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The revival of the quantity theory of money which was advanced by M. Friedman and the Chicago School in the 1960s led me to an investigation of the contributions of Greek…
The revival of the quantity theory of money which was advanced by M. Friedman and the Chicago School in the 1960s led me to an investigation of the contributions of Greek economists during the twentieth century, to this indisputably long‐lived theory.
Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor,survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to themodern neo‐classical writers. The…
Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor, survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to the modern neo‐classical writers. The focus throughout is on the conditions making for economic progress, with stress on the institutional developments that extend and are extended by the size of the market. Organisational changes that promote the division of labour and specialisation within and between firms and industries, and which promote competition and mobility, are seen as the vital factors in growth. In the absence of new markets, inventions as such play only a minor role. The economic system is an inter‐related whole, or a living “organon”. It is from this perspective that micro‐economic relations are analysed, and this helps expose certain fallacies of composition associated with the marginal productivity theory of production and distribution. Factors are paid not because they are productive but because they are scarce. Likewise he shows why Marshallian supply and demand schedules, based on the “one thing at a time” approach, cannot adequately describe the dynamic growth properties of the system. Supply and demand cannot be simply integrated to arrive at a picture of the whole economy. These notes are complemented by eleven articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica which were published shortly after Young′s sudden death in 1929.
The notes reproduced here were taken by Glenn Johnson in Lloyd Mints’ course on Money and Banking at the University of Chicago in the fall of 1946. Several additional sets…
The notes reproduced here were taken by Glenn Johnson in Lloyd Mints’ course on Money and Banking at the University of Chicago in the fall of 1946. Several additional sets of course notes taken by Glenn Johnson have been published in the archival volumes of Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology. These included notes from Frank Knight's course on economic theory (Volume 24C) and Albert L. Meyer's course entitled elements of modern economics (appearing in this volume). A brief biography of Glenn Johnson is provided in Volume 24C, along with notes from his course on Agricultural Economics Methodology taught at Michigan State University.
Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes on one side of the Atlantic, and Fisher on the other, had different approaches to the quantity theory of money. But they shared its basic framework, with the result that theoretical discussions did not prevent some degree of mutual support on policy proposals. If a divergence there was, at this stage, this pertained the feasibility of Fisher’s proposals, because Fisher’s enthusiasm for reform could find no match at Cambridge. This notwithstanding, and although in varying degrees, Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes were sympathetic with Fisher’s battle for “stable money.” Indeed, a fragment from the Keynes Papers shows that, at a very early stage of his career, Keynes paid great attention to Fisher’s empirical research on the relationship between “Appreciation and interest,” taking the relation between nominal and real rates of interest as a possible explanation of the trade cycle. For some time at least, this widened the common ground upon which Fisher’s proposals for “stable money” could find some support at Cambridge.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the structure of Islamic monetary transformation into 100 percent reserve requirement monetary system in terms of the foundational…
The purpose of this paper is to explain the structure of Islamic monetary transformation into 100 percent reserve requirement monetary system in terms of the foundational epistemology of the unity of divine knowledge (tawhid). This approach is a scholarly originality in the field of epistemological formalism concerning Islamic theory and perspectives in economic reasoning in comparative perspectives.
The role of micro-money pursuing projects and real economic exchange relations is shown to arise by a natural causality in the ethical social economy (SE). This results in a microeconomic perspective of the quantity theory of money with ethical and social implications. A comparative study of endogenous money in the quantity theory of money points out significant differences between the theory of endogenous money in Islam and mainstream methodologies. A formal model of micro-money and its organismic endogenous relationship with the real economy is formulated with the goal of realizing social well-being, economic stabilization, and sustainability of development regimes.
This is a conceptual paper, though with the potential for continued work in applying the theory of micro-money in the Islamic methodological perspective of unity of knowledge. This is an original contribution of this paper. Islamic economists have not been able to produce a rigorous theory of micro-money. They have also not been able to situate the study of Islamic economics with its specific contribution to the field of the nature of money in project-specific financing of Islamic projects by the money-finance-real economy inter-causal relations. Thus, the findings of this paper, though of the conceptual nature, open doors to a vast field of methodological development and its application to the problem of micro-money modeling. Such a conceptual finding arising from the methodological theory of unity of knowledge and applied to the topic of micro-money along with some examples of potentiality of these approaches constitutes a vastly original field of findings as contribution. Thereby, an analytical model is established in the Islamic social economy (ISE) perspective. The model is used to explain monetary transmission and functioning of monetary policy with instruments that avoid interest rate and comply with Islamic financing requirements. The resulting model of money, finance, and real economy (MFE) systemic interrelationship in reference to the epistemology of unity of knowledge leads into the construction of a 100 percent reserve requirement monetary system with the gold-backed micro-money as currency complementing real economic transactions.
The present paper is of a conceptual type based on the essential ontological and epistemological foundation of Islamic social and economic thought and bearing a deeply scientific implication. The conceptual part of this paper becomes a study in the foundations. The second part follows into the study of application in the real world of micro-money in terms of financing projects. Micro-money pursues projects in the Islamic economy due to its very nature of ethical and social choices. The paper shows that such a micro-money transmission is realized by the money-finance-real economy integrated model. Thereby, some real-world examples of such transformations are given. All these together substantiate the conceptual-analytical-empirical nature of the study conducted.
The development of the micro-money transmission system of generalized circular causation interrelations between MFE activities as a return to 100 percent reserve requirement monetary system with the gold standard is the profound theory that has been propounded. Its applied perspectives are implied through the MFE-model wherein micro-money pursues social projects. Furthermore, the possibility and practicality of such a conceptual model of micro-money and its transmission mechanism in the real economy are established by real-world examples of kinds of micro-money that are found to circulate or are recommended by some studies in the literature.
The conceptual part of the paper presents a model of generalized epistemological model of unity of knowledge characterizing the MFE circular causal interrelations as the organismic meaning of social ethics and evolutionary learning. The social implications are the epistemic foundations of the derived model in the midst of choices of life-fulfillment projects that micro-money finances and the economy sustain.
This is an original paper premised on the general and the specific Islamic epistemological criterion of unity of knowledge as a generalized system theory. It is now particularized to the case of money and real economy by using the Islamic perspective of creating conditions to regenerate resources continuously in SE with ethical implications. The paper is equally informative to all who like to understand the social and ethical nature of endogenous relations between money and the real economy as two great institutions of the national economy. These together bestow well-being to the society at large in the construction of SE. Specific attention in this regard is given to ISE.
The rediscovery of Austrian economics during the last 15 years has led to the reappearance of Menger, Mises, Hayek and, to a lesser extent, Böhm‐Bawerk in the footnotes. Next to nothing is heard of Friedrich von Wieser, Menger's successor in Vienna and inventor of the name “Austrian School”. Why is Wieser neglected in the Austrian Revival? Perhaps because economic theorists and policy makers in many countries have again become very interested in the possibilities of the market and in the applicability of the quantity theory of money — whereas Wieser was critical of both. Or perhaps because Wieser advocated an alliance of economics and sociology — whereas sociology is not very much in vogue now.
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt…
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt that the Great Depression exerted an enormous influence on economic thought, but the exact nature of its impact should be examined more carefully. In this chapter, I examine the transformation from a perspective which emphasizes the interaction between economic ideas and economic events, and the interaction between theory and policy rather than the development of economic theory. More specifically, I examine the evolution of what became known as macroeconomics after the Depression in terms of an ongoing debate among the “stabilizers” and their critics. I further suggest using four perspectives, or schools of thought, as measures to locate the evolution and transformation; the gold standard mentality, liquidationism, the Treasury view, and the real-bills doctrine. By highlighting these four economic ideas, I argue that what happened during the Great Depression was the retreat of the gold standard mentality, the complete demise of liquidationism and the Treasury view, and the strange survival of the real-bills doctrine. Each of those transformations happened not in response to internal debates in the discipline, but in response to government policies and real-world events.