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The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…
The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.
This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.
Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…
Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.
The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.
In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.
The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.
This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.
The aim of this study is to identify the challenges and barriers to e-Government set up in developing/conflict countries, related to Information Communication and…
The aim of this study is to identify the challenges and barriers to e-Government set up in developing/conflict countries, related to Information Communication and Technology (ICT) and social obstacles – that are common in developing countries like Afghanistan. In today's world e-Government plays an important role of providing easy access to government services that enable citizens in general to communicate faster. This very research concentrates on the implementation of e-Government challenges in developing countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper is covering (1) method of study; (2) research strategy; (3) finding and policy recommendation; (4) limitation; (5) theoretical implication; (6) recommendation and conclusion. Additional data related to e-Government in Afghanistan, acquired via a quantitative survey and interviews can also help this analysis.
This research incorporates both theoretical and empirical study; using both quantitative and qualitative method for data collection. Also, as already noted, the study reviews different literature and academic documents. The original work of the study is the collection of relevant first-hand information for empirical analysis from experts of both public and private institutions such as IT, CIO and management experts through the use of a survey tools. This was done using web-based surveying and delivery of hard and soft copies to the experts to obtain their notions about e-Government implementation obstacles. Finally, both quantitative and qualitative survey results are calculated and presented.
Empirical study has established that 5 obstacles out of 15 named by respondents, stakeholder involvement, with the highest mean, (4.1145), coordination (4.0038), information sharing (3.9962), ICT literacy (3.9822) and e-Government awareness (3.8830) are considered to be the major obstacles. This opinion was also expressed by the respondents to the in-depth interview which was explained in a paper with detail.
Most research record numerous limitations, therefore, it is important to note that this study is no exception. Some of the limitations were recorded in the course of the study will be counted for the purpose of placing the finding in the right perspective. The limitations of this study were time constraints and difficult to generate enough participation in the survey. Because of that, I did a quantitative survey but could include very few members of top management. Second, the study is limited due to the lack of participation by respondents from various sectors such as citizens, university students, academia, banks, businesses and NGOs. The third limitation was lack of research materials for this study. Many difficulties were encountered with respect to find materials of previous research studies on the topic and in particularly in the context of Afghanistan.
The studies conducted previously on e-Government and referenced herein highlighted implementation challenges in developing countries as a group. Applying this study in Afghanistan may contribute to our understanding of key challenges facing in implementing e-Government process specifically in Afghanistan. The current study contributes some significant findings to the academic field of studying e-Government implementation challenges. It adds the support and information from public and private sector's perspective regarding major challenges in e-Government implementation in Afghanistan.
As per looking to the experience of developed and developing countries, this study emphasizes the following key initiatives to be performed in parallel with the running projects by Ministry of communication and IT . 1-Pilot projects, 2-Simplification of Business Processes, 3-A strong committed national leadership, 4-Involvement of Stakeholders, 6-To granting incentives for involvement of local ICT companies, 7-Exemption of basic ICT, 8-To develop a standard ICT infrastructure
Governments around the world are under the pressure from rapid globalization, fiscal, social and technological changes to provide services that are citizen-centric, efficient, transparent, effective, one stop, any time and nonstop. Post-conflict countries are under even greater pressure to create such services because they replace the vacuum caused by the violence and will be the only services offered, rather than simply an upgrade of current government offerings that already meet citizen needs. The adoption of technology is the most efficient way to integrate the public and private sector and to provide services with accountability, transparency and efficiency, but this is not an easy task, especially for developing countries. This research looks at e-Government implementation challenges in developing countries and particularly in Afghanistan. A literature review shows many challenges common among developing countries: a lack of ICT literacy, incomplete infrastructure, a digital divide existing between the rural poor and the emerging urban middle class, an uncertainty about data privacy and data security, the absence of comprehensive ICT policies and legislation, lack of an ICT culture in government and the traditional components of the economy, questions regarding the government's ongoing financial commitment to the project, e-Government awareness, willingness of ministries to engage in information sharing, a void of ICT leadership outside the technologically oriented ministries, resistance to change, an historic lack of intergovernmental coordination and low stakeholder involvement are just some of the many challenges identified. The author belief that developing countries realize the importance of e-Government and consider the implementation of e-Government to be the critical tool for economic stability and growth as well as developing a more transparent, less corrupt government. The survey questionnaires were developed based on the challenges found in literature review. The survey questionnaire was translated into local languages (Pashto and Dari) and an English version served as control indicator by a professional local translator. At first a pilot version was sent to 10 officials from the Ministry of Communication and IT. After attesting period, the survey was circulated to 150 respondents who were experts in various fields such as CIO, Management and IT in Afghanistan. All respondents agreed that stakeholder involvement, coordination, information sharing, ICT literacy, awareness, resistance to change, ICT, finance issues, ICT policy, leadership, data privacy, legislation, ICT culture and digital divide are some of the major challenges for e-Government implementation in Afghanistan. Respondents (3.1412) on ICT security were impartial in their response on whether to include this indicator into challenges. Many projects are run by the Ministry of Communication and IT and within completion of these projects most of the challenges that identified in the analysis of the quantitative survey will be addressed, although the government is also vigorously pursuing legal and policy modifications. As per looking to the experience of developed and developing countries, this study emphasizes the following key initiatives to be performed in parallel with the running projects by Ministry of communication and IT . Pilot projects should be implemented in two ministries as test beds prior to general roll out to ensure the efficient use of money needed for E-government projects. This will have two benefits from one side it will save money in terms of failing projects as argued by *19+ “E-government in developing countries fail, with 35% being classified as total failures (E-government was not implemented or was implemented but immediately abandoned), and 50% as partial failures (major goals were not attained and/or there were undesirable outcomes)”. On the other hand, in case.
The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive…
The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive advantage provided by BI capability is not well researched. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for successful BI deployment and empirically examines the association between BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage. Taking the telecommunications industry in Malaysia as a case example, the research particularly focuses on the influencing perceptions held by telecommunications decision makers and executives on factors that impact successful BI deployment. The research further investigates the relationship between successful BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage of the telecommunications organizations. Another important aim of this study is to determine the effect of moderating factors such as organization culture, business strategy, and use of BI tools on BI deployment and the sustainability of firm’s competitive advantage.
This research uses combination of resource-based theory and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to examine BI success and its relationship with firm’s sustainability. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and a two-phase sequential mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. The chapter presents a qualitative field study to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. The study includes a survey study with sample of business analysts and decision makers in telecommunications firms and is analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling.
The findings reveal that some internal resources of the organizations such as BI governance and the perceptions of BI’s characteristics influence the successful deployment of BI. Organizations that practice good BI governance with strong moral and financial support from upper management have an opportunity to realize the dream of having successful BI initiatives in place. The scope of BI governance includes providing sufficient support and commitment in BI funding and implementation, laying out proper BI infrastructure and staffing and establishing a corporate-wide policy and procedures regarding BI. The perceptions about the characteristics of BI such as its relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability are also significant in ensuring BI success. The most important results of this study indicated that with BI successfully deployed, executives would use the knowledge provided for their necessary actions in sustaining the organizations’ competitive advantage in terms of economics, social, and environmental issues.
This study contributes significantly to the existing literature that will assist future BI researchers especially in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In particular, the model will help practitioners to consider the resources that they are likely to consider when deploying BI. Finally, the applications of this study can be extended through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.
Investigates the extent to which various quantitative techniquesare employed in marketing across Europe. Marketing practitioners,marketing services providers and marketing…
Investigates the extent to which various quantitative techniques are employed in marketing across Europe. Marketing practitioners, marketing services providers and marketing educators were all surveyed in a pan‐European study aimed at uncovering the extent of diffusion into practice of quantitative methods. Finds that, despite the increased use of computers, and the wider availability of modelling software, the most popular quantitative techniques are still the most basic data summary and presentation methods. Marketing students receive only a limited exposure to advanced quantitative methods and practitioners typically find little use for the more sophisticated techniques.
We argue in this chapter that quantitative techniques alone cannot enable appropriate verification of the levels in which a construct should be defined and validated. We…
We argue in this chapter that quantitative techniques alone cannot enable appropriate verification of the levels in which a construct should be defined and validated. We propose a process model that takes advantage of qualitative and quantitative methods when specifying and measuring the level(s) of analysis in construct development. The model implies that operationalizing a construct and its measurement should involve both qualitative and quantitative methods. Level specification begins with induction of constructs and continues with qualitative or quantitative operationalizations that are verified through the convergence of using triangulation and aggregation tests. Construct development continues until the level of analysis is accurately specified. We provide a theoretical example of construct development from the leadership literature and an empirical example to represent the verification process.
The methodological discourse of mixed-methods research offers general procedures to combine quantitative and qualitative methods for investigating complex fields of…
The methodological discourse of mixed-methods research offers general procedures to combine quantitative and qualitative methods for investigating complex fields of research such as higher education. However, integrating different methods still poses considerable challenges. To move beyond general recommendations for mixed-methods research, this chapter proposes to discuss methodological issues with respect to a particular research domain. Taking current studies on the transition to higher education as an example, the authors first provide an overview of the potentials and limitations of quantitative and qualitative methods in the research domain. Second, they show the need for a conceptual framework grounded in the theory of the research object to guide the integration of different methods and findings. Finally, an example study that investigates transition with regard to the interplay of the individual student and the institutional context serves to illustrate the guiding role of theory. The framework integrates different theoretical perspectives on transition, informs the selection of the research methods, and defines the nexus of the two strands that constitute the mixed-methods design. As the interplay of individual and context is of concern for teaching and learning in general, the example presented may be fruitful for the wider field of higher education research.
Within the literature of global mindset there has been much discussion of antecedents. Few attempts have been made, however, to analyze the outcomes of a global mindset…
Within the literature of global mindset there has been much discussion of antecedents. Few attempts have been made, however, to analyze the outcomes of a global mindset. Our chapter undertakes a thematic analysis of global mindset antecedents and outcomes in the 1994–2013 literature. Adopting an inductive approach and borrowing methods from international business and managerial cognition studies, we map, assess, and categorize 42 empirical and 10 theoretical studies thematically. We focus on the antecedents and outcomes at individual, group, and organizational levels. We conceptualize corporate global mindset as a multidimensional construct that incorporates global mindset at the individual level and is dependent on a robust communications infrastructure strategy for its cultivation throughout the organization. Our study categorizes antecedents and outcomes by level and identifies the gaps in global mindset outcomes and firm performance for future researchers to address.
This article presents focus groups as a method to enhance questionnaire design to frame and test items for a mass survey on corruption and austerity in democracy. Such…
This article presents focus groups as a method to enhance questionnaire design to frame and test items for a mass survey on corruption and austerity in democracy. Such methodology lacks systematization when it comes to the description of implementation procedures and the discussion of effective contribution to the development of survey questions on sensitive topics. The objective of this article is to contribute to the specialized literature on corruption by offering a novel focus group approach and a roadmap to guide researchers in the field when using this methodology to develop questionnaire items. This hands-on guide can be adaptable to other (survey) studies on issues prone to social desirability bias.
This article proposes an innovative multi-technique (short questionnaire, visual stimuli and exploratory discussion with expert moderation) focus group approach to collect informal impressions about corruption and austerity. By developing a focus group design through the combination of different research techniques, the authors were able to triangulate reflexive, spontaneous and interactive qualitative bottom-up information about individual perceptions and reactions to sensitive topics. By describing how to implement these groups, other than discussing what type of qualitative information can be extracted from these discussions and to what effect, the authors seek to present a hands-on guide that can be replicated and adapted to similar studies. This roadmap will help researchers to test individual perceptions and reactions to sensitive topics through the use of tailored focus groups in order to enhance the quality of survey questionnaires prior to engaging in a high-cost fieldwork.
The article concludes that the adoption of the multi-technique focus group approach to requalify and test questions for a nationwide survey gives us a better understanding of the many ethical dilemmas individuals confront when thinking about and expressing their views on sensitive topics prone to social desirability bias. The proposed multi-technique focus group approach proved to be effective to engage participants during sessions and to obtain relevant and unanticipated information for the development of new questionnaire items and the reviewing of old ones.
Implementing Focus Group (FG) in regions with different cultural traditions and levels of development and contrasting the perceptions, values and attitudes of two generations, with different formative backgrounds is not an easy task. In order to secure the adequate number and type of participants, the Focus Group were organized in close collaboration with four higher education institutions and two lifelong learning programs where the sessions took place. Participation was voluntary and consented, in accordance with the applicable legislation and standards for social research.
The article presents an accessible and adaptable roadmap to researchers working in the field of corruption studies as well as anticorruption government agencies and CSOs interested in enhancing the quality of survey questionnaires on sensitive topics target of social desirability before engaging in a high-cost fieldwork and to describe relevant information that can be extracted from the discussions held.
Most cross-country surveys on corruption tend to use basic/traditional measures to assess the phenomenon, such as questions on extension, acceptability and/or experience. They take almost for granted that people have the same understanding of this complex construct, which may not hold true, as the focus group discussions illustrate. The three-stage focus group design aims to improve the quality of a survey design regarding people's attitudes, perceptions and experiences of corruption in democracy, by contributing to the development of new questions that tap into the relationship between social condemnation and the individual's socio-economic conditions.
The article provides a low-cost combination of qualitative-oriented (questionnaire development through focus groups) with a quantitative-oriented research tool (mass survey implementation) to meet mixed-method research objectives and enhance the ability to capture several “non-statistical” dimensions of complex social phenomena that are often neglected when a single-methodology approach is used.