Search results

1 – 10 of over 11000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

E.R. Alexander APD

Previous research, at once more abstract and more concrete, has neglected the intermediate level of interorganizational coordination (IOC): coordination structures. This…

Abstract

Previous research, at once more abstract and more concrete, has neglected the intermediate level of interorganizational coordination (IOC): coordination structures. This theory of IOC identifies coordination structures, ranging from the liaison to markets and interorganizational networks, at various levels of organizational generality and complexity. Coordination structures invoke informal and formal links, based on hierarchy (command), market (exchange), or association‐solidarity (trust). IOC and its related coordination structures are the result of organizations' perceiving their interdependence. IOC cases in environmental management illustrate the theory and its implications for organizational analysis and institutional design.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Robert G. Lord, Suzanne Hendler Devlin, Carol Oeth Caldwell and Darrin Kass

This research systematically analyzed the effect of leadership (coaches and owners) on organizational performance in the National Football League (NFL) during the 1970…

Abstract

This research systematically analyzed the effect of leadership (coaches and owners) on organizational performance in the National Football League (NFL) during the 1970 through 1992 seasons. In addition, it examined the relation of stable individual differences in personality of NFL leaders with performance outcomes for both coaches and owners. Results revealed that leadership added substantially to the prediction of performance in the NFL, even after controlling for non-leadership variables such as quality of competition and year. Furthermore, one facet of Conscientiousness – Deliberateness – showed strong linear relations with all performance measures. The results of both studies also revealed that hierarchical level of leadership was an important moderator, with coaches having greater impact than owners. The desirability of studying leadership in the context of the NFL was recognized and suggestions were provided on the direction that research might take.

Details

Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-942-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Marco Brydolf-Horwitz and Katherine Beckett

A growing body of work suggests that welfare and punishment should be understood as alternative, yet interconnected ways of governing poor and marginalized populations…

Abstract

A growing body of work suggests that welfare and punishment should be understood as alternative, yet interconnected ways of governing poor and marginalized populations. While there is considerable evidence of a punitive turn in welfare and penal institutions over the past half century, recent studies show that welfare and carceral institutions increasingly comanage millions of people caught at the intersection of the welfare and penal sectors. The growth of “mass supervision” and the expansion of the social services sector help explain the blurring of welfare and punishment in the United States in daily practice. We suggest that these developments complicate the idea of an institutional trade-off and contend that welfare and punishment are best understood along a continuum of state management in which poor and socially marginalized populations are subjected to varying degrees of support, surveillance, and sanction. In presenting the punishment–welfare continuum, we pay particular attention to the “murky middle” between the two spheres: an interinstitutional space that has emerged in the context of mass supervision and a social services–centric safety net. We show that people caught in the “murky middle” receive some social supports and services, but also face pervasive surveillance and control and must adapt to the tangle of obligations and requirements in ways that both extend punishment and limit their ability to successfully participate in mainstream institutions.

Details

The Politics of Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-363-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Alexander R. Knights

The achievement motivation construct has long presented a significant challenge to the study of presidential leadership. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the…

Abstract

Purpose

The achievement motivation construct has long presented a significant challenge to the study of presidential leadership. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the limitations of prior research by proposing that whether achievement motivation is related to effectiveness in the US presidency may not be a matter of if but how achievement motivation is manifested.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the channeling hypothesis, it was proposed that presidents’ trait behaviors should be accounted for as they directly impact the way that presidents express achievement motivation. To test this thesis, this study relied on data generated from diverse sources that provide both direct and indirect information about US presidents’ personalities and effectiveness, including content analyses of inaugural addresses and presidential biographies and surveys completed by presidential biographers and scholars.

Findings

Results show that among achievement motivated presidents, display of motive-congruent, conscientious behaviors contributes to their effectiveness, whereas display of motive-incongruent, agreeable behaviors tends to detract from it.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size of US presidents and the limited amount of archival data available for some of these subjects prevented more fine-grained analyses. Thus, further research among senior leaders is needed to not only confirm the explanatory mechanism offered herein, but also explore the possibility that there are optimal levels beyond which the personality traits under study may cease to be a help or hindrance to achievement motivated chief executives.

Originality/value

This study represents the first effort to formally integrate motives and traits in the study of chief executives. The findings of this research also substantiate the need for researchers to consider the complex nature of motives in predicting important outcomes across different contexts.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Barrie O. Pettman and Richard Dobbins

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Abstract

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Belen Begines, Andrew L. Hook, Morgan R. Alexander, Christopher J. Tuck and Ricky D. Wildman

This paper aims to print 3D structures from polymers that resist bacterial attachment by reactive jetting of acrylate monomers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to print 3D structures from polymers that resist bacterial attachment by reactive jetting of acrylate monomers.

Design/methodology/approach

The first step towards printing was ink development. Inks were characterised to carry out an estimation of their potential printability using the Z parameter to predict stable jetting conditions. Printability conditions were optimised for each ink using a Dimatix DMP-2800, which enabled 3D structures to be fabricated.

Findings

UV photo-initiated polymers, which resist bacterial attachment, were found to be printable using piezo-based inkjet printers. The waveform required for each ink depends on the value of the Z parameter. Once the waveform and the printability parameters were optimised, 3D objects were fabricated.

Research limitations/implications

This methodology has been confirmed as an effective method to 3D print materials that have been demonstrated to be bacteria resistant. However, ink curing depends on modification of some parameters (such as photoinitiator concentration or UV exposure time) which would result in an improvement of the curing process post jetting.

Social implications

The combination of inkjet based 3D printing with new materials resistant to bacterial attachment means the possibility of building customised medical devices with a high level of complexity and bespoke features can be fully realised. The scope and variability of the devices produced will exceed what can be achieved using standard fabrication methodologies and can be applied to reduce the incidence of device associated infections and to address increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs associated with nosocomial infections.

Originality/value

In this paper, the novel use of materials that resist bacterial attachment has been described to build 3D structures using material jetting. Its value lies on the potential impact this methodology could produce in the biomedical device and research fields.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Michael H. Slotkin, Alexander R. Vamosi, Enrique M. Perez, Christopher J. Durie and Jarin R. Eisenberg

This paper aims to provide evidence on the role study tours play in expanding student cultural capital via increased confidence in international travel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide evidence on the role study tours play in expanding student cultural capital via increased confidence in international travel.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, survey data from individuals who participated in a study tour experience offered by a Florida-based university are analyzed for the assessment of cultural capital acquisition across select demographic types. Results are derived for paired difference tests as well as differences in population means.

Findings

Findings indicate that students participating in study tours did, in fact, gain confidence in engaging in international travel, especially so for first-time passport users and female participants.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited because of the size of the sample population. It is likely that significant relationships via other demographic cohorts will unfold as program participation increases.

Practical implications

Study tours represent a viable pathway for the acquisition of cultural capital.

Social implications

Study tours present a unique means of providing students a first-hand global experience, and when marketed to a non-traditional student population, offer opportunities for acquisition of cultural and social capital that could not be achieved through non-experiential means.

Originality/value

The results of this study show that the study tour experience enriched the cultural capital of student participants through an increase in confidence associated with traveling abroad. The benefits of the study tour were widespread, as virtually, all population groups analyzed tended to gain confidence in traveling abroad, even those who had prior experience traveling internationally. This paper also suggests future pathways for research based on other demographic cohorts.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1937

ONCE more a New Year, after a year of dramatic public events, finds librarians as other people settling down to what it is hoped will be twelve months of peace and…

Abstract

ONCE more a New Year, after a year of dramatic public events, finds librarians as other people settling down to what it is hoped will be twelve months of peace and prosperity. It is really remarkable how libraries reflect the happenings of the time; it would not, for example, seem that the burning of the Crystal Palace would affect the issues of all South London libraries but it did very heavily for a day or two. When the public mind is occupied with an idea it is well known that this is reflected in reduced, and occasionally increased, issues. The Jubilee of King George V. reduced reference issues everywhere; and it is to be expected that the Coronation of King George VI. will have a like effect. These efforts however are transient, and are only felt during the few days of the happenings in question.. On the larger count we find at the beginning of 1937 that all but new libraries have now reached a position in which they can assess the results of other competition. It is alleged that the loss of readers who have seceded to the “twopennies” is about 4 per cent. on the peak year of 1932–3, but the gains are considerably in advance of 1930. That is to say, solid progress has been regular.

Details

New Library World, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

William R. Lindsay, Anne van Logten, Robert Didden, Lesley Steptoe, John L. Taylor and Todd E. Hogue

Over the last ten years, there has been greater interest in the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD) in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last ten years, there has been greater interest in the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD) in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). One important characteristic of a diagnostic system is that it should have validity as a contribution to utility. PD has been found to have a predictive relationship with violence and the purpose of this paper is to review two methods for the diagnosis of PD in offenders with IDD in order to evaluate the utility of the diagnoses.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 212 offenders with ID were recruited from three settings – maximum-security, medium/low security and community services. Diagnoses of PD in the case files were compared with a structured system of diagnosis based on DSM-IV traits.

Findings

There were significant differences between the two systems with a significantly higher frequency of PD diagnosis in the community forensic setting in the structured assessment system. There was no relationship between the case files diagnosis of PD and future violence but there was a significant predictive relationship between the structured diagnosis of PD and future violence with an AUC=0.62.

Research limitations/implications

As with all such studies, the research is limited by the quality of the case files available to the researchers.

Practical implications

Only the structured assessment of PD had utility for the prediction of violence. Reasons for the differences between the systems are discussed and suggestions made on how a diagnosis of PD can be structured for the busy clinician.

Social implications

The accurate diagnosis of PD has important implications since the PD is a crucial addition to any violence risk evaluation.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to review the way in which clinicians assess PD.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2014

David B. Szabla, James E. Stefanchin and Laraine S. Warner

Much has been theorized about what change strategies to employ given particular types of organizational change. Organizational theorists have linked participative…

Abstract

Much has been theorized about what change strategies to employ given particular types of organizational change. Organizational theorists have linked participative strategies with culture change, strategies based on logic and reason with new technology implementations, and power strategies with the introduction of new laws and legislation. However, to what degree are these suggested recommendations carried out in organizations? In this paper, we explored the extent to which change recipients perceive the use of theorist recommended strategies when undergoing specific types of organizational changes. Using survey research (N = 88), we investigated the perceived relationship between two components of change: change content and change strategy. The results partially follow the ideals proposed by previous theorists, but they also highlight a significant relationship between power-coercive strategies and episodic change events that is contrary to those ideals. For practitioners, our findings draw attention to the connection between change content and change strategy in the hope of offering some guidance to those change agents who must determine how to lead a particular change initiative. Additionally, since our investigation is original and exploratory, we incite future research aimed at understanding the congruency between change content and change strategy formulation.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-312-4

1 – 10 of over 11000