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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Maryam Dilmaghani

The present study assesses how sibship size affects child quality as measured by educational attainment.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study assesses how sibship size affects child quality as measured by educational attainment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are from the Canadian General Social Surveys (GSS) of 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1995. The sample is restricted to the individuals born in Canada between 1946 and 1965, that is, the baby-boom generation. In addition to controlling for parental education, the sibship size is instrumented by a non-binary variable created based on the sex composition of the sibship. While most previous studies have pooled both genders, the present paper produces by gender estimates

Findings

The OLS estimates are statistically significant, negative and moderately large for both male and female baby boomers. When the sibship size is instrumented, the estimates indicate that one additional sibling had reduced the educational attainment of male baby boomers by almost half a year. No causal effect for the sibship size is found for female baby boomers.

Originality/value

This is the first paper on the effects of sibship size on educational attainment, using Canadian data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Mary K. Shenk

In the recent literature in human behavioral ecology, two types of explanations have emerged as important for understanding fertility and parental investment in modern…

Abstract

In the recent literature in human behavioral ecology, two types of explanations have emerged as important for understanding fertility and parental investment in modern market economies: embodied capital and heritable wealth. Using this perspective, I compare the education, income, and marriage outcomes of daughters and sons among three urban south Indian social class groups that differ in terms of their education, resources, and the types of jobs they typically perform. The three class groups are found to have predictably different parental investment strategies based on their position in competitive labor markets and the investment currencies they rely on most heavily. Furthermore, I find that the currencies of both embodied capital and heritable wealth have important but separate impacts on parental investment behavior. Finally, I find that these different investment currencies may entail different investment structures, which in turn may differ by social class: in some classes, education attracts education in the marriage market and marriage expenditures help ensure a wealthy spouse, but in other classes, these currencies are substitutable.

Details

Socioeconomic Aspects of Human Behavioral Ecology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-255-9

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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Anne-Sophie Robilliard

Despite some decline, most Sub Saharan African countries still exhibit very high levels of fertility, resulting in the lengthening of the phase of strong population…

Abstract

Despite some decline, most Sub Saharan African countries still exhibit very high levels of fertility, resulting in the lengthening of the phase of strong population growth. Using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data collected over a pooled sample of more than 430,000 married women living in 33 countries, the author examines the relationship between empowerment and desired fertility. The author constructs six different proxies of empowerment: two “objective” proxies (education and labor force participation), three “subjective” proxies (say in household decisions, non-acceptance of domestic violence, and no son preference), and a “relative” proxy (small spousal age difference). The author first shows that these six dimensions are related with one another and highly variable from one country to another across the region. the author then explores the relationship of these dimensions with desired fertility at the individual level. On the pooled sample, the author find that there is a strong and negative relationship between all six dimensions of empowerment and desired fertility: in other words, women who have a low degree of empowerment tend to want a higher number of children. This result still holds when taking into account country fixed-effects to account for country-level characteristics. However, when examining more closely the relationship at the country level, the author finds that there is some variation on the strength of the relationship and that its sign is reversed for some indicators in some countries. Lastly, the author finds that local context matters which suggests that empowerment policies should address both the individual and collective dimensions of empowerment.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

Keywords

Abstract

This paper shows how a shorter fecundity horizon for females (a biological constraint) leads to age and educational disparities between husbands and wives. Empirical support is based on data from a natural experiment commencing before and ending after China’s 1980 one-child law. The results indicate that fertility in China declined by about 1.2–1.4 births per woman as a result of China’s anti-natalist policies. Concomitantly spousal age and educational differences narrowed by approximately 0.5–1.0 and 1.0–1.6 years, respectively. These decreases in the typical husband’s age and educational advantages are important in explaining the division of labor in the home, often given as a cause for the gender wage gap. Indeed, as fertility declined, which has been the historical trend in most developed countries, husband-wife age and educational differences diminished leading to less division of labor in the home and a smaller gender wage disparity. Unlike other models of division of labor in the home which rely on innately endogenous factors, this paper’s theory is based on an exogenous biological constraint.

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2018

Virginia Bodolica and Martin Spraggon

Literature reviews are essential tools for uncovering prevalent knowledge gaps, unifying fragmented bodies of scholarship, and taking stock of the cumulative evidence in a…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature reviews are essential tools for uncovering prevalent knowledge gaps, unifying fragmented bodies of scholarship, and taking stock of the cumulative evidence in a field of inquiry. Yet, successfully producing rigorous, coherent, thought-provoking, and practically relevant review articles represents an extremely complex and challenging endeavor. The purpose of this paper is to uncover the key requirements for expanding literature reviews’ reach within and across study domains and provide useful guidelines to prospective authors interested in generating this type of scientific output.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon the authors’ own experience of producing literature reviews and a scrutiny of review papers in major management journals, the authors develop an end-to-end process of writing and publishing review articles of high potential impact.

Findings

The advanced process is broken down into two phases and seven sequential steps, each of them being described in terms of key actions, required skill sets, best practices, metrics of assessment and expected outcomes.

Originality/value

By tapping into the inherent complexity of review articles and demystifying the intricacies associated with pursuing this type of scientific research, the authors seek to inspire a wealth of new influential surveys of specialized literature.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Shoko Yamada

Although global factors undeniably play a role in the adoption of Education for All (EFA) goals in any given country, it would seem that a great majority of studies on EFA…

Abstract

Although global factors undeniably play a role in the adoption of Education for All (EFA) goals in any given country, it would seem that a great majority of studies on EFA tend to overlook the significance of local dynamics. The meaning of schooling is socially constructed, regardless of how the global consensus may wish to structuralize it. The main concern of this chapter, therefore, is to closely analyze the processes by which EFA goals are adopted by the Ethiopian government and how they are implemented at the central and local levels of the government structure. The government's dependence on foreign assistance contributes to the way in which Ethiopian education policy converges with EFA. However, EFA goals are predominantly the concern of policy makers at the international and central government levels, while, over the course of implementation, the administrative judgment of street-level officials inevitably narrows the actual focus of policy. Also, the choices parents make concerning their children's education are not always purely motivated by educational concerns, but are also contingent on economic and/or social factors as well. Ethiopia has achieved a rapid increase in enrolment rates, a development regarded as a sign of true governmental commitment to succeeding in EFA. However, as the author demonstrates in this chapter, a variety of social and systematic factors coalesced to bring about the increase in enrolment, with governmental commitment numbering as just one.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Sripad Motiram and Jeffrey B. Nugent

To formalize and test the hypotheses that economic and political inequality tend to lower the quality of public education and thereby the overall quality of education in…

Abstract

Purpose

To formalize and test the hypotheses that economic and political inequality tend to lower the quality of public education and thereby the overall quality of education in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses both international cross‐section data and panel data from almost 100 countries to test these hypothesized effects of the two types of inequality on educational quality. Three different indicators of school quality, all at the primary level, are used. The paper tests the robustness of the findings to different estimation methods, specifications and the use of instruments for a potentially endogenous variable.

Findings

There is clear empirical support for the hypothesized negative effects of political inequality and ethnic fragmentation on educational quality. The evidence for the hypothesized effect of income inequality, however, is very weak at best.

Research limitations/implications

The educational quality measures are crude and the analysis is at the country level. Future work can use more direct, achievement‐based measures of quality and data at the district or county levels.

Practical implications

Redistribution of income and democratization can have beneficial effects on educational quality.

Originality/value

The paper provides a theoretical model that formalizes the hypothesis that economic and political inequality can lower the quality of public education and thereby the overall quality of education. It empirically tests this model using panel and cross‐sectional data.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Kanghwa Choi

Hyperconnectivity and supercooperation among partners within the mobile value chain are crucial factors for sustainable growth of the mobile ecosystem. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Hyperconnectivity and supercooperation among partners within the mobile value chain are crucial factors for sustainable growth of the mobile ecosystem. This study aims to identify the complex structure of hyperconnectivity and supercooperation underlying revenue sharing practices and the actions and reactions of Chinese mobile video triads.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the causal loop diagram and system dynamics simulation to demonstrate the feedback causal structure wherein the revenue sharing (RS) rule adjustments trigger interactions among participants (e.g., MNOs, SPs and CPs) in mobile video service triads, leading to fluctuations in the number of mobile video users and total revenue in the mobile video value chain.

Findings

Change of RS rules among value chain participants is an incentive for achieving the sustainability of the mobile ecosystem, as examined using a system dynamics (SD) simulation. However, from the perspective of a tri-partite mobile value chain, the “accidental adversary” system archetype caused by adjustment of RS rules has an unintended negative impact on counterparts in the mobile ecosystem value chain.

Originality/value

This study analyzes a complex feedback causal structure based on structural interdependencies among growth, limiting and relaxing loops in the Chinese mobile video ecosystem. The result of SD simulation suggests strategic alternatives such as the “growth and underinvestment” systems archetype to overcome “limits to growth”. Moreover, this study explores the accidental adversary archetype in complex and complicated mobile service triads as an impediment to achieving sustainability of the mobile ecosystem.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Ronald H. Ballou

This paper traces the evolution of logistics and supply chain management (SCM) and projects the state of the field in the near term with the attendant challenges for those…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper traces the evolution of logistics and supply chain management (SCM) and projects the state of the field in the near term with the attendant challenges for those who must plan and control logistics/supply chain operations.

Design/methodology/approach

Key events that created business logistics are noted, the views of the field leaders are identified and assessed, and research outcomes are compared as a basis for how logistics/SCM is viewed today.

Findings

The scope of the field has broadened bringing new challenges for researchers and managers, but the broader scope was envisioned from its formation. Improvements in information technology and the just‐in‐time philosophy are the principal drivers for realizing the potential of boundary‐spanning channel management.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions and projections are based on the author's interpretation of the events surrounding logistics and the supply chain as they have occurred over the last 45 years.

Practical implications

Researchers and managers should find the projections of this paper valuable in defining their action agendas for improving logistics/supply chain operations. Principal among the challenges is the need for a boundary‐spanning accounting system, for a mechanism of sharing the benefits of cooperation among supply chain members, for enhanced relationship skills of logistics/supply chain managers, and for improved methods of estimating the revenue contribution potential of the supply chain.

Originality/value

The personal observations of the author lend a unique perspective as to how the logistics/supply chain has developed and what challenges face researchers and managers if the future potential of the field is to be realized.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Khalid F. Alotaibi, Stanley E. Fawcett and Laura Birou

Increasing competitive pressure over the past 20 years has forced many companies to re‐evaluate their value‐added systems. This re‐evaluation has greatly amplified the…

Abstract

Increasing competitive pressure over the past 20 years has forced many companies to re‐evaluate their value‐added systems. This re‐evaluation has greatly amplified the managerial attention focused on purchasing. Indeed, many firms have begun to emphasize purchasing in their attempts to improve their competitive positions. Two advanced sourcing practices have been particularly important: global and JIT sourcing. This paper: 1) reviews the literature pertaining to these two sourcing practices, 2) considers potential competitive impact, 3) explores issues of compatibility, and 4) presents future research directions.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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