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Article

Qingwei Li, Matt Syal, Nova Turner and Mohammed Arif

As green buildings have become more widely accepted, constructors (general contractors, construction managers and subcontractors) have become more involved and are playing…

Abstract

Purpose

As green buildings have become more widely accepted, constructors (general contractors, construction managers and subcontractors) have become more involved and are playing an increasing role in the success of these projects. As a result, constructors need and want a better understanding of their roles and responsibilities in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) projects, while exploring ways to provide a “value‐added” service to the projects. Past research has identified “Innovation in Design (ID)” credits as a potential “value‐added opportunity” for constructors to become preferred members of LEED project teams. Similar opportunities may also exist on Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) project teams. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology encompassed an overview of “Innovation Credits (IC)” in LEED‐NC, BREEAM green building guidelines and an analysis of the ID category in LEED‐NC from a constructor's viewpoint in general, and electrical contractors in particular.

Findings

The findings of this research have identified ID credits as a potential “value‐added opportunity” for constructors to become preferred members of the LEED project teams. In contrast to LEED, this research has identified that similar opportunities for constructors do not exist for ICs under BREEAM as past or current ICs are not available in the public domain unless accessed by a BREEAM Assessor or Approved Person. This lack of access to information could have a negative impact and stifle future innovations and is an area worthy of further research.

Originality/value

This research provides an understanding of the constructor's role in the ID category and contributes to the broader literature related to the role of the construction industry in the green building movement. It is envisioned that the research output will serve as easy to use reference resources for the electrical contracting industry for proposing and achieving ID credits on LEED projects. It is also envisaged that this research will lead to recognition of the need for BREEAM ICs to be accessed within the public domain.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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Expert briefing

Leadership politics in China.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB212068

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article

Jingxin Gao, Hong Ren, Xianrui Ma, Weiguang Cai and Qingwei Shi

As a typical resource energy-intensive industry, the scale of construction industry has been expanding rapidly owing to the large-scale urbanization and the economic…

Abstract

Purpose

As a typical resource energy-intensive industry, the scale of construction industry has been expanding rapidly owing to the large-scale urbanization and the economic booming in China, which results in a sharp increase in the energy consumption of construction industry. However, it is infeasible to mitigate the energy consumption by reducing the production activities of construction industry. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency of construction industry is essential for energy saving. Construction industry has close relationships with other industries. The production activities have not only consumed a great deal of energy but they have also generated a massive energy consumption from other industries. Previous literature studied the efficiency of energy consumed directly by the construction industry. However, no research has been found focusing on the efficiency of energy consumed directly by the construction industry and indirectly by the related industries. The purpose of this paper is to put forward a total energy efficiency evaluation framework to measure the energy efficiency of construction industry in depth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method and the framework of embodied energy efficiency (EEE) to establish a total energy efficiency evaluation model. Next, the comprehensive analysis of direct energy efficiency (DEE) and EEE in different provinces with various levels of urbanization and various economic levels is conducted.

Findings

The results show that the embodied energy intensity and its regularities differ greatly between provinces. From the comparison of DEE and EEE, the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu remain DEA-effective and Hainan is the only province in which the EEE is higher than DEE in 2002, 2007 and 2012. Besides, the DEE and EEE in the provinces with higher levels of urbanization and high economic levels are not more effective than those in the provinces with relatively lower levels of urbanization and low economic levels.

Originality/value

Previous literature studied the efficiency of energy consumed directly by the construction industry while ignoring the energy consumed indirectly by the related industries. Besides, no research has been found focusing on the regulation of energy efficiency in different provinces with different levels of urbanization and different economic levels. It can be concluded that the increasing levels of urbanization and higher economic levels have not brought development and benefits for improving DEE and EEE. Therefore, under the condition that the self-regulation of construction industry and market fail to facilitate the improvement of DEE and EEE in China, policymakers should develop policies and market incentive mechanism to encourage construction industry for employing new technologies to improve the energy efficiency. Since the EEE can reveal the energy efficiency in depth, the evaluation method of EEE should be paid more attention. Besides the fact that the EEE is lower than the DEE in almost all provinces, except Hainan province, the industrial structure is essential to develop the EEE. Hence, improving the energy structure, increasing the energy efficiency and developing new and renewable energy are the basic energy strategies in China.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article

Xiang Ren, Qingwei Zhang, Kewei Liu, Ho-lung Li and Jack G. Zhou

The purpose of this paper is establishing a general mathematical model and theoretical design rules for 3D printing of biomaterials. Additive manufacturing of biomaterials…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is establishing a general mathematical model and theoretical design rules for 3D printing of biomaterials. Additive manufacturing of biomaterials provides many opportunities for fabrication of complex tissue structures, which are difficult to fabricate by traditional manufacturing methods. Related problems and research tasks are raised by the study on biomaterials’ 3D printing. Most researchers are interested in the materials studies; however, the corresponded additive manufacturing machine is facing some technical problems in printing user-prepared biomaterials. New biomaterials have uncertainty in physical properties, such as viscosity and surface tension coefficient. Therefore, the 3D printing process requires lots of trials to achieve proper printing parameters, such as printing layer thickness, maximum printing line distance and printing nozzle’s feeding speed; otherwise, the desired computer-aided design (CAD) file will not be printed successfully in 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Most additive manufacturing machine for user-prepared bio-material use pneumatic valve dispensers or extruder as printing nozzle, because the air pressure activated valve can print many different materials, which have a wide range of viscosity. We studied the structure inside the pneumatic valve dispenser in our 3D heterogeneous printing machine, and established mathematical models for 3D printing CAD structure and fluid behaviors inside the dispenser during printing process.

Findings

Based on theoretical modeling, we found that the bio-material’s viscosity, surface tension coefficient and pneumatic valve dispenser’s dispensing step time will affect the final structure directly. We verified our mathematical model by printing of two kinds of self-prepared biomaterials, and the results supported our modeling and theoretical calculation.

Research limitations/implications

For a certain kinds of biomaterials, the mathematical model and design rules will have unique solutions to the functions and equations. Therefore, each biomaterial’s physical data should be collected and input to the model for specified solutions. However, for each user-made 3D printing machine, the core programming code can be modified to adjust the parameters, which follows our mathematical model and the related CAD design rules.

Originality

This study will provide a universal mathematical method to set up design rules for new user-prepared biomaterials in 3D printing of a CAD structure.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Lin Lu, Qingwei Zhang, David Wootton, Peter I. Lelkes and Jack Zhou

Musculoskeletal conditions are a major health concern in the USA because of a large aging population and increased occurrence of sport‐related injuries. Bone tissue…

Abstract

Purpose

Musculoskeletal conditions are a major health concern in the USA because of a large aging population and increased occurrence of sport‐related injuries. Bone tissue engineering may offer a less painful alternative to traditional bone grafts with lower risk of infection. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel porogen‐based fabrication system for tissue engineering scaffolds using sucrose (C12H22O11) as the porogen building material.

Design/methodology/approach

A new solid freeform fabrication system has been developed and tested, which uses pressurized extrusion to print highly biocompatible and water soluble sucrose bone scaffold porogens (or negtives). Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds are manufactured by injecting molten polymer into the porogens, and the porogens are subsequently dissolved with water. The resultant scaffolds demonstrate the defined porous structure designed into the sucrose porogen manufacturing computer‐aided design model.

Findings

To optimize the porogen manufacturing process, the viscosity of sucrose mixtures is measured. Design of experiments is used to plan and analyze the relationships between the porogen characteristics and the process parameters. Reservoir pressure and print head speed are identified as the dominant factors affecting sucrose flow rate and porogen strut diameter, respectively. The biocompatibility of the new system is assessed by in vitro cell culture testing. Endothelial hybridoma cells (EAhy 926) and osteoblasts (7F2) seeded on the fabricated PCL scaffolds adhered to the scaffold and proliferated over four to six days. Epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy images reveal cell spreading and multiple layers of cells on the scaffold surface. The results demonstrated the potential of the structured sucrose porogen‐based fabrication method in manufacturing bone tissue scaffolds.

Originality/value

This paper describes the first time use of biomaterials‐sucrose to make scaffold porogens and how an injection molded biopolymer scaffold can then be received.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Current Global Recession
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-157-9

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Book part

Huang Chaofeng

China's defense industry is analyzed by comparing the technical level of the military and civilian products manufactured by China's nuclear, space, aviation, shipbuilding…

Abstract

China's defense industry is analyzed by comparing the technical level of the military and civilian products manufactured by China's nuclear, space, aviation, shipbuilding, ordnance, and electronics industries with their advanced counterparts. Generally, China's defense industry is about 20 years behind the global leaders. Thus, it is inappropriate to declare China's emergence as the world’s second military power. However, if it continues on its current development trajectory, it will attain that status in the near future.

Details

Cooperation for a Peaceful and Sustainable World Part 2
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-655-2

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