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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Pauline M. Shum and Jisok Kang

Leveraged and inverse ETFs (hereafter leveraged ETFs) have received much press coverage of late due to issues with their performance. Managers and the media have focused…

Abstract

Purpose

Leveraged and inverse ETFs (hereafter leveraged ETFs) have received much press coverage of late due to issues with their performance. Managers and the media have focused investors' attention on the impact of compounding, when the funds are held for more than one day. The aim of this paper is to lay out a framework for assessing the performance of leveraged ETFs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a simple way to disentangle the effect of compounding and that of the management of the fund and the trading premiums/discounts, all of which affect investors' bottom line. The former is influenced by the effectiveness and the costs of the manager's (synthetic) replication strategy and the use of leverage. The latter reflects liquidity and the efficiency of the market.

Findings

The paper finds that tracking errors were not caused by the effects of compounding alone. Depending on the fund, the impact of management factors can outweigh the impact of compounding, and substantial premiums/discounts caused by reduced liquidity during the financial crisis further distorted performance.

Originality/value

The authors propose a framework for practitioners to evaluate the performance of leveraged ETFs. This framework highlights a very topical issue, that of the impact of synthetic replication, which all leveraged ETFs use. Financial regulators such as the SEC and the Financial Stability Board have all taken issue with synthetically replicated ETFs. In leveraged ETFs, this issue is masked by the effects of compounding. The framework the authors propose allows investors to disentangle the two effects.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Szymon Stereńczak

This paper aims to empirically indicate the factors influencing stock liquidity premium (i.e. the relationship between liquidity and stock returns) in one of the leading…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to empirically indicate the factors influencing stock liquidity premium (i.e. the relationship between liquidity and stock returns) in one of the leading European emerging markets, namely, the Polish one.

Design/methodology/approach

Various firms’ characteristics and market states are analysed as potentially affecting liquidity premiums in the Polish stock market. Stock returns are regressed on liquidity measures and panel models are used. Liquidity premium has been estimated in various subsamples.

Findings

The findings vividly contradict the common sense that liquidity premium raises during the periods of stress. Liquidity premium does not increase during bear markets, as investors lengthen the investment horizon when market liquidity decreases. Liquidity premium varies with the firm’s size, book-to-market value and stock risk, but these patterns seem to vanish during a bear market.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical papers considering conditional stock liquidity premium in an emerging market. Using a unique methodological design it is presented that liquidity premium in emerging markets behaves differently than in developed markets.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Aiman El Asam and Muthanna Samara

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Cognitive Interview (CI) and its usefulness in improving recall among Arab children. Totally, 64 Arab children (9-12 years old…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Cognitive Interview (CI) and its usefulness in improving recall among Arab children. Totally, 64 Arab children (9-12 years old) took part in this study; they viewed a short video scene followed by the CI or a Structured Interview (control).

Design/methodology/approach

The study measured for recall of correct, incorrect, confabulated details and accuracy level. Using the interview type, delay type (2-4, 7-10 and 14-16 days) and age group (9-10 and 11-12 years) a MANCOVA test showed that the CI group produced significantly more correct, incorrect and confabulated details compared to the control.

Findings

Delay had a significant effect on recall of correct detail while the older group of children produced significantly more correct details, higher accuracy and fewer incorrect and confabulated details. Although the CI is a potentially transferable method to be used with Arab children, careful consideration should be given to its difficulty along with cultural issues.

Originality/value

This is the first study to consider CI among Arab sample of children. Most research have looked at western cultures, hence this study was needed to extend knowledge and test if the CI is transferable to a different culture.

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Julie Bull, Karen Beazley, Jennifer Shea, Colleen MacQuarrie, Amy Hudson, Kelly Shaw, Fern Brunger, Chandra Kavanagh and Brenda Gagne

For many Indigenous nations globally, ethics is a conversation. The purpose of this paper is to share and mobilize knowledge to build relationships and capacities…

Abstract

Purpose

For many Indigenous nations globally, ethics is a conversation. The purpose of this paper is to share and mobilize knowledge to build relationships and capacities regarding the ethics review and approval of research with Indigenous peoples throughout Atlantic Canada. The authors share key principles that emerged for shifting practices that recognize Indigenous rights holders through ethical research review practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The NunatuKavut Inuit hosted and led a two-day gathering on March 2019 in Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, to promote a regional dialogue on Indigenous Research Governance. It brought together Indigenous Nations within the Atlantic Region and invited guests from institutional ethics review boards and researchers in the region to address the principles-to-policy-to-practice gap as it relates to the research ethics review process. Called “Naalak”, an Inuktitut word that means “to listen and to pay close attention”, the gathering created a dynamic moment of respect and understanding of how to work better together and support one another in research with Indigenous peoples on Indigenous lands.

Findings

Through this process of dialogue and reflection, emergent principles and practices for “good” research ethics were collectively identified. Open dialogue between institutional ethics boards and Indigenous research review committees acknowledged past and current research practices from Indigenous peoples’ perspectives; supported and encouraged community-led research; articulated and exemplified Indigenous ownership and control of data; promoted and practiced ethical and responsible research with Indigenous peoples; and supported and emphasized rights based approaches within the current research regulatory system. Key principles emerged for shifting paradigms to honour Indigenous rights holders through ethical research practice, including: recognizing Indigenous peoples as rights holders with sovereignty over research; accepting collective responsibility for research in a “good” way; enlarging the sphere of ethical consideration to include the land; acknowledging that “The stories are ours” through Indigenous-led (or co-led) research; articulating relationships between Indigenous and Research Ethics Board (REB) approvals; addressing justice and proportionate review of Indigenous research; and, means of identifying the Indigenous governing authority for approving research.

Research limitations/implications

Future steps (including further research) include pursuing collective responsibilities towards empowering Indigenous communities to build their own consensus around research with/in their people and their lands. This entails pursuing further understanding of how to move forward in recognition and respect for Indigenous peoples as rights holders, and disrupting mainstream dialogue around Indigenous peoples as “stakeholders” in research.

Practical implications

The first step in moving forward in a way that embraces Indigenous principles is to deeply embed the respect of Indigenous peoples as rights holders across and within REBs. This shift in perspective changes our collective responsibilities in equitable ways, reflecting and respecting differing impetus and resources between the two parties: “equity” does imply “equality”. Several examples of practical changes to REB procedures and considerations are detailed.

Social implications

What the authors have discovered is that it is not just about academic or institutional REB decolonization: there are broad systematic issues at play. However, pursuing the collective responsibilities outlined in our paper should work towards empowering communities to build their own consensus around research with/in their people and their lands. Indigenous peoples are rights holders, and have governance over research, including the autonomy to make decisions about themselves, their future, and their past.

Originality/value

The value is in its guidance around how authentic partnerships can develop that promote equity with regard to community and researcher and community/researcher voice and power throughout the research lifecycle, including through research ethics reviews that respect Indigenous rights, world views and ways of knowing. It helps to show how both Indigenous and non-Indigenous institutions can collectively honour Indigenous rights holders through ethical research practice.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2020

David Mount and Lorraine Mazerolle

Police invest significant time, energy and resources to equip officers with the skills required to conduct effective investigative interviews. However, transferring those…

Abstract

Purpose

Police invest significant time, energy and resources to equip officers with the skills required to conduct effective investigative interviews. However, transferring those skills acquired or developed in a training environment for application in the police workplace is a journey fraught with impediments and diversions. Invariably, the quality and amount of skills transferred and applied on the job represent a paltry return on resource investment. This research explores the factors that impact the transfer of investigative interviewing skills from the training environment to the police workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews with 40 officers, both uniformed and plain-clothes, were conducted to explore the influences on and impediments to effective skill transfer. Data were inductively analysed and thematically pattern-matched with existing research findings in the adult training domain.

Findings

Results indicate that trainee motivation, perceptions of training relevance, perceptions of training quality and preparedness to conduct the task as trained directly and indirectly influence the degree to which investigative interviewing skills transfer from the training environment to the police workplace.

Originality/value

This is original research in a domain that has previously received limited academic attention. An awareness of the factors that negatively impact on the transfer of acquired skills and ways to mitigate or ameliorate the detrimental effects are likely to assist police trainers and workplace managers to improve transfer rates and get more outcome value for the money, time and effort invested in training regimes.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

Adrian R. Bull

Explores purchasing in relation to audit, guidelines and research.Notes that the purchasing function is still embryonic, as the NHSstruggles to integrate the new reforms…

Abstract

Explores purchasing in relation to audit, guidelines and research. Notes that the purchasing function is still embryonic, as the NHS struggles to integrate the new reforms. Notes that the different threads need to be woven into a coherent pattern if the full potential of the NHS reforms is to be realized.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Matt Tonkin and Martin Joseph Weeks

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder accurate crime linkage and (iii)whether computerised decision-support tools might assist crime linkage practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 39 New Zealand Police staff completed a questionnaire/interview/focus group relating to the process, challenges, products and uses of crime linkage with residential burglary in New Zealand. These data (alongside four redacted crime linkage reports) were subjected to thematic analysis.

Findings

The data clearly indicated wide variation in crime linkage process, methods and products (Theme 1). Furthermore, a number of factors were identified that impacted on crime linkage practice (Theme 2).

Research limitations/implications

Future research should develop computerised crime linkage decision-support tools and evaluate their ability to enhance crime linkage practice. Also, researchers should explore the use of crime linkage in court proceedings.

Practical implications

To overcome the barriers identified in the current study, greater training in and understanding of crime linkage is needed. Moreover, efforts to enhance the quality of crime data recorded by the police will only serve to enhance crime linkage practice.

Social implications

By enhancing crime linkage practice, opportunities to reduce crime, protect the public and deliver justice for victims will be maximised.

Originality/value

The practice of crime linkage is under-researched, which makes it difficult to determine if/how existing empirical research can be used to support ongoing police investigations. The current project fills that gap by providing a national overview of crime linkage practice in New Zealand, a country where crime linkage is regularly conducted by the police, but no published linkage research exists.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Jenny Condie

Interview data is often the cornerstone of qualitative field studies, yet problems with getting sufficient, rich, reliable data in a cost effective manner can inhibit the…

Abstract

Purpose

Interview data is often the cornerstone of qualitative field studies, yet problems with getting sufficient, rich, reliable data in a cost effective manner can inhibit the progress of field study research. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a novel interview method, the cognitive interview, in an exploratory field study of management accounting change where in‐depth access was impractical.

Design/methodology/approach

The cognitive interview was developed by cognitive psychologists for use in police witness interviewing. It has been found to substantially improve the amount of information that subjects recall while maintaining or slightly improving accuracy levels.

Findings

The cognitive interview was found to be effective at gathering rich, detailed data despite the restriction of conducting only one or two interviews at each company. The cognitive interview uncovered information that did not fit with the participants' initial account of events. The structure of the cognitive interview often led participants to provide narrative accounts, allowing narrative analysis techniques such as genre analysis to be used. Asking participants to retell their accounts in reverse order may allow researchers to discern the schema (mental template) that the participant was using to organise their memories of the change process.

Originality/value

In its first known use for business research, the cognitive interview was effective at moving beyond the rationalized accounts that participants often provide initially. Researchers who conduct interviews to collect data may find this of particular interest.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Gavin E. Oxburgh and Coral J. Dando

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two distinct but interrelated areas, namely witness/victim and suspect interviewing, and to argue that both must continue to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two distinct but interrelated areas, namely witness/victim and suspect interviewing, and to argue that both must continue to evolve, suggest how they might do so, and that this process must be driven by emergent theory and contemporary empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines the impact of psychological theory and empirical research to investigative interviewing in recent decades.

Findings

It is argued that in order to stay ahead of the game, the field of investigative interviewing (suspect and witness) must continue to evolve in such a manner that not only protects and fosters the important practitioner/academic relationship, but also ensures that future directions are driven by empirical research, with recourse to emergent theory.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the impact of psychological theory and empirical research on investigative interviewing and the consequent enhancement of the interviewing of both suspected offenders and witnesses. The paper demonstrates that working closely together academic research can make a difference, and influence law, policy decisions and training guidelines in order to improve practice.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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