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1 – 10 of 11
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

D.S. Malik and John N. Mordeson

In this paper, we define and examine the concept of a fuzzy recognizer. If L(M) is the language recognized by an incomplete fuzzy recognizer M, we show that there is a…

Abstract

In this paper, we define and examine the concept of a fuzzy recognizer. If L(M) is the language recognized by an incomplete fuzzy recognizer M, we show that there is a completion M of M such that L(M) = L(M). We also show that if A is a recognizable set of words, then there is a complete accessible fuzzy recognizer MA such that L(MA) = A. We lay groundwork to determine rational decompositions of recognizable sets.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2018

C. Tyler DesRoches

No longer do resource economists merely regard nature as a collection of inert materials to be improved by human labor and manufactured capital; rather, nature is, to an…

Abstract

No longer do resource economists merely regard nature as a collection of inert materials to be improved by human labor and manufactured capital; rather, nature is, to an increasing extent, taken to be a mindless producer of economically valuable ecosystem goods and services. Instances of natural capital are frequently said to produce such goods and services in a manner that is relatively detached from human agency. This article argues that, historically, the idea of nature as a systematic original producer capable of self-generation is hardly novel. The eighteenth-century roots of this idea can be found in the writings of Carl Linnaeus who depicted the whole Earth and all of its productions as the “oeconomy of nature.”

Details

Including a Symposium on Latin American Monetary Thought: Two Centuries in Search of Originality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-431-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Rila Anggraeni and Christin Susilowati

Many companies produce environmentally friendly goods and offer their products with varied attractive marketing mix strategies. One of the company's potential target…

Abstract

Many companies produce environmentally friendly goods and offer their products with varied attractive marketing mix strategies. One of the company's potential target markets is millennials because the growing number of this community has become enormous. In terms of behavior, millennials have a high level of consumption compared to other generations. However, there are big questions about the willingness of millennials to consume green products. This study aims to acknowledge the green product buying behavior among millennials, especially premium green products. The variables expected to influence the millennial's willingness to pay premium include environmental concern, reference group, and pro-environmental attitude. Data collected through a survey of 250 respondents. The hypothesis framework was tested using PLS-SEM modeling to evaluate the measurement and structural models with the assistance of Warp PLS version 7.0. This study found that millennials who consider the importance of preserving the environment and have a reference group that solicitude to the environment will have a pro-environmental attitude and willing to buy the green product, even though it has a higher price. Green product's management can use the result to formulate an effective green marketing strategy to target the millennials. Regarding the need for millennials' environmental behavior clearer picture in a developing economy, the present study inflicts the literature by describing the antecedents of millennials' willingness to pay premium green products. The results also give practical implications by shedding light on millennials’ green behavior variables. It helps green entrepreneurs conceive their strategic marketing management, and thus can boost the green economy and economic growth.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Indonesia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-431-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2016

Madhav Regmi and Krishna P. Paudel

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the food security situation in Bangladesh based on 2011/2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey data using two commonly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the food security situation in Bangladesh based on 2011/2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey data using two commonly measured food security indicators: Food Consumption Score (FCS) and Household Hunger Scale (HHS).

Methodology/approach

The dependent variable in the model is a categorical variable representing different scales of food security as obtained from the FCS and HHS indicators. These categorical variables are explained by annual remittances received by the households; the demographic characteristics (age, gender, literacy level, and occupation) of the household head; and total monthly income from agricultural and non-agricultural wages using ordered probit regression models.

Findings

Results indicated that remittances play an important role in improving the food security of households. Other significant variables in the model were income earned outside of the farm, male-operated household, and literacy. Increasing income from other than the agricultural sector significantly raises the probability of a household being food secure.

Practical implications

The Government of Bangladesh should make the agriculture sector stronger at all levels of the value chain. Additionally, providing income generation opportunities for households outside of the farm can be used as a diversification measure to achieve food security within the country.

Details

Food Security in a Food Abundant World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-215-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun, Philip Akanni Olomola, Adebayo Adedokun and Olumide Steven Ayodele

The increasing debate on the viability of broad-based productive employment in stimulating the participatory tendencies of growth makes it instructive to inquire how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing debate on the viability of broad-based productive employment in stimulating the participatory tendencies of growth makes it instructive to inquire how the African “Big Five” have fared in their quests to ensure growth inclusiveness through public investment-led fiscal policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Time varying structures and nonlinearities in the government investment series are captured through the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag, asymmetric impulse responses and variance decomposition estimation techniques.

Findings

Study findings show that positive investment shocks stimulate growth inclusiveness by enabling access to opportunities through job creation and productive employment for the populace; this result is evident for Morocco and Algeria. However, there is a non-negligible evidence that shocks due to decline in the government investment manifest in insufficient capital stocks and limited investment opportunities, impede access to opportunities by the populace, hinder labour employability and make growth less inclusive. Furthermore, all short-run findings corroborate long-run results regarding the reaction of inclusive growth to positive investment shocks with the exclusion of South Africa; which, unlike its long-run finding, shows that shocks due to increases in investment can foster growth inclusiveness. Also, in respect to short-run negative investment shocks, Nigeria is the only country that does not align its long-run findings.

Practical implications

That public investment shocks make or mar inclusive growth effectiveness shows the need for appropriate fiscal policy consolidation and automatic stabilization guidelines to ensure buffers against shocks and to enhance government investment generation efficiency for a sustainable inclusive growth process that is more participatory in Africa.

Originality/value

This study is the first to accommodate possibilities of shocks in the inclusivity of growth analysis for the five biggest African economies which jointly account for over half of the recorded growth in the continent. As such, there is quantitative evidence that government investment is a potent determinant of growth inclusiveness and it is susceptible to structural changes and time variation of shocks.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Ildephonse Musafiri and Pär Sjölander

Based on unique data the authors analyze the Rwandan non-farm employment expansion in rural areas and its relation to agricultural productivity. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on unique data the authors analyze the Rwandan non-farm employment expansion in rural areas and its relation to agricultural productivity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that determine off-farm work hours in Rwanda, and how farmers’ off-farm employment affects agricultural output. Since production efficiency may depend on off-farm work and off-farm work depend on production efficiency (Lien et al., 2010), both production and off-farm work are endogenous. While controlling for endogeneity, the authors investigate the relationship between off-farm work and agricultural production.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the authors use a unique panel data set spanning over 26 years originating from household surveys conducted in the northwest and densely populated districts of Rwanda. Econometric estimations are based on a random effects two-stage Tobit model to control for endogeneity.

Findings

The study confirms theoretical and empirical findings from other developing countries that off-farm employment is one of the essential conditions for having an economically viable agricultural business and vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

The study is carried out in only one district of Rwanda. Even though most rural areas in Rwanda have similar features the findings cannot necessarily be generalized for the entire country of Rwanda. As in any study, the raw data set suffer from a number of shortcomings which cannot be fully eliminated by the econometric estimation, but this is a new data set which has the best data available for this research question in Rwanda.

Practical implications

The authors can conclude that there are synergy effects of investing government resources into both on-farm and off-farm employment expansions. Thus, in Rwanda on-farm investments can actually partly contribute to a future natural smooth transformation to more off-farm total output and productivity and vice versa. Though there are still limited off-farm employment opportunities in the studied area, there are considerable potentials to generate income and increase agricultural production through the purchase of additional inputs.

Social implications

The findings imply that a favorable business climate for off-farm businesses creates spill-over effects which enhance the smallholder farmers’ opportunities to survive, generate wealth, create employment and in effect reduce poverty.

Originality/value

From the best of the authors’ knowledge, similar studies have not been conducted in Rwanda, nor elsewhere with this type of data set. The findings provide original insights regarding off-farm and agricultural relationships in rural areas under dense population pressure. The results provide some indications that off-farm employment in developing countries (such as Rwanda) is one of the essential conditions for having an economically viable agricultural business and vice versa. The second wave of data was collected by the authors and was used solely for the purpose of this paper.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Swaibu Mbowa, Tonny Odokonyero, Tony Muhumuza and Ezra Munyambonera

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of coffee production on poverty among smallholder farmers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of coffee production on poverty among smallholder farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

National Household Survey data for Uganda were triangulated with qualitative field data. A mix of propensity score matching (PSM) and quantile treatment effect techniques was employed.

Findings

The results reveal a significant effect of coffee production on poverty reduction, through incremental household consumption expenditure. Households engaged in coffee production are associated with a lower incidence of poverty. The interesting evidence suggests that coffee production is a pro-poor intervention. These findings are confirmed by qualitative assessment that reveals farmers’ welfare improved to greater extent to satisfactory levels from coffee income.

Research limitations/implications

Econometrically robust strategies were employed to ensure minimal estimation bias; however, the authors are mindful of PSM limitation of selection on observables.

Originality/value

This paper is part of a limited body of literature that combines quantitative and qualitative assessment, a growing issue in contemporary research. In addition to employing one of the conventional impact evaluation techniques, the paper accounts for heterogeneity in the effects of coffee production.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Emmanuel Donkor, Stephen Onakuse, Joe Bogue and Ignacio de los Rios Carmenado

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of the determinants of farmer participation in value addition through cassava processing in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of the determinants of farmer participation in value addition through cassava processing in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the probit model to analyse the determinants of farmer participation in value addition whereas the Tobit model is used to investigate the determinants of the extent of producer’s involvement in value addition using a data set of 400 cassava farmers drawn from the Oyo State of Nigeria.

Findings

The findings further indicate that among other factors, human capital factors including farmer age and location variable tend to reduce farmer participation in value addition through processing whereas experience and record keeping promote farmer participation in cassava processing. Institutional variables, notably membership of farmer association, extension access and credit access, enhance farmer participation in value addition. Finally, ownership of a radio set, a television set and access to electricity strengthen the value-adding capacity of farmers.

Research limitations/implications

This study only considers the determinants of producers’ participation in cassava processing but does not explicitly analyse the impact of value addition on their profit margin. This issue would form a basis for future research to enhance knowledge in the extant literature.

Practical implications

The study suggests that if the value-adding capacity of farmers is strengthened, rural economy is likely to be improved upon through the proliferation of rural food processing enterprises.

Originality/value

Despite the relevance of developing food value chains in Africa and integrating farmers in them, there are limited studies on promoting value addition among farmers. This study contributes to narrowing this knowledge gap.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Emmanuel Donkor, Stephen Onakuse, Joe Bogue and Ignacio de los Rios Carmenado

This study analyses income inequality and distribution patterns among key actors in the cassava value chain. The study also identifies factors that influence profit of key…

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyses income inequality and distribution patterns among key actors in the cassava value chain. The study also identifies factors that influence profit of key actors in the cassava value chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in Oyo State, Nigeria, using primary data from 620 actors, consisting of 400 farmers, 120 processors and 100 traders in the cassava value chain. The Gini coefficient was used to estimate income inequalities within and between actors. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify factors that influence the profit of the actors in the cassava value chain.

Findings

The result shows a gender pattern in the participation in the cassava value chain: men dominate in the production, whereas women mostly engage in processing and marketing of processed cassava products. We also find that incomes are unequally distributed among actors, favouring traders and processors more than farmers in the value chain. Women are better off in processing and trading of value-added products than in the raw cassava production. Spatial differences also contribute to income inequality among farmers in the cassava value chain. An increase in farmers and processors’ incomes reduces inequality in the value chain while an increase in traders’ income widens inequality. Age is significantly negatively correlated with actors’ profit at 1%, while educational level significantly increases their profit at 5%. Processors and traders with large households have a higher profit. We also find that farm size, experience and labour input have significant positive effects on farmers’ profit only at 5%. Membership in an association increases farmers and processors’ profit at 1 and 10%, respectively.

Practical implications

The study recommends that agricultural policies that promote agrifood value chains should aim at minimizing income inequality by targeting vulnerable groups, particularly female farmers to achieve sustainable development in rural communities.

Originality/value

Existing studies recognise income inequality in agricultural value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few rigorous quantitative studies that address this pressing issue. Our paper fills this knowledge gap and suggests ways to minimise income inequality in the agri-food value chain, using the example of the cassava value chain in Nigeria.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

I. Antoniadis and A. Kanarachos

Although the existence of a close relationship between the areas ofdigital signal processing and time integration methodology is known, asystematic application of the…

Abstract

Although the existence of a close relationship between the areas of digital signal processing and time integration methodology is known, a systematic application of the concepts and methods of the first area to the second is missing. Such an approach is followed in this paper, arising from the fact that any time integration formula can be viewed as a digital filter of the applied excitation force, approximating as close as possible to the behaviour of a ‘prototype analogue filter’, which is in fact the semi discrete equations of motion of the system. This approach provides a universal framework for handling and analysing all various aspects of time integration formulae, such as analysis in the frequency domain, algebraic operations, accuracy and stability, aliasing, spurious oscillations generation, introduction of digital filters within the time integration formula, initial conditions handling and overshooting. Additionally it is shown that digital signal processing methods, such as pre‐ or post‐processing, time delays, etc. can be in certain cases a quite effective complement of the time integration scheme.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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