Women-led companies receive less than 5 per cent of early-stage equity investment. This paper aims to explore the disparity in equity funding between men- and women-led…
Women-led companies receive less than 5 per cent of early-stage equity investment. This paper aims to explore the disparity in equity funding between men- and women-led companies, using a social identity perspective, complemented by insights from signaling theory. We argue that in the angel group context, which is male-dominated, gender stereotypes may bias angels’ interpretation of the signals sent by entrepreneurs, so that entrepreneurial ventures led by men are more favorably evaluated, thus excluding women entrepreneurs from funding. The ideas are tested on a sample of 358 entrepreneurs who applied for funding from a northeast US angel group using perceptual data from both sides of the investment dyad. Findings suggest that angel investors view women-led entrepreneurial ventures as having less legitimacy, even though we see no difference in actual legitimacy across ventures.
The ideas are tested on a sample of 358 entrepreneurs who applied for funding from a northeast angel group using perceptual data from both sides of the investment dyad.
The findings suggest that, in the context of angel investing, there is a subtle bias that follows from the perceived stereotype between being female and the ability to lead a legitimate new venture. Thus, this study tests the tenets of the social identity theory by finding that mostly male angel investors act in accordance to their gender prescribed roles when they evaluate businesses presented by women entrepreneurs providing some evidence of “in-group” and “out-group” effects and stereotypes.
The findings continue the conversation about biases toward women in early-stage financing by using a social identity lens to look at the way in which adopted identities lead to particular outcomes and stereotypes. The authors have used the context of angel investing to test these ideas, finding some support for their contention that gender is pivotal when angels are making investment decisions. For researchers, this study suggests that gender should not be used solely as a control variable, but instead should be the focus of the inquiry itself.
For practitioners, this study reminds women seeking angel investment that they are not playing on a level field and so they should do all that they can to enhance the legitimacy of themselves and their ventures.
The authors contend that within an angel group that is composed of predominantly men, role stereotypes of entrepreneurs as masculine will be expected, therefore creating gender biases against women. The authors expect these biases, whether conscious or unconscious, will lead the angel investors to evaluate men entrepreneurs more favorably than women entrepreneurs as they move through the angel investment process. Therefore, for women entrepreneurs in the early stages of investment funding, the authors posit that the dearth of funding is a function of gender identity stereotypes which may be manifested in hidden and often unconscious biases on the part of the angel investor.
Global trends in the new public management (NPM) of education have manifested themselves differently in different countries. Its manifestation, the significant issue that…
Global trends in the new public management (NPM) of education have manifested themselves differently in different countries. Its manifestation, the significant issue that this paper addresses, is whether it has led to any changes in education in the third level sector in the Republic of Ireland in the last 10 years. This will be achieved through a critical exploration of the expression of higher educational reform worldwide, and a review of its impact on higher education (HE) in Ireland. Within this, there are a number of specific objectives: to discuss the context of HE (including policy issues and stakeholders) in the Republic of Ireland; to summarise the main trends of NPM in HE; to critically evaluate the concept of educational reform, and through an articulation of a theoretical framework, explore this growing global trend and examine whether Irish HE is developing in a similar direction.
For infants and children who have difficulties with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia), there are significant health risks that include aspiration (food and fluid…
For infants and children who have difficulties with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia), there are significant health risks that include aspiration (food and fluid entering the lungs) and poor growth. Videofluoroscopy is often the instrumental method of assessment used to exclude or confirm aspiration. The purpose of this paper is to investigate parental and referrer perceptions of the reasons for and the outcomes of videofluoroscopy.
Data were gathered through the use of structured telephone interviews before and after videofluoroscopy.
Four key themes emerged: first, the importance of identifying specifically the problems with swallowing; second, understanding the rationale for videofluoroscopy; third, preparing a child for videofluoroscopy; and fourth, using videofluoroscopy to inform management. Referrers used videofluoroscopy to confirm their concerns about a child’s ability to swallow safely.
Parents understood that the purpose of videofluoroscopy was to identify specific swallowing difficulties. They reported anxieties with managing the child’s positioning during the procedure and whether the child would eat. They also had concerns about outcomes from the study. Some of these issues raise questions about the true value and benefits of videofluoroscopy.
This is the first study that considers parent views of an instrumental assessment. For some parents of children with learning disabilities, mealtimes are an important social occasion. Further studies that focus on decision making about children with learning disabilities who find feeding difficult are warranted as parents feel loss and disempowerment when decisions are made about non-oral feeding.