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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

G.J. Jackson, M.W. Hendriksen, R.W. Kay, M. Desmulliez, R.K. Durairaj and N.N. Ekere

The study investigates the sub process behaviour in stencil printing of type‐6 and type‐7 particle size distribution (PSD) Pb‐free solder pastes to assess their printing limits.

Abstract

Purpose

The study investigates the sub process behaviour in stencil printing of type‐6 and type‐7 particle size distribution (PSD) Pb‐free solder pastes to assess their printing limits.

Design/methodology/approach

Two solder pastes were used in a design of experiments approach to find optimal printing parameters

Findings

Solder paste printing has been achieved to ultimately produce 30 μm deposits at 60 μm pitch for full area array patterns using a type‐7 Pb‐free solder paste. For a type‐6 PSD solder paste, full area array printing was limited to 50 μm deposits at 110 μm pitch. However, for peripheral printing patterns, 50 μm deposits at 90 μm pitch were obtained. The disparities in the behaviour of the two paste types at different geometries can be attributed to differences in the sub‐processes of the stencil printing. The paste release of the type‐6 paste from the stencil apertures at fine pitch was superior to the type‐7 paste, which may be attributed to the finer particle paste producing an increased drag force along the stencil aperture walls. However, the type‐7 paste was able to fill the smallest aperture openings, ultimately to 30 μm, thus producing full array printing patterns at uniquely small pitches.

Practical implications

This advancement in the stencil printing process has been made possible by refinements to both solder paste design and stencil manufacturing technology. Adjustments in the solder paste rheology have enabled successful printing at ultra fine pitch geometries. This, together with selecting appropriate printing parameters such as printing speed, pressure, print gap and separation speed, allows a practical printing process window. Moreover, advancements in stencil fabrication methods have produced “state‐of‐the‐art” stencils exhibiting very precisely defined aperture shapes, with smooth walls at very fine pitch, thus allowing for improved solder paste release at very small dimensions.

Originality/value

The results can be used to present a low cost solution for Pb‐free flip chip wafer bumping. Furthermore, the results indicate that type‐6 and type‐7 solder pastes should be applied to/selected for specific application geometries.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

R. Durairaj, Lim Seow Pheng and Liew Jian Ping

The purpose of this paper is to characterise the electrical and mechanical properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-based isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterise the electrical and mechanical properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-based isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs). The paper also compares the electrical and mechanical performance of MWCNTs-based ICAs with silver flakes and silver nanoparticles-based ICAs.

Design/methodology/approach

The ICAs were formulated with dyglycidyl ether bisphenol A epoxy resin and conductive fillers such as silver flakes, silver nanoparticles and MWCNTs. The four-point probe is used to measure the bulk resistivity of the ICAs.

Findings

The results from the study showed that the percolation threshold of the MWCNTs-based ICAs is 1.5 Wt.%. At 3 Wt.%, the drop in bulk resistivity is lower than the conventional ICAs. The addition of silver nanoparticles increased the overall bulk resistivity of the system. The mechanical properties improved with the introduction of carbon nanotubes into the silver flakes–epoxy system.

Practical implications

The results from bulk resistivity and mechanical properties of the MWCNTs could help to formulate MWCNTs-based ICAs with optimum weight fraction.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that the addition of MWCNTs to the silver-based ICAs will enhance their mechanical and electrical conductivity. In addition, the optimum weight percentage is also determined, which shows a bulk resistivity value lower along with improved mechanical property with the conventional ICA system.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

S.R. Hillman, S.H. Mannan, R. Durairaj, A. Seman, N.N. Ekere, M. Dusek and C. Hunt

To investigate how jamming of particles in a solder paste varies as a function of the gap through which the particles flow, and to correlate this with skipping defects…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate how jamming of particles in a solder paste varies as a function of the gap through which the particles flow, and to correlate this with skipping defects during the printing process.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder pastes with particle sizes of types 2, 3, 4 and 5 were sheared between the parallel plates of a rheometer. Jamming events that cause the solder particles to be forced against each other were detected by monitoring the electrical current flowing between the plates under a bias of 1.0 V or less. Solder paste printing trials were conducted with the same pastes, and solder paste skipping monitored.

Findings

Jamming was detected when the ratio of plate gap to largest particle diameter is reduced to a value between 3.8 and 5.0. Decreasing the gap further results in increased jamming. A strong correlation between levels of skipping and jamming was found.

Research limitations/implications

More extensive printing trials are required before rheometric jamming detection can be used to predict printing performance.

Practical implications

The common rule of thumb used in solder paste printing that the aperture width should be no smaller than 4‐5 particle diameters is justified.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new technique for detecting jamming events which are too brief to be detected using normal rheometric techniques, but which have long been thought to be responsible for stochastic skipping defects during printing. Evidence supporting the link between jamming and this type of defect is presented.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Flavia V. Barbosa, José C.F. Teixeira, Senhorinha F.C.F. Teixeira, Rui A.M.M. Lima, Delfim F. Soares and Diana M.D. Pinho

The aim of this paper is to characterize the rheological properties of the flux media exposed to different levels of solicitation and to determine its influence on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to characterize the rheological properties of the flux media exposed to different levels of solicitation and to determine its influence on the rheology of the solder paste. The data obtained experimentally are fundamental for the development of numerical models that allow the simulation of the printing process of printed circuit boards (PCB).

Design/methodology/approach

Rheological tests were performed using the Malvern rheometer Bohlin CVO. These experiments consist of the analysis of the viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, elastic and viscous properties through oscillatory tests and the capacity to recover using a creep-recovery experiment. The results obtained from this rheological analysis are compared with the rheological properties of the solder paste F620.

Findings

The results have shown that the flux is viscoelastic in nature and shear thinning. The viscosity does not decrease with increasing solicitations, except in the case where the flow is withdrawn directly from the bottle. Even if the solder paste shows a thixotropic behavior, this is not the case of the flux, meaning that this property is given by the metal particles. Furthermore, the oscillatory tests proved that the flux presents a dominant solid-like behavior, higher than the solder paste, meaning that the cohesive/tacky behavior of the solder paste is given by the flux.

Research limitations/implications

To complement this work, printing tests are required.

Originality/value

This work demonstrates the importance of the rheological characterization of the flux in order to understand its influence in the solder paste performance during the stencil printing process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Won‐Sang Seo and Jong‐Bong Kim

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an analysis methodology for the stencil printing process and to obtain proper design parameters that guarantee the successful…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an analysis methodology for the stencil printing process and to obtain proper design parameters that guarantee the successful filling using suggested finite element analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Filling performance of solder paste in the stencil printing process is highly dependent on material properties such as viscosity and surface tension together with process parameters such as squeegee angle and squeegee speed. In order to investigate the effects of process parameters on the filling performance, the pressure built‐up under the squeegee and the filling procedure of the solder paste into an aperture were analysed. Due to the limitations of the computational memory and time, the analysis domain was simplified. The pressure development under the squeegee was investigated for various values of squeegee angle and speed; then, the filling behaviour with the pressure boundary condition was analysed for only one aperture. Finally, the two analysis results were integrated to obtain the successful filling condition. In this analysis method, process parameters that guarantee filling performance were decided on.

Findings

It was shown that higher squeezing pressure develops as the squeegee angle decreases and the squeegee speed increases. The filling performance, however, improves as the squeegee angle and the squeegee speed decrease. This is because the pressure duration time decreases as the squeegee speed increases.

Originality/value

This study suggests a new design approach to obtain proper process design parameters for successful filling of solder paste into an aperture. The direct analysis of filling with squeegee movement is impossible due to limitations of computer memory and computation time. To overcome these limitations, a two steps analysis approach is proposed and can be effectively applied in the design of stencil screen printing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

R. Durairaj, T.A. Nguty and N.N. Ekere

The paste printing process accounts for the majority of assembly defects, and most defects originate from poor understanding of the effect of printing process parameters…

Abstract

The paste printing process accounts for the majority of assembly defects, and most defects originate from poor understanding of the effect of printing process parameters on the printing performance. As the current product miniaturisation trend continues, area array type package solutions are now being designed into products. The assembly of these devices requires the printing of very small solder paste deposits. The printing of solder pastes through small stencil apertures typically results in stencil clogging and incomplete transfer of paste to the PCB pads. At the very narrow aperture sizes required for flip‐chip applications, the paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. This is because, for smaller paste volumes, surface tension effects become dominant over viscous flow. Proper understanding of the effect of the key material, equipment and process parameters, and their interactions, is crucial for achieving high print yields. During the aperture filling and emptying sub‐process, the solder paste experiences forces/stresses as it interacts with the stencil aperture walls and the pad surfaces, which directly impact the paste flow within the apertures. As the substrate and stencil separate, the frictional/adhesive force on the stencil walls competes directly with the adhesives/pull force on the PCB pads, often resulting in incomplete paste transfer or skipping/clogged apertures. In this paper, we investigate the effect of stencil design on the printing process and in particular the effect on paste transfer efficiency.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

S. Mallik, M. Schmidt, R. Bauer and N.N. Ekere

The purpose of this paper is to study the rheological behaviours of lead‐free solder pastes used for flip‐chip assembly applications and to correlate rheological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the rheological behaviours of lead‐free solder pastes used for flip‐chip assembly applications and to correlate rheological behaviours with the printing performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of rheological characterization techniques including viscosity, yield stress, oscillatory and creep‐recovery tests were carried out to investigate the rheological properties and behaviours of four different solder paste formulations based on no‐clean flux composition, with different alloy composition, metal content and particle size. A series of printing tests were also conducted to correlate printing performance.

Findings

The results show that in the viscosity test, all solder pastes exhibited a shear thinning behaviour in nature with different highest maximum viscosity. The yield stress test has been used to study the effect of temperature on the flow behaviour of solder pastes. A decrease in yield stress value with temperature was observed. The results from the oscillatory test were used to study the solid‐ and liquid‐like behaviours of solder pastes. Creep‐recovery testing showed that the solder paste with smaller particle size exhibited less recovery.

Research limitations/implications

More extensive research is needed to simulate the paste‐roll, aperture‐filling and aperture‐emptying stages of the stencil printing process using rheological test methods.

Practical implications

Implementation of these rheological characterization procedures in product development, process optimization and quality control can contribute significantly to reducing defects in the assembly of flip‐chip devices and subsequently increasing the production yield.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the viscosity, yield stress, oscillatory and creep‐recovery test methods can be successfully used to characterize the flow behaviour of solder pastes and also to predict their performance during the stencil printing process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Prashil Desai and R.N. Jagtap

There is a rising demand for high-performance 3D printed objects that have established potential applications in the sector of dental, automotive, electronics, aerospace…

51

Abstract

Purpose

There is a rising demand for high-performance 3D printed objects that have established potential applications in the sector of dental, automotive, electronics, aerospace, etc. Thus, to meet the requirements of high-performance 3D printed objects, this study has synthesized, formulated and applied a resorcinol epoxy acrylate (REA) oligomer to a stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer.

Design/methodology/approach

Different formulations were developed by blending reactive diluents in the concentration of 10%, 15% and 20%, along with the fixed quantity of photo-initiators in the REA oligomer. The structure of synthesized REA oligomer was confirmed using 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the rheological properties for prepared REA formulations were also evaluated. The ultraviolet (UV)-cured specimens of all REA formulations were thoroughly examined based on physical, chemical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. The best suitable formulation was selected for SLA 3D printing.

Findings

As perceived, UV cured REA specimens exhibit superior mechanical, chemical and thermal properties, portraying the ability to use as a high-performance material. The increase in the concentration of reactive diluents indicated a significant improvement in the properties of REA resin. The 20% diluted formulation achieved excellent compatibility with a SLA 3D printer; thus, 3D objects are cast with good dimensional stability and printability.

Originality/value

Resorcinol-based resins have always been a key additive used to enhance properties in the coating and tire industry. In a new attempt UV, curable REA has been applied to a SLA 3D printer to cast high-performance 3D printed objects.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

R. Durairaj, S. Mallik and N.N. Ekere

The purpose of this paper is to develop a quality control tool based on rheological test methods for solder paste and flux media.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a quality control tool based on rheological test methods for solder paste and flux media.

Design/methodology/approach

The rheological characterisation of solder pastes and flux media was carried out through the creep‐recovery, thixotropy and viscosity test methods. A rheometer with a parallel plate measuring geometry of 40 mm diameter and a gap height of 1 mm was used to characterise the paste and associated flux media.

Findings

The results from the study showed that the creep‐recovery test can be used to study the deformation and recovery of the pastes, which can be used to understand the slump behaviour in solder pastes. In addition, the results from the thixotropic and viscosity test were unsuccessful in determining the differences in the rheological flow behaviour in the solder pastes and the flux medium samples.

Research limitations/implications

More extensive rheological and printing testing is needed in order to correlate the findings from this study with the printing performance of the pastes.

Practical implications

The rheological test method presented in the paper will provide important information for research and development, quality control and production staff to facilitate the manufacture of solder pastes and flux media.

Originality/value

The paper explains how the rheological test can be used as a quality control tool to identify the suitability of a developmental solder paste and flux media used for the printing process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

S. Mallik, N.N. Ekere, R. Durairaj and A.E. Marks

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rheological behaviour of three different lead‐free solder pastes used for surface mount applications in the electronic industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rheological behaviour of three different lead‐free solder pastes used for surface mount applications in the electronic industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study concerns the rheological measurements of solder paste samples and is made up of three parts. The first part deals with the measurement of rhelogical properties with three different measuring geometries, the second part looks into the effect of frequencies on oscillatory stress sweep measurements and the final part reports on the characterisation and comparison of three different types of Pb‐free solder pastes.

Findings

Among the three geometries, the serrated parallel plate was found effective in minimising the wall‐slip effect. From the oscillatory stress‐sweep data with different frequencies; it was observed that the linear visco‐elastic region is independent of frequency for all the solder paste samples. To understand the shear thinning behaviour of solder paste, the well known Cross and Carreau models were fitted to the viscosity data. Moreover, creep‐recovery and dynamic frequency‐sweep tests were also carried out without destroying the sample's structure and have yielded useful information on the pastes behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

More extensive research is needed to fully characterise the wall‐slip behaviour during the rheological measurements of solder pastes.

Practical implications

The rheological test results presented in this paper will be of important value for research and development, quality control and facilitation of the manufacturing of solder pastes and flux mediums.

Originality/value

This paper shows how wall‐slip effects can be effectively avoided during rheological measurements of solder pastes. The paper also outlines how different rheological test methods can be used to characterise solder paste behaviours.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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