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1 – 10 of 51
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

J. Frazier, R. Jackson, R. Reich, R. Enno, W. Ables and L. Bosworth

This paper describes the approach used by the authors to select the flux materials for a simple water‐soluble solder paste flux formulation, what those materials were, and…

Abstract

This paper describes the approach used by the authors to select the flux materials for a simple water‐soluble solder paste flux formulation, what those materials were, and how they interacted to give the correct properties. Consistency of formulation and performance are discussed with emphasis on the need for adequate process parameter control as with any formulation. With this water‐soluble paste formulation various circuit card designs were successfully built possessing 25‐mil pitch, and larger, components. The cards were cleaned in aqueous cleaners and passed IBM standard insulation resistance testing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Abstract

Details

Multi-Channel Marketing, Branding and Retail Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-455-6

Abstract

Details

Building Resilient Urban Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-906-5

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2012

Martin Roders, Ad Straub and Henk Visscher

Climate change: the question is not anymore if it happens, but what the impact is of its effects such as drought, heat waves and increased precipitation on the quality of…

Abstract

Climate change: the question is not anymore if it happens, but what the impact is of its effects such as drought, heat waves and increased precipitation on the quality of our lives in cities, offices and houses. A significant share of the Northern European housing stock is owned and maintained by large stock owners, such as housing associations. It is their responsibility to be aware of changes and risks that might challenge the quality of life of their tenants. Moreover, in order to provide housing with a good market value in the future, adaptation to climate change can no longer be overlooked.

With the aim to discover the level of awareness of climate change adaptation among Dutch housing associations, a content analysis was undertaken on the policy plans and the annual reports of the 25 largest housing associations. Subsequently they were classified according to their level of awareness. The analysis returned no topics that directly referred to climate change adaptation, which implies that all housing associations are categorised as being ‘unaware’. Therefore, in order to reach higher levels of awareness and to incentivize the implementation of adaptation measures, appropriate governance strategies need to be developed. Future research will define the characteristics of these strategies in relation to the level of awareness of the housing associations. Adoption of the measures could be easier if adaptation measures are combined with maintenance activities, as this has been the case with mitigation measures.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Gina Cavan and Richard Kingston

Assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability is essential in order to inform and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. Disastrous effects of extreme weather…

Abstract

Purpose

Assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability is essential in order to inform and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. Disastrous effects of extreme weather events such as the heat waves across Europe in 2003 highlight the adaptation imperative. Regional spatial planning and urban design can help to reduce the vulnerability of communities to these risks. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of an assessment tool, which highlights climate change risks and vulnerabilities in urban areas, and the results of pilot and user testing with the Green and Blue Space Adaptation for Urban Areas and Eco Towns (GRaBS) project partners.

Design/methodology/approach

The tool follows the principles of an online public participation GIS, and is built using the Google Maps Interface. The approach is based on a risk framework, focusing on the three elements; hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Thus, the assessment tool assesses vulnerability of population and infrastructure in urban areas to climate change impacts (in particular flooding and heat stress). It also enables spatially relating patterns of vulnerability with risk where data are available.

Findings

A key finding of the project has been the need to break down silos between departments in order to build an evidence base for decision makers for adaptation plans and strategies. The tool is considered to be an excellent means of raising awareness, and the results of the pilot study confirm the assessment tool is seen as innovative, cost effective, intuitive and simple to use and navigate. Furthermore, by helping to visualise vulnerability of urban areas it may be useful in supporting planning of both emergency responses and long‐term land use changes.

Research limitations/implications

The tool is limited by the availability of geospatial data and information, which has implications for the types of outputs the tool can produce.

Practical implications

The tool has been implemented in all of the case study partner areas, which will be affected to a greater or lesser extent by a range of climate change impacts requiring responses, depending on the severity and likelihood of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The methodological approach adopted in the project has to take account of this important issue.

Originality/value

The tool brings together diverse data and information from a large number of European partners, and provides users with an understanding of climate change issues, many of whom may not have been familiar with the topic at the outset. The tool delivers GIS data and analysis functions on the web through the internet, widening the possibilities for participation in climate change adaptation planning.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Patrik Gustavo Wiesel, Elias Dresch, Eduardo Rodrigo Ramos de Santana and Eduardo Alcayaga Lobo

Urbanization is characterized mainly by changes in land use and conversion of natural areas into built environments, as well as by a series of impacts, such as loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

Urbanization is characterized mainly by changes in land use and conversion of natural areas into built environments, as well as by a series of impacts, such as loss of biodiversity, which interfere with the proper functioning of ecological networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Thus, the authors apply a bibliometric analysis using the term “Urban Trees” in the “Web of Science” database, between 2009 and 2019, as a keyword to include all urban green structures and identify the main aspects of urban ecological relationships. They found 8,367 published articles.

Findings

This review identified the main countries and research institutions that operate in urban afforestation. In general, developing countries seek to understand the environmental benefits that urban afforestation can provide, demonstrating the importance of maintaining existing green areas in urban centers to promote the balance of the ecosystem. It depends directly on the flow of ecosystem services provided by green infrastructures in the city, contributing significantly to carbon sequestration, retention of particulate matter, mitigation of heat islands and reduction of surface runoff, directly favoring the health and well-being of the population. The authors conclude that the actions currently implemented in urban afforestation, especially to increase the richness and abundance of species, will be decisive for the future of urban centers and the construction of more sustainable and egalitarian cities.

Originality/value

This work sought to develop a bibliographic research based on information obtained by bibliometric analysis that has the ability to identify trends and volumes of scientific production in a given area of knowledge.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Behdad Alizadeh and James Hitchmough

Urban landscapes play a significant role in supporting municipal, ecological and social systems. Besides, valuable environmental services and urban green spaces provide…

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Abstract

Purpose

Urban landscapes play a significant role in supporting municipal, ecological and social systems. Besides, valuable environmental services and urban green spaces provide social and psychological services, very important for the liveability of modern cities and the well-being of urban residents. It is clear that the area of green space in a city, the method of designing urban landscape and access to urban green space potentially affect the health, happiness, comfort, safety and security of urban dwellers. Urban landscape plays a significant role in providing habitats for wildlife, and an important vegetation type in doing this is species-rich herbaceous vegetation that provides pollen and nectar plus physical habitat for native fauna. Any factor that makes an impression on the urban landscape (such as climate change) will affect people’s lives directly or indirectly. There is a universal consensus that the temperature has increased in most of the world over the past century the investigation of climate change impacts on the urban landscape is the purpose of this study.

Findings

Understanding the process of climate change adaptation is necessary to design plant communities for use in public landscapes. Increased CO2 and air temperature in conjunction with the changing rainfall conditions, as the three important factors of climate change, potentially alter almost all world ecosystems. Climate change provides new opportunities, and in some cases, an obligate need to use non-native plant species in conjunction with native plant species, not only to reduce the side effects of climate change but also to increase the species diversity and aesthetic value in meadow-like naturalistic planting design.

Originality/value

The authors confirm that this work is original and has not been published elsewhere. In this paper, the authors report on the effects of climate change on urban landscape and suggest different kind of solutions to reduce the effects. The paper should be of interest to readers in the areas of landscape architecture, landscape ecologist, landscape planner, landscape managers and environmental designer.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Divine Kwaku Ahadzie, Richard Opoku, Stephen Nana Opoku Ware and Henry Mensah

The use of air-conditioners (ACs) is on the increase in the developing world, with exacerbating compounding effect on carbon footprints. With this development, there is…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of air-conditioners (ACs) is on the increase in the developing world, with exacerbating compounding effect on carbon footprints. With this development, there is the expectation that developing countries would begin to appreciate and understand occupant behaviours in the use of ACs towards combating climate change, especially as building energy consumption is heavily influenced by the behaviour of its occupants. This study aims to identify occupant behaviours that leads to efficient use of ACs in public buildings so that these can be factored into developing guidelines for improving energy efficiency in buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), survey questionnaire was used to collect data in office buildings in Kumasi, Ghana. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was employed for the analysis.

Findings

Switching on fan(s) as alternative to ACs has a path coefficient of 0.527, suggesting that it will have the most positive impact on energy consumption as far as AC use is concerned. The second occupant behaviour with a positive impact on energy consumption for AC use is opening windows for natural ventilation accounting for 0.351 significant path coefficient. Wearing of light or heavy clothing as a means of conserving energy achieved 0.174 impact coefficient while occupant behaviour of switching off ACs when leaving the room came last in the ranking, with an impact coefficient of 0.146. TBP is validated in this model, given that all the four occupant behaviours had their perceived behavioural control (PBC) having less impact on the behaviour compared to the behavioural attitude (BA) and the subjective norm (SN).

Research limitations/implications

This research focused on public buildings used as offices, and the findings may not be applicable to private company buildings and also residential properties. Given that Ghana and, for that matter, many developing countries rely heavily on thermal plant for electricity generation, the climate change implications of the findings are discussed.

Practical implications

It is recommended that behaviours of occupants should be considered and factored in building energy predictions to bridge the energy performance gap. Subsequently, project managers, designers and energy consultants are encouraged to provide fans and openable windows in offices, even if there is going to be an air-conditioning provisions.

Originality/value

Originality emanates from the paper being at the forefront of helping to understand occupants' behaviour in the use ACs and associated climate change implications in a developing country context. One of the new variables introduced, switching on fans as an alternative to ACs, achieved the highest path coefficient and has important implication for occupant behaviour in the use of ACs in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Ruida Stanvliet and Susan Parnell

The purpose of this paper is to assess the contribution of the UNESCO biosphere reserve concept to urban resilience.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the contribution of the UNESCO biosphere reserve concept to urban resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the challenges underpinning the problem of environmental degradation in cities. It then briefly considers available initiatives that can be implemented toward the realization of more sustainable cities. A case is made for the possible contribution of the UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a useful urban management tool.

Findings

Urban administrators have a range of tools to select from to support the design and management of sustainable cities. It is argued that the UNESCO biosphere reserve concept is potentially a very valuable tool, although, apart from academic studies, not truly tested in an urban context.

Originality/value

Biological diversity is the very essence that sustains life on earth and forms the basis of quality living conditions, even within built‐up areas. Today, cities are facing the pressures of increasing populations and the effects thereof on the environment. The challenge facing cities is how to improve the quality of life of all city dwellers amidst the environmental challenge of dwindling natural resources. The paper looks at a number of initiatives available to city administrators in their quest to create liveable cities. It is perhaps timeous to research the potential applicability of the biosphere reserve framework as an urban tool toward more resilient, environmentally acceptable urban landscapes.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2010

Aleksandra Kazmierczak and Erik Bichard

The inevitability of climate change and its consequences brings on the need to find new ways of adapting to extreme events, such as floods. One immediate measure would be…

Abstract

Purpose

The inevitability of climate change and its consequences brings on the need to find new ways of adapting to extreme events, such as floods. One immediate measure would be to make physical improvements to houses to either prevent their inundation or minimise the damage when flood waters enter premises. Currently, the level of implementation of these measures is low. This paper aims to assess the willingness of house owners living in flood risk zones to carry out works that make their homes better protected against flooding.

Design/methodology/approach

Householders (101) in low‐ and medium‐income areas of Salford, north west of England were interviewed on their perceptions of climate change consequences, willingness to make physical improvements to their properties and preparedness to pay for them.

Findings

The homeowners are concerned about the climate change effects on their homes, feel responsible for protection of their properties against flooding and express interest in several flood protection measures. The median value respondents are willing to pay is under £100.

Research limitations/implications

This study is carried out on a small sample of respondents and national‐scale survey is recommended.

Practical implications

There is a need for action to increase the motivation to invest in property‐level flood measures among house owners, which should include awareness raising actions, subsidies and incentives promoting sustainable behaviour.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the new subject of property‐level flood protection and provides a comprehensive analysis of homeowners' perceptions of climate change risks and willingness to act.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

1 – 10 of 51