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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sekar Chellappan and R Sudha

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of participation of farmers in soil conservation projects in the Western Ghats of India.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, multistage purposive sampling was followed. The sample respondents were identified for the survey in all the five categories of watersheds (very high, high, medium, low and very low priority watersheds) in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu at the rate of 50 farm respondents in each category. Since the investment among the five categories of watersheds did not show any significant differences, the sample farmers were post stratified as marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on farm size for further analysis.

Findings

The investment analysis showed a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.03 for staggered trenches for tea to 1.40 for bench terrace for carrot. For annual crops, the BCR for bench terrace varied from 1.03 for cabbage to 1.32 for carrot. Among the soil conservation technologies, in tea plantation, stone wall had the highest net present value (NPV) of Rs. 74,335. Staggered trench had the lower NPV Rs. 19,237 among all conservation structures. The results of the contingent valuation showed that cropped area, farm size, on-farm income positively and significantly influenced the willingness to pay (WTP) towards soil conservation. Family size and age of the farmer negatively influenced the WTP of the respondents significantly. The multinomial logit model indicated that staggered trench had direct impact on productivity. In tea plantation, staggered trench adoption was influenced by area under plantation crops, farm size, educational level and land slope. The participation index was very low (<30), indicating the poor participation of farmers in soil conservation programmes.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study reveal the appropriateness of the soil conservation technologies for the select soil type as well as the specific socioeconomic conditions of the farmers undertaking conservation compliance programs in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Understanding the farmer’s perceptions and adoption behaviour is important in making the whole programme a successful one. Hence the results of the study may not be generalized for other study zones, unless otherwise, the agro-ecological zone is similar to the site where the study was conducted.

Practical implications

The study suggested that adoption of conservation technologies should be promoted in a big way to conserve natural resources like soil and enhance economic returns. It is also advocated that institutions should provide only guidance for community participation not on community governance and the role should be involving the real stakeholders/beneficiaries under participatory mode to achieve the goal of soil conservation. The bottom-up approach should be adopted to address the real issues involved in conservation compliance programmes.

Social implications

The outcome of the study advocates the economic viability of conservation technologies adopted by the crop farmers. The project results also advised the farmers, institutions and the enforcements authorities, the strategies to be adopted to minimize soil loss and increase crop productivity by adopting the appropriate conservation compliance programs. The results also revealed that conservation of soil and water not only conserved the precious natural resources but also had far reaching effect on the yield of croplands, which would be reflected on the food and nutritional securities of the local communities at the micro level and the nation as a whole at the macro level.

Originality/value

The research outcome is based on the field level research done by the authors in the Western Ghats of India. The primary data collected from the respondents were analysed and used for drawing inferences and conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Chia‐Min Wei and Chia‐Yon Chen

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the incentive from transaction cost can be beneficial due to the selection and implementation of the purchasing strategy under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the incentive from transaction cost can be beneficial due to the selection and implementation of the purchasing strategy under different scenarios in the value chain, including the automotive assembly sector and auto parts sector. Furthermore, it aims to investigate how to reach break even point between transaction cost and agency cost and to further achieve the goal of cost minimization.

Design/methodology/approach

This is empirical analysis of variables constructed from transaction cost theory and data obtained from two famous motor companies in Taiwan automotive industry. This study adopts the probit model and tobit regression model to test and discuss the parameters in the model to deeply realize the influence of transaction cost variables towards purchasing strategy.

Findings

The findings prove the situation of multiple sourcing in supplying auto parts and demonstrate that the dimensions in transaction cost are truly important factors to affect the purchasing strategies. In addition, the empirical results show the explanatory capabilities of variables are very significant in monopoly power, steering system, electro mechanism, and other parts systems.

Practical implications

The awareness on transaction cost are beneficial to partner selection of automotive companies in Taiwan. These findings also improve the quality of purchasing strategy in Taiwan automotive industry.

Originality/value

This study explores the variables of transaction cost influencing purchasing strategies. In addition, the knowledge on transaction cost towards purchasing strategy helps companies enhance the quality in future purchasing strategy and select their suppliers.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 108 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Qing Hu, Robert Mason, Sharon J. Williams and Pauline Found

Lean business ideology has been one of the recent dominant research areas in operations management. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on Lean in small- and…

Abstract

Purpose

Lean business ideology has been one of the recent dominant research areas in operations management. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on Lean in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by systematically reviewing the literature in relation to the implementation of Lean in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

Tranfield et al.’s (2003) systematic review methodology was employed covering three stages: planning, conducting and reporting/dissemination.

Findings

A descriptive analysis of the papers reviewed is provided. From the thematic analysis of the literature four main themes are identified: the scope/type of Lean being adopted by SMEs, how Lean is used in SMEs, the impact of Lean implementation on SMEs and the critical success factors for Lean implementation in SMEs. Key inhibitors and enablers related to firm size when implementing Lean are also identified in the concluding discussion.

Research limitations/implications

Nine recommendations for future research are developed associated with Lean implementation in SMEs.

Practical implications

The authors suggest SMEs to integrate organisational factors such as employee empowerment and the development of a supportive strategy into their Lean implementation plans. A preliminary “Staircase Road Map” to guide SMEs in implementing Lean is also developed.

Originality/value

This paper goes beyond previous literature reviews of Lean by systematically and critically evaluating key themes of Lean implementation within an SME environment. It not only provides a road map for SME owners/managers who intend to implement Lean, but also provides the academic community with an agenda for future research.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Antonio C. Caputo and Pacifico M. Pelagagge

The paper's aim is to assess the impact of product related features on the performances of assembly line manufacturing systems, also providing a specific Design for…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to assess the impact of product related features on the performances of assembly line manufacturing systems, also providing a specific Design for Manufacturing and Assembly rating index to assess the goodness of a product design solution with respect to assembly line performances.

Design/methodology/approach

A computer simulation‐based parametric analysis was carried out to assess the impact of four major product‐related parameters. 216 different assembly line balance problem instances were evaluated. Findings allowed to develop a DFMA rating index specific for assembly line manufacturing as well as design guidelines.

Findings

Assembly sequence degrees of freedom and the ratio of the average task duration to the maximum duration are the most influencing parameters. While the former should be maximized, only a moderate task duration variability was found beneficial. The influence of other factors resulted less marked and changing on a case‐specific basis.

Research limitations/implications

Complex interactions between product design features and line performances prevent generalization. The performed numerical experimentation, although extensive, remains somewhat limited respect all possible practical situations. The proposed rating index should be utilized while maintaining an overall perspective about the mutual influence of all parameters. Some suggested guidelines imply a trade off with traditional DFMA guidelines.

Practical implications

Product designers are given useful insights, tools and guidelines to develop better producible products. With the proposed ranking index a designer can easily rate his choices when selecting assembly tasks and sequences, as well as rank alternative product designs solutions.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original discussion about the impact of product design choices on assembly line performances. The developed DFMA rating index and guidelines are new.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Lavuri Rambabu and Ramlal Porika

Packaging is a mantra for encountering a period of immense potential. It keeps on being seen as a key component in the buying decision, and also it is exhibited as a brand…

Abstract

Purpose

Packaging is a mantra for encountering a period of immense potential. It keeps on being seen as a key component in the buying decision, and also it is exhibited as a brand communication gadget that goes past the products and can interface with customers in both the physical and virtual forms. The research aspiration is to establish that the speculation of packaging approaches will influence on buyers’ purchasing mode. An attempt has been made to examine and present the results. This research facilitates to discern the perception of consumer in the direction of packaging strategies and to spot the power of packaging factors, elements and strategies of product packaging on purchasing mode of buyers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 836 respondents from the four major cities of two states in India through structure questionnaire. Every age of the respondents was targeted in the this study to get their perception and buying mode of them, and the analysis was done by using analysis of variance, correlation and regression analysis by using 23.0 version of SPSS.

Findings

The consequence of research reveals that media exposures, packaging strategies and elements have better influence on the buyers’ buying mode. Business people must produce innovative bundling designs for their items to market. These allow the keeping and catching the new and existed customers, because packaging has superior influence and also helps in acquiring and retaining the new consumers for their new products.

Research limitations/implications

This study being at micro level considered that the city customers may not be similar to the rural customers. Hence, the perception of rural and urban may not be much different. A sample size is 836 drawn from the four major cities of two states in India; therefore, the sample may not represent the whole population of India. Hence, the limitation of generalization will be there. The elicited opinion of consumers may not be reliable all the times, and study considered only some of FMCG products.

Originality/value

The study theme is to establish the theory as stated earlier, and it's proved consumers are considering the packaging styles and designs while purchasing the products, which promotes to meet the expectations of the present and potential customers.

Details

Journal of Industry-University Collaboration, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-357X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Santosh Kumar and Roopali Sharma

The health care industry has experienced vibrant growth since the last few decades. Total health care business has reached more than US$160bn in the country and is still…

Abstract

Purpose

The health care industry has experienced vibrant growth since the last few decades. Total health care business has reached more than US$160bn in the country and is still growing, but sustainable growth of industry is a major area of concern. An unsustainable and uneven growth might contribute in growth presently, but will not help in the long run due to extinction in future. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has been divided into two phases to analyze the barriers to achieve sustainable growth, i.e., identification of barriers and their analysis. The study has used three different research phases: identification of barriers from the literature, interviews with experts of industry and designing an ISM model. The identification phase led to the selection of 19 barriers from literature and by suggestions from industrial experts. The interpretive structural modeling (ISM) analysis was used to understand the impact and linkage of identified barriers. The barriers are further classified into four major categories on the basis of drive power and dependence power using “Matrices d’Impacts Croises Multiplication. Appliqué a un Classement” analysis.

Findings

The present research identifies 19 barriers in the field of growth of health care mainly in rural area with 11 levels in ISM-designed model. Barriers such as lack of awareness, medical mistrust, cost/benefit, transportation, high out of pocket expenditure, lack of health insurance, medical unawareness and the cultural dimension (traditional beliefs) have very high dependency power. These variables are highly influenced by other barriers. Barriers such as low outreach (geographical reach), information and communication, insufficient capacity planning, and highest growth in population have very high driving and dependence power. They have a very high impact on the system as any change in them will have a direct impact on others. Remaining seven selected barriers have a very high driving power and they are generally independent in nature and have less impact on the system as whole.

Social implications

This study seeks to identify which barrier is acting as the most dominant one and this result is helpful for policy-makers to achieve goals of National Health Mission (NHM) by removing the dominant barrier.

Originality/value

Total health care business reaches more than US$160bn in the country and is still growing, but sustainable growth of industry is a major area of concern. This paper is one of the preliminary attempts to identify which barrier is acting as the most dominant one and this result is helpful for policy-makers to achieve the goals of NHM by removing the dominant barrier.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Sonal Dhemla and Kanika Varma

There has been a dramatic increase in hypertension in developing countries along with changes in food consumption patterns contributing to higher levels of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a dramatic increase in hypertension in developing countries along with changes in food consumption patterns contributing to higher levels of sodium. Evidence shows that a high level of sodium intake is a major cause of high blood pressure and other heart diseases along with other associated diseases. Therefore, it is important to determine current consumption levels of sodium in a population to facilitate the development and implementation of any specific salt reduction program.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted among 60 subjects (25-45 years) residing in Jaipur City. Subjects’ sodium consumption levels were assessed via assessment of 24-h urinary sodium excretion levels, the “gold standard” method advocated by WHO/PAHO (2010) and 24-h dietary recall for three days including one holiday.

Findings

The findings of the study indicated that the subjects were found to be consuming higher levels of sodium (males, 5,792 mg/d; females, 5,911 mg/d) than recommended by WHO, i.e. less than 2,300 mg/d. Completeness of urine was confirmed by fat-free mass determined by electrical bio-impedance (47.6 ± 7.6 kg) and determined by using 24-h urinary excretion of creatinine (33.7 ± 10.1 kg). Two variables were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p = 0.00). Assuming that the sodium eliminated in the urine comes from the salt only, this excretion would correspond with a dietary salt intake of 14.71 and 15.01 g/d in males and females, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was reported to be 4,133 ± 1,111 mg/day and 3,953 ± 945 mg/d in males and females, respectively. A non-significant difference was found between the two variables. Urinary sodium excretion correlated non-significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure figures (r = 0.09 and r = −0.02, respectively).

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study included the small sample size. Purposive sampling was adopted due to difficulty in obtaining urine sample and required willingness of the respondent. This may give fair robust estimate.

Originality/value

The present results will help provide new data about the baseline salt intake in young and middle-aged population of Jaipur City and will further help the concerned agencies to plan meaningful strategies to reduce salt intake, and it must involve public education and awareness to change the consumption pattern.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Dhamawatee Harnarun Etwaroo, Viswen Armoogum, Dayawatee Goburdhun, Arvind Ruggoo, Pooja Dookheea, Henna Thorul and Fahilah Zainab Noormahomed

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of food additives, caffeine and total sugars in locally manufactured beverages in Mauritius and ascertain their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of food additives, caffeine and total sugars in locally manufactured beverages in Mauritius and ascertain their compliance with national and international norms.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 48 beverages: 21 soft drinks, 14 ice teas, 5 fruit drinks, 5 nonalcoholic sparkling drinks and 3 tonic waters were analysed for the level of sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame K and saccharin), preservatives (benzoic and sorbic acid), colours (tartrazine, sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, allura red, amaranth, ponceau 4R, carmoisine, erythrosine, brilliant blue, green S and patent blue), citric acid, caffeine and total sugars. High-performance liquid chromatography methods used to quantify the levels of total sugars, caffeine and additives were validated against parameters such as linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision and limit of quantification.

Findings

Out of 48 beverages, 13 contained at least one sweetener. The most frequently used sweeteners were acesulfame K and aspartame. Benzoic acid was present in 27 samples (42.32–168.03 mg/L). Sorbic acid was present in 14 beverages (13.01–180.38 mg/L). Citric acid (0.7–4 g/L) was present in all the 48 beverages, while caffeine was present in 20 samples in the range of 14.01–129.42 mg/L. Nine samples contained at least one artificial colour and the most frequently used colours were tartrazine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue and carmoisine. The average level of total sugars present in the beverages was 10 g/100 ml. The validation parameters obtained showed evidence for method suitability.

Research limitations/implications

Beverages sold by individuals on the street, small restaurants and markets were not analysed.

Originality/value

This study provides an overview of the chemical composition of soft drinks and their compliance with Food Regulations. It also paves the way to investigate weaknesses, knowledge, attitudes and practices of local manufacturers, which leads to non-adherence to Regulations regarding food additives.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Tashooq Bhat, Syed Zameer Hussain, Bazila Naseer, Abdul Hameed Rather and Shakeel Ahmad Mir

Snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors globally, and people are nowadays conscious about intake of healthy snacks on regular basis. There is enormous…

Abstract

Purpose

Snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors globally, and people are nowadays conscious about intake of healthy snacks on regular basis. There is enormous variety of ready-to-snacks available in the market. Brown rice though highly nutritious in comparison to polished rice is consumed meagerly by masses. Each raw material/ingredient used in extrusion cooking requires specific control of processing variables to meet acceptable product characteristics and consumer demands, which in turn necessitates the need to optimize the conditions for development of brown-rice-based snacks. The aim of this study was to optimize the extrusion cooking conditions for development of brown-rice-based extrudates.

Design/methodology/approach

Extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) experimental design. The effect of feed moisture (10–22%), screw speed (215–385 rpm) and barrel temperature (95–160 °C) on specific mechanical energy (SME), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS) and instrumental color (L*, a*, b*) was evaluated.

Findings

All the system and product responses were significantly (p < 0.01) affected by independent variables. Regression models obtained were highly significant with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.992). The optimum extrusion conditions obtained by numerical optimization for development of snacks were moisture content of 12%, screw speed of 350 rpm and temperature of 133 °C. The vitamin B1 content of brown-rice-based snacks was 0.45 mg/100 (50% of RDA) whereas no vitamin B1 was detected in white-rice-based snacks used as control.

Practical implications

The developed snacks contain 0.45 mg/100 g of vitamin B1. If a person on an average consumes 150 g of snacks in a day, 50% of RDA (1.2 mg/day) for vitamin B1 can be sufficed. Therefore, developed snacks can prove to be a viable vehicle to reduce the vitamin B1 deficiency burden among the target population. Large-scale production and consumption of such type of snacks could improve the nutritional status of vitamin B1 deficient people. Furthermore, it can also provide a good opportunity for snack industry to develop nutritious snacks through utilization of brown rice.

Originality/value

Brown rice flour contains nutrients such as iron, calcium, zinc, sodium and vitamin B1 in appreciable portions and was thus explored for development of nutritious snacks. Moreover, developed snacks recorded an overall acceptability of 4.70 out of 5, which depicts it is acceptable for mass production and consumption.

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

José-Luís Pereira, João Varajão and Robbie Uahi

The purpose of this paper is regarding the execution of business processes by Business Process Management Systems (BPMS), during design-time modelers have to specify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is regarding the execution of business processes by Business Process Management Systems (BPMS), during design-time modelers have to specify the potential performers of a work activity according to their organizational position or role. Once several workers may share the same role, at run-time all of them (indistinctively) can be assigned by BPMS to execute a work activity. However, distinct individuals have different personality traits and, for certain instances of work (requiring, for example, specific soft skills) some of them might perform better. A new approach to work distribution in business processes supported by BPMS, which takes into account the psychological characteristics of workers was proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

As stated in Section 3 of the paper, in this work the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology, as proposed by Kuechler and Vaishnavi (2008) was used. All the five steps, from the “Awareness of problem” to the “Conclusion” were accomplished, being described in the paper.

Findings

It is demonstrated that, by using the proposed approach, BPMS might deliver work to people in a more effective way, by selecting those workers that seem to be more suitable to accomplish each particular piece of work, taking into account the characteristics of the work itself and the specific profiles of the workers eligible to execute it.

Originality/value

BPMSs are responsible for the execution of business process models, by delivering work activities to suitable agents (human or artificial), which execute them. Addressing a gap in the BPM literature, this paper presents a new approach for improving work distribution in business processes supported by BPMS, enabling to assign (in run-time) the most suitable workers to perform specific work activities, grounded on the concept of psychological profile and taking into account technical, human and social aspects.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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