide a total of 3,000 firm-year observations. In addition to regression analyses, we used the difference-in-difference analysis to check for the impact of regulatory environments on earnings management.
Through the lens of contingency theory, our results indicate that the adoption of the new substantially IFRS-convergent accounting standards in China results in better financial reporting quality evidenced by less earning management. The empirical results further shows that accounting data are more value relevant for Hong Kong listed firms, and that firms listed in China are more likely to engage in accrual-based earnings management than in real earnings management activities. We established that different earnings management practices that are seemingly tolerable in one country may not be tolerable in another due to level of differences in the regulatory environments.
The findings show that Hong Kong listed companies’ exhibit higher level of financial reporting quality than Chinese listed companies, which implies that the financial reporting quality under IFRS can be significantly different in regions with different institutional, economic and regulatory environments. The results imply that contingent factors such as country’s institutional structures, its extent of regulation and the strength of its investor protection environments impact on financial reporting quality particularly in transitional and emerging economies. As such, these factors need to be given appropriate considerations by financial reporting regulators and policy-makers interested in controlling earnings management practices among their corporations.
This study is a high impact study considering that China plays a significant role in today’s globalised economy. This study is unique as it the first, that we are aware of, to compare real earnings activities against accrual-based earnings management in pre- and post-IFRS adoption periods within the Chinese and Hong Kong financial reporting environments, distinguishing between cross-listed and non-cross-listed firms.
WE seem to be immediately facing a drive for much more technical education and for many more technical colleges and schools to produce it. In the condition of the world today this is an inevitable, an indispensable, process. The reasons are loudly proclaimed and patent to every librarian, and the library must come strongly, as it always has, into the picture but perhaps now more universally and with greater intensity. Dr. Chandler, who is proceeding at a rare pace to specialize his departments, has created a new local council to unify the information work that has already been done at Liverpool. Every technical book costing over five shillings is bought, and the usual collections of periodicals and other material of technical and industrial interest are being increased and a bulletin of additions is being issued soon after the end of each month. The Technical library is one that combines lending and reference activities, telephone and postal services; in fact all the orthodox activities that have been standard in the larger towns since Glasgow began them in 1916, and possibly new and extended ones. The William Brown Library which was destroyed in Air Raids is being reconstructed and the enlarged Technical Library will be developed in it. This is one city only; every large city reports some increase in the services rendered, for example the Telex service is now available at Manchester. It is essential that public libraries everywhere realize the part they may play; if they do not, the suggestion made recently that the lending of technical books should become an activity of the Technical Colleges may become a reality.
La presente investigación examina la existencia de memoria de largo plazo por medio del cálculo del coeficiente de Hurst y Hurst ajustado, y del análisis de…
La presente investigación examina la existencia de memoria de largo plazo por medio del cálculo del coeficiente de Hurst y Hurst ajustado, y del análisis de características de estructuras caóticas en la serie del mercado bursátil de Chile, específicamente a través del Índice de Precios Selectivo de Acciones.
Se desarrolló un breve análisis del mercado, según la metodología de Box y Jenkings. La validez de los resultados se realizó por medio de la prueba propuesta por Brock, Dechert y Scheinkman. En segundo lugar, se procedió a analizar la dinámica y patrones del índice y de su rendimiento, para observar si existía evidencia de memoria de largo plazo.
Los resultados demuestran la presencia de esta memoria en el mercado bursátil chileno, determinado a través del índice accionario en dos escalas, diaria y trimestral, lo que además corrobora resultados obtenidos por otros autores, confirmando el uso de la metodología de Rango Re-escaldo para la identificación y determinación de memoria de largo plazo en una serie temporal.
Este estudio permitirá a futuros investigadores realizar análisis similares en otros mercados, aportando un nuevo enfoque al analizar la memoria de la largo plazo y los factores que inciden en ella.
Exponente de Hurst, Índice bursátil, Mercados eficientes, Mercados fractales
Tipo de artículo
Artículo de investigación
This research examined the existence of long-term memory by calculating the coefficient of Hurst and Hurst set, and the analysis of characteristics of chaotic structures in the series of stock market of Chile, specifically through the Selective Price Index Shares.
A brief analysis of the market was developed, according to Box and Jenkins methodology. The validity of the results was performed by means of the test proposed by Brock, Dechert and Scheinkman. Secondly, we proceeded to analyze the dynamics and patterns of the index and its performance, to see if there was evidence of long-term memory.
The results demonstrate the presence of long-term memory in the Chilean stock market, determined by stock index in two scales, daily and quarterly, which also corroborates results obtained by other authors, confirming the use of the methodology Range Re-scalded for the identification and determination of long-term memory in a time series.
This study will allow future researchers to perform similar analyzes in other markets, providing a new approach when analyzing the long-term memory and the factors that affect it.
The purpose of this paper is to present integrated methodologies based on multilevel modelling concepts for finite element analysis (FEA) of reinforced concrete (RC) shell…
The purpose of this paper is to present integrated methodologies based on multilevel modelling concepts for finite element analysis (FEA) of reinforced concrete (RC) shell structures, with specific reference to account for the nonlinear behaviour of cracked concrete and the other associated features.
Geometric representation of the shell is enabled through multiple concrete layers. Composite characteristic of concrete is accounted by assigning different material properties to the layers. Steel reinforcement is smeared into selected concrete layers according to its position in the RC shell. The integrated model concurrently accounts for nonlinear effects due to tensile cracking, bond slip and nonlinear stress‐strain relation of concrete in compression. Smeared crack model having crack rotation capability is used to include the influence of tensile cracking of concrete. Propagation and change in direction of crack along thickness of shell with increase in load and deformation are traced using the layered geometry model. Relative movement between reinforcing steel and adjacent concrete is modelled using a compatible bond‐slip model validated earlier by the authors. Nonlinear iterative solution technique with imposed displacement in incremental form is adopted so that structures with local instabilities or strain softening can also be analysed.
Proposed methodologies are validated by evaluating ultimate strength of two RC shell structures. Nonlinear response of McNeice slab is found to compare well with that of experiment available in literature. Then, a RC cooling tower is analysed for factored wind loads to study its behaviour near ultimate load. Numerical validation demonstrates efficacy and usefullness of the proposed methodologies for nonlinear FEA of RC shell structures.
The present paper integrates critical methodologies used for behaviour modelling of concrete and reinforcement with the physical interaction among them. The study is unique by considering interaction of tensile cracking and bond‐slip which are the main contributors to nonlinearity in the nonlinear response of RC shell structures. Further, industrial application of the proposed modelling strategy is demonstrated by analysing a RC cooling tower shell for its nonlinear response. It is observed that the proposed methodologies in the integrated manner are unique and provide stability in nonlinear analysis of RC shell structures.
This paper aims to explore graduate training through SME‐based project work. The views and behaviours of graduates are examined along with the perceptions of the SMEs and…
This paper aims to explore graduate training through SME‐based project work. The views and behaviours of graduates are examined along with the perceptions of the SMEs and academic partner institutions charged with training graduates.
The data are largely qualitative and derived from the experiences of graduates, company supervisors and University of Ulster staff involved in projects during 2001‐2007 when 140 FUSION projects were undertaken across the island of Ireland.
More job opportunities, changing job values and work ethic impact upon the uptake and success of FUSION projects. Employers, especially within growing SMEs, have adopted a learner‐centred approach in order to maximise the benefits of the project for both the graduate and the company. Graduate development programmes continue to strengthen university‐to‐business links, which in turn ensures graduate output meets the needs of industry.
Data collected throughout the term of FUSION projects are reported; further analyses of stakeholder views post‐project completion would provide further insight into the longer‐term effects of graduate training upon career progression.
This analysis proffers graduate reflections on “work‐based learning”. It serves key reminders for evaluating satisfaction with graduate development programmes presenting two key implications, pathways for better preparing graduates/SMEs and routes for enhancing the benefits of such projects.
The paper focuses on research that seeks to enhance graduate training and placement experiences within SMEs.