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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Zhichao Fang, Xinhui Guo, Yang Yang, Zhongkai Yang, Qingchun Li, Zhigang Hu and Xianwen Wang

This study aims to analyse the geographical distribution of global research activities and to investigate the knowledge diffusion embodied in scientific papers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the geographical distribution of global research activities and to investigate the knowledge diffusion embodied in scientific papers.

Design/methodology/approach

The geographical summary of Frontiers articles displays the number of visits and categorizes where the visitors hail from. This study uses the records of 23,798 articles published in 16 Frontiers journals from 2007 to 2015 to analyse the geographical distribution of article visits at both country and city levels. The process of knowledge diffusion is investigated on the basis of the different visiting patterns of new and old papers.

Findings

Most article visits are concentrated around major metropolitan areas and some high-tech clusters. The top “visiting countries” include both developed countries and developing countries, and the USA and China are two major players. Publishing cities dominate article visits for new papers; as time passes, there is diffusion from the publishing cities to a broader area.

Research limitations/implications

The data on visiting for open access articles may be generated from various repositories besides the publishers’ websites; these data are ignored, as they are not significant enough to have much influence. There is also a lack of a basic theory in the data processing of outliers in the data set. In addition, only static results are given in this paper, as the data were collected on one day, for one time. A longer time period is necessary to track the dynamic diffusion process of the observations.

Practical implications

Introduction of usage data will propose a novel way to analyse research activities and track knowledge diffusion.

Social implications

The visiting data of articles offer a new way to investigate research activities at the city level in a detailed and timely manner, for the geographical distribution of research activities and the research resource allocation of a specific country to be explored.

Originality/value

This study measured the research activities of scientific papers by examining the usage data. Compared with previous studies that focused on the geographical distribution of scientific activities using publication data, citation data and even altmetrics data, usage data are at the forefront of this research. Therefore, usage data offer a fresh perspective on methodology, providing more detailed and real-time information.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Han Z. Li, Huisheng Sun, Zhenqi Liu, Yu Zhang and Qingchun Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to find out the anti‐smoking counselling frequency and its correlates in a sample of Chinese physicians.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the anti‐smoking counselling frequency and its correlates in a sample of Chinese physicians.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, 268 physicians in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a questionnaire asking about their own smoking status, their anti‐smoking behaviors as well as their opinions on how to reduce cigarette smoking in China.

Findings

The paper finds that 54 percent of the male and 8.4 percent of the female physicians were current cigarette smokers. When asked whether they had counselled their patients about cigarette smoking in the past year, 43.7 percent answered “always”; 38.1 percent “often”; 13.1 percent “sometimes”; 2.6 percent “occasionally”, and 2.6 percent said: “not much”. However, only 9.0 percent said that they were “very successful”. Physicians' anti‐smoking counselling practices were highly correlated with their own smoking status; whether they perceived their past anti‐smoking activities as successful; whether they thought that they should set examples by not smoking; whether they felt that they had the responsibility to help patients and whether they perceived themselves as influential in persuading patients to quit smoking.

Practical implications

The paper shows that messages aimed at increasing Chinese physicians' anti‐smoking counselling should appeal to their responsibility, exemplary role, and unique influence on patients' health‐related behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the few studies on Chinese physicians' cigarette smoking behavior and their anti‐smoking activities. In a country where cigarette smoking is a way of life among males, and few people are aware of the health consequences of cigarette smoking, physicians' efforts can be a spearhead to a cessation campaign.

Details

Health Education, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Hanmin Zhang, Ming Hu, Fei Zong, Baoguan Yin, Denghong Ye, Qingchun He and Zhijie Wang

– The purpose of this paper was to attempt to confirm the root cause of wafer damage issue by heavy Al wire wedge bonding and propose some permanent solutions for it.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to attempt to confirm the root cause of wafer damage issue by heavy Al wire wedge bonding and propose some permanent solutions for it.

Design/methodology/approach

The infra red–optical beam-induced resistance change (IR-OBIRCH) analysis defines the position of an abnormal hotspot. A cross section and an scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed the wafer damage issue and its position. Based on the position of wafer damage, the wedge tool with different life and Al buildup was checked found to be on the wedge tool. Finite element analysis (FEA) modeling analysis and simulation experiment guarantee the Al buildup, and low wedge deformation thickness (WDT) can cause the wafer damage issue. Finally, design of experiment (DOE) experiments are designed to optimize wedge tool dimension and wedge-bond parameters to eliminate wafer damage issue.

Findings

Wafer damage issue caused the Vpwr-OUTPUT leakage issue by IR-OBIRCH analysis. Al buildup was found on wedge tool with different life and its size gets larger along with the increase in wedge tool life. Low WDT and bigger Al buildup can cause the wafer damage. Designing new wedge tool and parameters optimization can increase WDT.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limitation of time and resources, finite element method (FEM) modeling and wedge tool dimension could not be studied more deeply.

Originality/value

This paper sets an example on how to find out the root cause of wafer damage by a step-by-step analysis and put forward a quick solution accordingly for the issue.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Hanmin Zhang, Ming Hu, Zhijie Wang, Qingchun He and Denghong Ye

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to study the failure mechanism of BGA (ball grid array) Cu wire bond ball lift and specifically focused on substrate outgassing’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to study the failure mechanism of BGA (ball grid array) Cu wire bond ball lift and specifically focused on substrate outgassing’s impact on Cu wire bonding quality and reliability.

Design/methodology/approach

The Galvanic corrosion theory has been widely adopted in explaining the failure mechanism of Cu ball bond lift issue during reliability test or field application in the presence of moisture. In this study, ion chromatography was performed on BGA substrate halogen analysis. EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was also used to detect the contaminant’s element at the bottom surface of a window clamp. Further FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis verified that the contamination is from substrate outgassing during wire bonding. A new window clamp design proved effective in reducing the negative impact from substrate outgassing during wire bonding.

Findings

The solder mask in a fresh substrate contains a chlorine element. The chlorine can be detected in the BGA substrate outgassing during wire bonding by FTIR and EDX analyses, which have a negative impact on the Cu wire bonding. The window clamp with a larger opening can reduce the negative impact of the Cu wire bonding from the BGA substrate outgassing.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limitation of time and resources, bonding pad surface contamination from substrate outgassing and its correlation with Cu bonding ball lift failure after reliability test will be studied in depth later.

Originality/value

The BGA substrate outgassing has negative impacts on Cu wire bondability. A window clamp with a larger opening can reduce the negative impact from substrate outgassing.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Siyue Chen, Gengzhi Huang, Hongou Zhang, Yuyao Ye and Qitao Wu

Institutional factors play an important and complex role in Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) location choices that do not seem to be influenced by a host…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutional factors play an important and complex role in Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) location choices that do not seem to be influenced by a host country’s high political risks. Moreover, the location choice for OFDI is key to corporate strategic decision-making on internationalization. Therefore, this study aims to examine the direct investments of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Laos.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining the purposive sampling strategy and snowball sampling method, the authors interviewed nine market- and resource-seeking Chinese enterprises in Laos. Drawing from the mainstream eclectic paradigm and the theory of new institutional economics, the authors analyzed two key variables – enterprise investment motivation and enterprise heterogeneity.

Findings

Chinese MNEs are not insensitive to the regressive institutional quality of host countries; the relationship effect and institutional distance are the location decision pathways along with which institutional factors influence Chinese multinationals’ investments in Laos; political stability is necessary for Chinese-funded enterprises to invest in Laos and the degree of corruption is an overestimated institutional preference factor.

Originality/value

The relationship effect is introduced into the analysis framework as an intermediate variable that influences the decision of MNEs to invest in countries with underdeveloped institutions. It verifies the significant roles of bilateral political relations and network relations in the OFDI location decisions of state-owned and private enterprises, respectively.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

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