Examines the growth of a new technology called fuzzy logic and its significance for microcontroller‐based embedded control solutions. Outlines the reasons for the emergence of fuzzy logic and explains the mathematic principles behind fuzzy set theory. Using the example of an oven temperature control system, describes how fuzzy logic is applied to the practical solution of a control problem rather than a conventional solution. Concludes that fuzzy logic has been used primarily in embedded control application as a software‐based methodology in closed‐loop control systems whilst a dedicated fuzzy hardware processor would optimally be based on a parallel architecture, allowing the entire rule base to be evaluated in a parallel fashion.
THE history of the Scottish Book Clubs has still to be written. That no one has yet ventured upon it is partly due to the vastness of the subject, partly to the fact that in these degenerate times the student of history or literature is inclined to take his blessings for granted. Happily, the story is unfinished; for today the modern successors of the Bannatyne and Maitland go on from strength to strength. The Scottish History Society is now sixty years old, but as virile as in the days of its youth. The Scottish Text Society, which has given us monumental editions of Dunbar, Wyntoun, and Pitscottie, to name only a few of its triumphs, continues to maintain its high standards of editorship and production. In the North‐East, the Third Spalding Club proclaims to the world at large that Aberdeen has wealth still of scholars in the Joseph Robertson — Hill Burton tradition. In recent years one new name has been added to the roll of the printing fraternities. Some ten years ago, the Stair Society, established for the purpose of “encouraging the study, and advancing the knowledge of” Scots Law, began its labours. Though young, it has demonstrated beyond all doubt that it is worthy to rank with the great Clubs I have mentioned. True, its scope at first sight may appear limited: and those who have the layman's undefined distrust of legal affairs may pass with averted eye. The noble volumes of the Stair, however, bear eloquent witness to the close relationship of law and history, and afford illustrations of bygone life in Scotland which we would be sorry to lose. An extensive and distinguished membership, with regular publications of value, confirms that the work begun by men like David Laing and Cosmo Innes is still being carried on,—and right worthily too.
[In view of the approaching Conference of the Library Association at Perth, the following note on the Leighton Library may not be inopportune. Dunblane is within an hour's railway journey from Perth and has a magnificent cathedral, founded in the twelfth century, which is well worthy of a visit.]
THE first of the Islington Public Libraries, opened on September 21st, has proved a phenomenal success, and, at the same time, has thrown an interesting light on several modern theories in librarianship. It is, as our readers know, the fust of a system of five libraries, towards the erection of which Dr. Carnegie has given £40,000. The building itself is, as many librarians had an opportunity of judging at the “private view” described in our last number, of an exceedingly well‐lighted and attractive character. The arrangement and accommodation provided present several novel features. On the ground floor, opening from the Central Hall, is the Children's Lending Library and Reading Room. This is stocked with about 3,000 volumes for lending purposes, including French and German juvenile literature, and the reading room portion has seating accommodation for about a hundred children. A representative selection of children's magazines are displayed here, and there are special study‐tables for girls and boys equipped with suitable reference collections. A feature of this room is a striking dado of pictures illustrating scenes from English history, which goes far to make the room interesting and attractive.
WE ask our readers to accept the old wish for a Happy Christmas, although we know that in some minds there may be a thought that happiness in such times as these is problematical. Yet we are, so far, a fortunate people, in spite of our difficulties. As a nation we survive and increase in Strength as in confidence. As librarians we have given the best of our men and women to the active services, and most of those who remain are immersed in one way or another in the national effort. We have lost fine libraries in a night, but the will to survive, to win and to create Still survives and kicks. The days are full of difficulties, problems to be solved, high fences and dangerous to be climbed, but we have got through so far, and are convinced we shall continue. It is the most absorbing age in human memory, and we are happy to be alive to overcome its challenges.
NO MAN OF LETTERS has ever more closely identified himself with his country's historical lore and traditions than Sir Walter Scott: as poet and novelist his place in Scottish literature is secure. Abbotsford, the house he transformed into a replica of a medieval Scottish baronial castle, all turrets and gables, weapons and armour, is a national literary shrine. The memoirs of his life and work written by his son‐in‐law, John Gibson Lockhart, are widely acknowledged as a biographical tour de force. All this is well known and needs no emphasizing here. It is therefore all the more strange that the library he built at Abbotsford and the sizeable collection of books he amassed there have received very little attention in recent years. He has rarely been mentioned as one of the great book collectors, yet many of the books and broadsheets to be found in his library are now almost unprocurable elsewhere. A study of an eminent author's library always proves rewarding and the library at Abbotsford is no exception. Indeed, perhaps even more than usual, this particular library reflects the literary interests of its owner. Certainly, Scott's love of books very quickly emerges.
Students are drawn to doctorates for both the intellectual journey and the aspirational destination. However, many contemporary doctoral students and graduates are feeling…
Students are drawn to doctorates for both the intellectual journey and the aspirational destination. However, many contemporary doctoral students and graduates are feeling like battlers, in that victory does not assure a career. In this context, the weapons of choice are a clear vision, identity, and strategic choices. The aim of this chapter is to inform students, their supervisors, and university executive leaders how to achieve heightened graduate employability. As such, it has been written for four audiences: (1) PhD students, who want academic careers, and (2) those who want careers beyond universities; (3) PhD supervisors; and (4) university executive leaders. The key takeaways are practical recommendations for each of these four groups. The content is informed by an Australian national research study into postgraduate student experience, which included 319 postgraduate students as research participants. The first chapter author was one of two principal researchers leading the study, and the second chapter author was the project manager and researcher. The authors have added their reflections and personal experiences as supervisor and PhD student respectively.
I SUSPECT that we praisers of past times, we who walk in spirit with the mighty bookmen of bygone days, are now somewhat in the minority. That being so, it was a heightened pleasure to hit upon Mr. Phipps Hemming's delightful gossip on Richard Heber in a recent number of the Review. We admire Richard, I make bold to say, far more than we admire the probably more worthy Reginald. Decidedly the former's labours—whether or not pointless and mistaken—deserve not to be forgotten. Father of all the “second copy” and “duplicate” men he undoubtedly was: yet he somehow contrived to leave a healthy tradition behind him. For Richard Heber was no mere accumulator, but an appreciative scholar and a cultured gentleman beside. Long may his name be remembered, even in times when his “three copy” rule has fallen into derision.
NO doubt the Tighe Report, which is condensed in The L.A. Record for July, will have the scrutiny of all librarians. It is concerned with working conditions as they affect working hours, welfare and training and reads as if it were a series of excerpts from Brown's Manual. The “Scheme of Conditions of Service” under which public librarians work—the Report is confined to these; a further report on non‐public libraries is contemplated—makes no allowance for the late hours in comparison with those worked by other Council employees. “Some other” would be a more appropriate phrase as in many towns committee clerks, solicitors and accountancy officers have regular evening duties which are far later than 8 p.m. The report asks the framers of the “Scheme” to provide special pay for hours beyond normal office hours. Hours worked should, as far as possible, be continuous, and not “split,” and if they must by split have, between the shifts, a five‐hour interval. It is not explained how this excellent suggestion can be implemented on a day extending from, say, 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. Is 9–12, 5–8 contemplated? In any case the problem is to get two meals digestibly into the interval. Welfare provisions should include a staff room, where meals can be prepared and eaten, with the proper equipment, furniture and a clock; separate lavatory accommodation for each sex and again the necessary equipment of towels, etc.; first aid supplies; and protective overalls or dust jackets. “The wearing of uniform overalls on public duty”—where we suggest they would be most indicative and useful—“should not be compulsory.” We are not sure if this means that overalls need not be worn or that they need not be uniform in materials and pattern. Educational suggestions include the recognition of hours spent in attending professional meetings and week‐end and summer schools, an adequate staff library of books and periodicals; and every basic text‐book in a “sufficient number of copies to meet the full demands of the staff.” The Report does not indicate if this also means the class text‐book which the assistant uses throughout his course. Staff guilds or committees, on the familiar plan which has been usual in some libraries for forty years, should be encouraged. There is nothing in these recommendations which is new, but they are worth while, as their author implies, as a check which may be used to suggest minimum improvements.
As mastering the two-minute entrepreneurial pitch is a key skill required of entrepreneurs and all those who have to sell an idea in a business context, the purpose of…
As mastering the two-minute entrepreneurial pitch is a key skill required of entrepreneurs and all those who have to sell an idea in a business context, the purpose of this paper is to analyse successful entrepreneurial pitches in order to provide practical pitch-related advice to entrepreneurs and to business school instructors developing pedagogical materials.
As mastering the two-minute entrepreneurial pitch is a key skill required of entrepreneurs and all those who have to sell an idea in a business context, this paper aims to analyse successful entrepreneurial pitches in order to provide practical pitch-related advice to entrepreneurs and to business school instructors developing pedagogical materials.
A ten-stage discourse framework was shown to underlie most pitches and typical linguistic exponents and rhetorical devices were identified. While there was a strong correlation between linguistic exponents and particular organisational stages, it was not possible to map the rhetorical strategies or tropes onto the organisational stages. The rhetorical framework provides a macro-structure to help entrepreneurs manipulate key content, whereas the linguistic framework highlights the salient grammatical, organisational, syntactic and lexical features of a successful pitch.
The sample of entrepreneurial pitches analysed is too small to be totally representative of the entrepreneurial pitch in general. However, this in-depth multi-dimensional analysis provides initial research into the canonical features of the entrepreneurial pitch.
This study provides an actionable, best practice, discoursal template for the entrepreneurial pitch together with the typical linguistic exponents and rhetorical features. The findings should sensitise entrepreneurs and instructors to salient macro- and micro-features of the entrepreneurial pitch.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that has been carried out that takes a multi-dimensional analysis approach (both rhetorical and linguistic/discourse analysis) to deconstruct the entrepreneurial pitch.