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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Charles Gbollie and Shaoying Gong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the push-pull factors and motivations of African and Asian international students in Chinese universities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the push-pull factors and motivations of African and Asian international students in Chinese universities.

Design/methodology/approach

Concurrent mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) design was used. The quantitative component included 537 Africans and Asians from five notable universities, while the qualitative aspect consisted of 30 participants in Wuhan and few other cities in China.

Findings

Findings revealed availability of scholarship opportunities, China’s flexibility (visa and program entry) and perception of better education quality as important push-pull factors. It also discovered several new pull factors, including citizens’ attitude and good report, development potential and hospitality and receptiveness, while career development and entertainment were found to be the most and least significant motivational factors, respectively. The study also found a significant relationship between push-pull factors and study abroad motivation (SAM) as well as cross-cultural differences between African and Asian students.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the participants were drawn from Wuhan city. Hence, the findings cannot be outrightly generalized to other contexts.

Practical implications

This research provides valuable knowledge for policy makers, higher education institutions, international students and other stakeholders in China to inform better student experience.

Originality/value

There was no study found that combines push-pull factors and SAM or comparatively investigates African and international students in China. Knowledge about sojourners push-pull factors and motivations, their relationship and cross-cultural differences is essential for evidence-based interventions.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Pedro Jácome de Moura Jr

Data science lacks a distinctive identity and a theory-informed approach, both for its own sake and to properly be applied conjointly to the social sciences. This paper’s…

Abstract

Purpose

Data science lacks a distinctive identity and a theory-informed approach, both for its own sake and to properly be applied conjointly to the social sciences. This paper’s purposes are twofold: to provide (1) data science an illustration of theory adoption, able to address explanation and support prediction/prescription capacities and (2) a rationale for identification of the key phenomena and properties of data science so that the data speak through a contextual understanding of reality, broader than has been usual.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and a derived conceptual research model for a push–pull approach (adapted for a data science study in the management field) are presented. A real location–allocation problem is solved through a specific algorithm and explained in the light of the adapted push–pull theory, serving as an instance for a data science theory-informed application in the management field.

Findings

This study advances knowledge on the definition of data science key phenomena as not just pure “data”, but interrelated data and datasets properties, as well as on the specific adaptation of the push-pull theory through its definition, dimensionality and interaction model, also illustrating how to apply the theory in a data science theory-informed research. The proposed model contributes to the theoretical strengthening of data science, still an incipient area, and the solution of the location-allocation problem suggests the applicability of the proposed approach to broad data science problems, alleviating the criticism on the lack of explanation and the focus on pattern recognition in data science practice and research.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed algorithm requires the previous definition of a perimeter of interest. This aspect should be characterised as an antecedent to the model, which is a strong assumption. As for prescription, in this specific case, one has to take complementary actions, since theory, model and algorithm are not detached from in loco visits, market research or interviews with potential stakeholders.

Practical implications

This study offers a conceptual model for practical location–allocation problem analyses, based on the push–pull theoretical components. So, it suggests a proper definition for each component (the object, the perspective, the forces, its degrees and the nature of the movement). The proposed model has also an algorithm for computational implementation, which visually describes and explains components interaction, allowing further simulation (estimated forces degrees) for prediction.

Originality/value

First, this study identifies an overlap of push–pull theoretical approaches, which suggests theory adoption eventually as mere common sense, weakening further theoretical development. Second, this study elaborates a definition for the push–pull theory, a dimensionality and a relationship between its components. Third, a typical location–allocation problem is analysed in the light of the refactored theory, showing its adequacy for that class of problems. And fourth, this study suggests that the essence of a data science should be the study of contextual relationships among data, and that the context should be provided by the spatial, temporal, political, economic and social analytical interests.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Vanessa Quintal, Ben Thomas, Ian Phau and Zorana Soldat

The study aims to introduce a comprehensive segmentation instrument that incorporates the push–pull winescape attributes, providing a new perspective of the wine tourist…

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Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to introduce a comprehensive segmentation instrument that incorporates the push–pull winescape attributes, providing a new perspective of the wine tourist profile and explaining their behavioural intentions in the Australian winescape.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review, focus groups and expert panels generated an extensive list of push–pull winescape attributes. Pen-and-paper surveys conveniently sampled 739 wine tourists at three wineries across three wine regions in Australia. Adopting push–pull winescape attributes as the segmentation base, cluster analysis identified four segments, namely, inspireds, self-drivens, market-drivens and inerts, and their behavioural intentions were examined.

Findings

Inspireds demonstrate both self- and market-motivation. Self-drivens exhibit self-motivation but limited market-motivation, whereas Market-drivens characterise market-motivation but limited self-motivation. Inerts are limited in both market- and self-motivations. At the Swan Valley, all four segments were identified, with Inspireds being the most willing to revisit and recommend to others and Inerts, the least willing. At the Barossa Valley, only two segments emerged. Again, Inspireds and Inerts were the most and least willing to revisit and recommend to others respectively. Finally, at the Yarra Valley, three segments were identified. Market-drivens were most willing to revisit and recommend to others, followed by self-drivens and lastly, by inerts.

Research limitations/implications

A comprehensive push–pull winescape segmentation base of wine tourists is introduced, which provides a more sophisticated profile of wine tourist segments than otherwise would be attained with conventional measures.

Practical implications

New insights into who the wine tourist is and what it is they seek from the winescape are vital to smaller wine producers whose best access to the domestic retail and export markets is through direct selling at the cellar door.

Originality/value

The empirically tested 18-item push–pull winescape instrument presents a comprehensive segmentation approach, which profiles wine tourists and predicts their behavioural intentions based on an extensive investigation of push–pull winescape attributes.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Anji Benhamed, Said EL Hajjar, Fatima Hamad Yaseen and Noamen Amara

This study explores how entrepreneurs modify their financial path(s) and go beyond job security to attain greater financial freedom. The present work examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how entrepreneurs modify their financial path(s) and go beyond job security to attain greater financial freedom. The present work examines the cash-flow quadrant (CFQ) attributes and demonstrates the importance of the push-pull factors for an individual's quadrant transition in achieving financial freedom.

Design/methodology/approach

A hypothetical model and an abductive approach were used through regression models in a population sample of 260 Bahraini entrepreneurs. Fuzzy participatory cognitive mapping was also used to develop a conceptual model of financial path transition's decision making among entrepreneurs and study the impact of certain push-pull factors on the entrepreneurs' decisions.

Findings

The triangulated study identifies six categories of variables: financial freedom, workplace condition, independence, salary level, family life-building and retirement savings as key pull-push factors that significantly impact financial path transition's decision. Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) extends our knowledge of the dynamics of CFQ transitions from a push-pull factor perspective. The results indicate no significant differences between the variables listed in the regression model and the fuzzy cognitive map model. Four categories of pull-push factors appeared as the entrepreneurs' top rankings when ordered by complexity, centrality scores and impact weight. These categories were workplace conditions, financial freedom, independence and salary level. The findings widen the scope of knowledge of each quadrant and rationalize how and why such factors impact quadrant decisions among Bahraini entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

Many studies discuss the CFQ model and consider its quadrants a specific method for identifying a unique financial path to generate income. A shifting quadrant occurs when individuals want to change their financial path and move beyond job security to achieve more financial freedom. Although this transition is well-established in the literature, the factors accounting for the individual's transition across quadrants have not received enough attention. This study fills this gap and calls for more in-depth investigations of this area to better understand the dynamics of CFQ transitions from a push-pull factor perspective.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Simon Stephens

The purpose of this paper is to identify a group of Irish graduates who decided to emigrate following the global financial crash of 2008. The paper explores how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify a group of Irish graduates who decided to emigrate following the global financial crash of 2008. The paper explores how the economic crisis in Ireland (2008-2014) framed the experience of this group of migrants. Specifically, the paper examines the push/pull factors leading to migration; the experience of the graduate migrants in the host country; and decisions regarding repatriation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative approach to study the experiences of graduates. The paper utilises narrative structuring to provide an enhanced understanding of the migration experience of the graduates.

Findings

The data collected during depth interviews indicates a mixed experience. There are a wide range of push/pull factors that result in migration. However, the range of push/pull factors that might result in repatriation are blurred by: personal experiences in the host country, changing family circumstances and the performance of the economy in Ireland.

Practical implications

This research highlights complex patterns of graduate mobility which reflect the multifaceted push/pull factors shaping graduate movements. Economic conditions drive migration but they also frame the migrant experience in the host country and repatriation decisions.

Originality/value

A review of the literature indicates that most of the empirical studies on the experience of graduates are quantitative. This paper argues other softer outcomes must also be studied to help fully understand the experiences of graduates.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Yasuhiro Hirakawa, Kyoji Hoshino and Hiroshi Katayama

Recently, it has been recognized that production control systemsfor multi‐stage manufacturing processes can be classified into push‐typeand pull‐type systems. The…

Abstract

Recently, it has been recognized that production control systems for multi‐stage manufacturing processes can be classified into push‐type and pull‐type systems. The push‐type systems are commonly defined as those types of materials requirements planning system which utilize the forecast of demands. The pull‐type systems, on the other hand, are those where order quantities are determined on the basis of real demand. Describes a hybrid push/pull production control system, operated periodically, which combines the benefits of both systems. Discusses theoretical arguments in support of this system and numerical studies are shown to give insight into the system′s performance. Hybrid push/pull‐type systems can attain a higher degree of effectiveness if they are appropriately operated.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Philippe Zgheib

American and Lebanese women may feel they have different needs and therefore have different wants. This distinction brings to the fore the importance of an integrative…

Abstract

Purpose

American and Lebanese women may feel they have different needs and therefore have different wants. This distinction brings to the fore the importance of an integrative analysis of forced and voluntary (push-pull) factors that influence entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to compare Lebanese and American women to determine their push-pull drive for entrepreneurship. Background: women entrepreneurship is developing in various cultural settings internationally as well as domestically. This research paper attempts to address the inference of autonomy, creativity, and non-conformity in comparing American and Lebanese women entrepreneurs with respect to the push-pull framework of entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive analysis of 102 extensive in-depth interviews with women entrepreneurs from the USA and Lebanon allows the exploration of the relevance and salience of the proposed push-pull gender related entrepreneurship framework. Contrasting American and Lebanese women responses explains why the number and rate of women entrepreneurs is greater in the USA than in the Arab world, and attempts to answer why American women are more entrepreneurial and how the environment impacts them.

Findings

Emerging patterns of female business entrepreneurship in this analysis demonstrate that forced push entrepreneurship is more prevalent among women from a developing economy such as Lebanon than in industrially advanced USA. By contrast voluntary pull entrepreneurship claims more global validity as discovered in the US business culture. Entrepreneurial dimensions analyzed include autonomy, creativity, and non-conformity.

Originality/value

The dynamic interplay of micro, meso, and macro levels of the integrated framework of gender entrepreneurship is taken into further depth by exploring the gender autonomy debate, and highlighting creativity and non-conformity within the push-pull framework of entrepreneurship. This research contributes to reach scopes of practice and research. At the practice level the results show that the economic need is more than the self-satisfaction need to the initiation of new start-up business enterprises for Lebanese women compared to American women. This research sheds a new light on the balancing act of women entrepreneurs between tradition and modernity, between Oriental and Western cultures, and between Americans and Lebanese Arabs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Alexander Preko, Iddrisu Mohammed, Theophilus Francis Gyepi-Garbrah and Azizbek Allaberganov

This study aims to present the push-pull motives of Islamic tourism and how these provide the basis for promoting and developing Islamic tourism practices in Ghana’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present the push-pull motives of Islamic tourism and how these provide the basis for promoting and developing Islamic tourism practices in Ghana’s tourism industry. As Islamic tourism is considered as a niche market with new needs and wants globally, this study makes the effort to identify the prospects of this form of tourism in a non-Islamic developing nation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has used a convenience sampling approach in gathering data from 337 Muslim tourists, adopting existing scale instruments of push-pull motives, satisfaction, word-of-mouth of tourists and Islamic practices. The structural equation modelling was used to establish relationships and effects of the studied variables.

Findings

The results revealed the significant effects of push-pull motives of Ghanaian Muslim tourists on satisfaction as well as the significant influence of tourist satisfaction on word-of-mouth. In addition, the significant moderating effects of Islamic practices on the relationships between push-pull motives and tourist satisfaction were established.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusion and recommendations of this study might not be consistent with factors that motivate Muslims tourists in other countries.

Practical implications

The results of the study validate the viability of Islamic tourism practices and possible spread of positive word-of-mouth among potential Muslim tourists for future Islamic tourism market in Ghana.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first insight into push-pull motives of Muslim tourists’ choice of Islamic destination in non-Islamic developing country context. The insight will be valuable to tourism authorities, industry, academics, businesses, managers and practitioners, as the results will enhance product and service delivery to Muslim tourists when they are on vacation.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1991

Prem Vrat and Pisal Yenradee

A comparative evaluation of push, pull and a combination ofpush‐pull production strategies for a multi‐product two‐stage productionsystem is presented. A mathematical…

Abstract

A comparative evaluation of push, pull and a combination of push‐pull production strategies for a multi‐product two‐stage production system is presented. A mathematical model is developed to determine EBQ and optimal batch splitting and is applied to a case of a manufacturing company producing hard disk parts. The results obtained are compared with the existing practice. It is shown that a push policy results in the highest total system cost while the pull system – the least, with the hybrid policy in‐between. It is recommended that a switchover to optimal hybrid push‐pull policy is called for from the present non‐optimal push policy. Cost reduction potential for such a switchover is estimated.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Martin Fojt, Stephen Parkinson, John Peters and Eric Sandelands

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a medium sized business has addressed what it has termed a “push‐pull” method of management and organization development, based…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a medium sized business has addressed what it has termed a “push‐pull” method of management and organization development, based around an action learning approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper sets out a methodology that other SMEs might look to replicate in their management and organizational development activities.

Findings

Fast‐track development through push‐pull ensures that staff are able to take on areas of enhanced responsibility as a firm grows – “pulling” them into expanded roles. Simultaneously, it develops an entrepreneurial “push” which develops the organization and thus creates expanded roles. This turns the talent management process somewhat on its head by enabling and expecting employees to drive their own fast‐track development. Alignment with business strategies is sought, but there is also a realization that strategies can be created and changed.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is descriptive and exploratory, focusing on a single organization, supported by a brief review of relevant literature.

Practical implications

Action learning programmes within SMEs can reinforce the “right” behaviour that is required to grow a firm and provide foundations for the people and organization to succeed.

Originality/value

Introduces the concept of the “push‐pull” method of management and organizational development, treating the two as linked and mutually supportive.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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