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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Carlos M.P. Sousa, Ji Yan, Emanuel Gomes and Jorge Lengler

The paper examines the impact of export activity on productivity and how this effect is moderated by R&D investment and foreign ownership.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the impact of export activity on productivity and how this effect is moderated by R&D investment and foreign ownership.

Design/methodology/approach

A time-lag effect is taken into account when examining the proposed model. Data are collected from the Annual Industrial Survey of the National Bureau of Statistics of China. A dataset containing 117,340 firms across the sample period (2001–2007) are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that while R&D investment plays a significant role in strengthening the positive effect of export activity on a firm's productivity, foreign ownership surprisingly has a negative moderating role.

Originality/value

Scholarly interest in the links between export activity and productivity is on the rise. However, the bulk of research has been focused on understanding the effects of export activity on productivity at the country or industry level. Little has been done at the firm level. Another gap in the literature is that the mechanism through which the impact of export activity can be leveraged to enhance the firm's productivity has been largely ignored. To address these issues, the study adopts the learning-by-exporting theory to examine the relationship between export and productivity at the firm-level and how R&D investment and foreign ownership may explain how learning can be leveraged to enhance the firm's productivity. Finally, these relationships are examined in the context of firms from an emerging market, China, which is especially relevant for the learning-by-exporting argument used in this study.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Janno Reiljan and Ingra Paltser

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the international position of Estonia among the member states of the EU and countries closely associated with the EU, from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the international position of Estonia among the member states of the EU and countries closely associated with the EU, from the perspective of the effect of research and development (R & D) policy on innovation activities in the business sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on existing scientific research literature on the relationships between R & D policy and business sector R & D activities and innovation performance, a set of indicators describing R & D policy measures was created for the business sector. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, independent robust dimensions of R & D policy were brought out. After eliminating the problem of multicollinearity in R & D policy indicators, robust multiple regression models were conducted to present a comprehensive empirical description of the shaping of business sector R & D and innovation activities in the sample of investigated countries.

Findings

Based on the literature, the influences of R & D policy measures on business sector R & D activities and innovation performance were systemised; public R & D policy dimensions were empirically defined; the intensity of R & D policy influence on business sector R & D activities was estimated; the differences between real and prognostic values of business sector performance indicators in Estonia were calculated in order to characterise the efficiency of Estonian R & D policy and the influence of the socioeconomic environment.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of comparable data describing R & D policy and R & D activities and innovation performance in the business sector limits the comprehensiveness of the analysis (i.e. the number of analysed indicators).

Practical implications

The assessment and comparative analysis of the influence of R & D policy components on business sector R & D activities and innovation performance in different countries makes it possible to identify directions for increasing the efficiency of R & D policy under the specific influence of the socioeconomic environment, especially in new member states of the EU.

Originality/value

Using the PCA method significantly increased the robustness of the macro-quantitative description of R & D policy dimensions. By combining the set of new synthetic R & D policy indicators created by the PCA with the multiple regression analysis method, a significant increase in the robustness of model coefficients (i.e. the assessments of influence intensity) was achieved. These robust models create the basis for reliable empirical assessment of the influence of R & D policy and a comparative analysis of the results.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Eva Mulero Mendigorri, Teresa García Valderrama and Vanesa Rodríguez Cornejo

The purpose of this paper is to validate empirically a measurement scale of the effectiveness of R & D activities, starting from previous work in which the content…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate empirically a measurement scale of the effectiveness of R & D activities, starting from previous work in which the content was validated.

Design/methodology/approach

Following psychometric standards the authors have addressed the analysis phases of construct dimensionality, reliability and validity (convergent, discriminant and nomologic), and the scale criteria are shown to be valid in their three temporal manifestations (retrospective, concurrent and predictive). The empirical evidence was drawn from a sample of 85 companies belonging to the Spanish pharmaceutical sector.

Findings

Globally the authors provide evidence of reliability, validity of construct and validity of criterion in their diverse manifestations, for the scale designed and validated, on effectiveness in R & D. The authors divide the results into two groups: one for content of the scale and the other for relationships of the scale with other variables. With respect to the first, it is notable that, although in general the variables analyzed coincide with the previous broad and multidisciplinary theory on the success factors of R & D activities, what the authors provide is empirical evidence of the most important factors and variables for effectiveness in R & D; the authors emphasize that the results of the sample analyzed indicate that the most important factor is the close integration of the R & D activities with the corporate strategy, followed by the proper planning of these activities, and the achievement of financial results for the company. With respect to the relationship of the scale with other variables, the authors have found positive and significant relationships between the effectiveness in R & D and the following financial variables: net turnover and earnings after taxes. The authors have also found positive and significant relationships between different characteristics of the company and the achievement of success in R & D activities. Thus, being a company of larger size, the existence of an R & D department, the existence of specific incentive systems for the R & D personnel, the adoption of new management techniques in the R & D department, and the patents policy of the company are all factors that have a positive influence.

Research limitations/implications

There are three main limitations of the study: the size of the sample; the decision to use a very particular highly innovatory sector, the pharmaceutical industry; and conducting the study in only one specific country, Spain. The results should be interpreted taking into account these limitations. Another limitation is the absence of previously validated scales. This meant that the authors were unable to do any comparative analyses.

Practical implications

The authors have contributed by summarizing and testing the existing theories on the factors of success in R & D. This should give R & D managers a more comprehensive and useful picture of the variables that have been considered more important, and should enable them to choose from among the range of variables proposed those that may be considered most relevant for inclusion in their own balanced scorecard. More generally, the results should help them in the management of their activity. For researchers the authors make available an already validated scale with which to work in various different samples and settings.

Originality/value

The originality of the work resides in two aspects. First, a very wide set of variables proposed in the literature is analyzed, with the object of establishing the relationships and the ranking of these variables, which would not be clear if the variables were analyzed in isolation. Second, there is originality in the methodology employed for measuring the result of activities with a high level of uncertainty and risk, specifically R & D activities in the highly innovative companies of the pharmaceutical industry. It is original because, to date, the scale has only been validated theoretically – there is no work in the literature validating it empirically.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Peder Veng Søberg

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business activities. In particular, the focus is on internationalization in emerging markets such as China and India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a framework primarily based on knowledge management theory, which is illustrated in relation to interesting cases of four companies that are global leaders.

Findings

An R&D knowledge gap still exists in China and India. Differences across business activities exist in terms of the characteristics of the knowledge, which is most important for the internationalization in emerging markets within multinational corporations (MNCs). The most important knowledge for the internationalization of R&D activities is more tacit than it is for manufacturing activities and international purchasing activities. The source of the most important knowledge for the internationalization of R&D activities, as well as manufacturing activities, is more likely to be the MNC itself, than when marketing activities or purchasing activities are internationalized to emerging markets.

Originality/value

A model is developed that illustrates differences between the most important knowledge for the internationalization of key business activities within MNCs. It is proposed that the technical dimension of tacit knowledge is more easily codified than the cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge. The cognitive dimension of local tacit knowledge is crucial for the internationalization of marketing activities, whereas the technical dimension of tacit R&D knowledge from the home base is crucial for the internationalization of R&D activities.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Petri Suomala

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance…

Abstract

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance measurement is one of the means that can be employed in the pursuit of effectiveness.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2005

M. McAleer, Daniel Slottje and Pei Syn Wee

Abstract

Details

Patent Activity and Technical Change in US Industries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-858-3

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Book part
Publication date: 19 April 2017

Shinya Suzuki, René Belderbos and Hyeog Ug Kwon

We examine the determinants of multinational firms’ propensity to conduct R&D activities in host countries, with specific attention to the influence of host countries…

Abstract

We examine the determinants of multinational firms’ propensity to conduct R&D activities in host countries, with specific attention to the influence of host countries’ university research. We consider heterogeneous locational drivers related to the type of R&D activity: basic research, applied research, development for local markets, and development for global markets. Drawing on official survey data on R&D activities by 498 Japanese multinational firms in 24 host countries and estimating two-stage models, we find that the likelihood that firms conduct R&D in a host country is generally increasing in the strength of university research. Conditional on a firm’s R&D presence, university research strength is associated with a greater propensity to conduct (basic) research activities rather than (local) development, while the intensity of host country university–industry collaboration is most strongly associated with applied research. Host country experience and the depth of the firm’s manufacturing presence are also associated higher propensities to engage in research.

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Van Ha, Mark J. Holmes and Gazi Hassan

This study focuses on the linkages between foreign direct investment and the research and development (R&D) and innovation activity of domestic enterprises in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on the linkages between foreign direct investment and the research and development (R&D) and innovation activity of domestic enterprises in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The Heckman selection model approach is applied to a panel dataset of nearly 7,000 Vietnamese firms for the 2011–2015 study period to investigate the impact of foreign presence on the R&D of local firms through horizontal and vertical linkages. Probit model estimation is employed to examine how foreign investment influences the innovation activity of local companies.

Findings

While there are a small number of firms carrying out R&D activities in Vietnam, foreign or joint domestic–foreign venture firms are less inclined than domestic firms to undertake R&D. Domestic factors that include capital, labor quality, location and export status of firm have a significant effect on the decision of domestic firms to participate in R&D activity. Only forward linkages and the gross firm output are found to have an impact on the R&D intensity of domestic enterprises, while other factors appear to have no significant influence on how much firms spend on R&D activities.

Practical implications

In order to promote the R&D activity of domestic firms, policy should focus on (1) the backward linkages between local firms in downstream sectors with their foreign suppliers in upstream sectors, and (2) the internal factors such as labor, capital or location that affect the decisions made by domestic firms.

Originality/value

Given that foreign investment may affect R&D and innovation activity of local firms in host countries, the impact is relatively unexplored for many emerging economies and not so in the case of Vietnam. The availability of a unique survey on Vietnamese firm technology and competitiveness provides the opportunity to address this gap in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Cicero Eduardo Walter, Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira, Cláudia Miranda Veloso and Daniel Ferreira Polónia

There is a scarcity of empirical evidence in the literature on the chain of causality involving tax incentives for Research and Development (R&D) activities and their…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a scarcity of empirical evidence in the literature on the chain of causality involving tax incentives for Research and Development (R&D) activities and their subsequent transformation into innovation. This study aims to assess the influence of R&D tax incentives on the organizational attributes of Portuguese firms to identify how they are converted into innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural research model consisting of 339 companies that benefited from the Fiscal Incentive System supporting R&D in Enterprises, during the period from 2013 to 2016, was developed. This was done to assess the role of R&D tax incentives on the organizational attributes that form the innovation capacity. The model was validated using the multivariate statistical technique of structural equation modeling with partial least squares estimation (partial least squares structural equation modeling – PLS-SEM).

Findings

The results found suggest that although it is not possible to unequivocally identify the mechanisms used to convert tax incentives into innovation, it is possible to conclude that they play an important spillover effect for the construction and strengthening of organizational attributes. These form the basis of innovation capacity, to the extent that they positively influence the firms’ total assets, equity, liabilities, number of employees and sales. Hence, contributions are brought to both the literature on tax incentives and the general literature on innovation.

Originality/value

For policymakers, the evidence points to the fact that in addition to the incentives provided, novel mechanisms need to be established to help firms develop their absorptive capacity. The objective is to effectively convert the incentives received into innovation through the organizational attributes analyzed. From the firms’ point of view, the results found suggest that tax incentives act as a catalyst for making R&D investments. Additionally, there is an influence on employability, which effectively enhances the chances of innovation in the long run. Tax incentives received by Portuguese firms also have the effect of promoting economic dynamism – by enhancing the following: investments in infrastructure, the hiring of employees and the increasing of sales, generating positive externalities for both firms and society.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2020

Niels le Duc

This paper aims to introduce and advocate the concept of resource commitment to better understand multinational enterprise (MNE) research and development (R&D) behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce and advocate the concept of resource commitment to better understand multinational enterprise (MNE) research and development (R&D) behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a theory adaptation research design, this paper assesses the characteristics and antecedents associated with varying resource commitment positions. It does so in relation to MNE R&D activities, considering their importance to firm competitiveness and the recent increases in the number of locations and innovative activities a firm might choose to invest in.

Findings

The paper presents a framework showing that differences in resource commitment are more nuanced than expected. The evaluation of antecedents shows that the external environment, the purpose of R&D activities and firm experience influence the resource commitment position of a firm’s R&D activities.

Originality/value

The paper provides a pathway toward understanding of MNE R&D behavior, explaining observable differences in resource and commitment levels of R&D units. The presented framework offers MNE managers insight into when to adopt which resource commitment positions. It offers policymakers insights into the type of activities and the companies they need to attract to maximize the added value of firm’s investments in their country/region.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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