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The purpose of this paper is to describe self‐reported and estimated school meal consumption patterns of the pupils and introduces the pupils' and their parents'…
The purpose of this paper is to describe self‐reported and estimated school meal consumption patterns of the pupils and introduces the pupils' and their parents' suggestions for developing the school meals in Finland with respect to the plate model.
“Food choice view” concerning school meals, previous studies on developing school meals, and the plate model are briefly illustrated. The empirical data were collected in 2007 from four comprehensive schools. A total of 168 6th‐9th graders and their 83 parents returned the questionnaires.
The findings indicate that the pupils do not eat all the items of the plate model. The pupils and their parents gave the following suggestions on how to develop free school meals: more favourite dishes; more alternatives from which to choose; salads to be served as components; wider selection of salads; chilled milk, lactose‐free and fat‐free milk served with soft white bread, brown bread as well as rolls; finally, serve different components such as cold cuts on the bread.
The practical implications are that the pupils' and the parents' desires and wishes could be consulted more often and the municipal budget should be taken into account.
The pupils' self‐reported school meal consumption patterns indicate that the intake of the items belonging to the plate model could be increased by serving the pupils' favourite dishes, which could be of great importance to those in charge of health education and school catering organisations.
Pupil control behaviour is conceptualized as a continuum ranging from “custodialism”, which views students as irresponsible and undisciplined needing strictness and punishment to “Humanism”, which emphasizes a democratic atmosphere in which students are capable of self‐discipline and are treated accordingly. The theoretical framework relates dogmatism, pupil control ideology and pupil control behaviour. The general hypothesis is that closed‐mindedness will be positively related to custodialism in pupil control ideology, which in turn manifests itself in custodial pupil control behaviour. The prediction was supported. The results of the investigation indicate that dogmatism and pupil control behaviour are related; but more importantly, that the association is not direct. The analysis suggests that dogmatism operates through ideology to structure behaviour.
The education of pupils with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) has gradually improved, due to a range of new initiatives and the introduction of the…
The education of pupils with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) has gradually improved, due to a range of new initiatives and the introduction of the national curriculum. However, it is widely recognised that some pupils have a wide range of early specific and complex needs that are not always met. This paper describes a new early curriculum for self‐development being implemented at the Shepherd School, which is unanimously supported by therapists, parents and teachers. It is suggested that, for pupils with PMLD, the new revised framework could provide a more relevant broad and balanced curriculum, fulfilling individual needs, and ultimately lead to effective access to the national curriculum.
This paper aims to deal with the processes and experiences of teaching English as an additional language (AL). More specifically, it deals with the research question of…
This paper aims to deal with the processes and experiences of teaching English as an additional language (AL). More specifically, it deals with the research question of which teaching methods are used when teaching English as AL and why.
It concerns a case study approach conducted in an English primary school situated in North Yorkshire, where bilingual pupils also participate. The research methods used include observations in the classroom and in the playground, interviews with the teachers and the bilingual pupils of the school, as well as analysis of policy school documentation related to the topic examined.
The picture revealed by this study suggests that a number of different approaches and teaching methods, which contribute to teaching English as an AL, are used. The results indicate that great importance is attributed to teacher-pupil and pupil-pupil interaction, as well as to the employment of specific teaching techniques such as key visuals, corrective feedback. In addition, certain types of questions are addressed to bilingual pupils depending on their current language proficiency level. Teachers seem to emphasise the significance of activating the prior knowledge of non-native speakers (NNS). Progression in the content of the activities set, motivation and differentiation are seen as important. The implementation of the aforementioned approaches and teaching methods are supported by the policy and organisation of the school, where the research study was conducted.
As stated in the National Curriculum and within the framework of inclusion, all pupils for whom English is not their first language have to be provided with opportunities to develop the English language, the acquisition of which will help them to have access and take part in all subject areas. The present study explores what certain teaching approaches and methods can provide NNS with equal opportunities to develop English as an AL and why.
The roles that ethnographers adopt in their fieldwork are “perhaps the single most important determinant of what he [or she] will be able to learn” (McCall & Simmons, 1969, p. 29). My purpose in this paper is to demonstrate that these roles can be in a state of rapid flux, depending not only on who the researcher is interacting with, but also on a complex system of constantly changing settings for those interactions.
Advocates of market-based reforms in the public sector argue that competition between providers drives up performance. But in the context of schooling, the concern is that…
Advocates of market-based reforms in the public sector argue that competition between providers drives up performance. But in the context of schooling, the concern is that any improvements in efficiency may come at the cost of increased stratification of schools along lines of pupil ability and attainments. In this chapter, we discuss our empirical work on competition and parental choice in English primary schools and present a methodology for identifying competition effects that exploits discontinuities in market access close to education district boundaries.
This chapter focuses on the participation and social interaction of pupils with low-incidence disabilities in the Swedish educational system with the goal of relating…
This chapter focuses on the participation and social interaction of pupils with low-incidence disabilities in the Swedish educational system with the goal of relating policies and practices in education for learners with low-incidence disabilities. Sweden has a welfare system that ensures that all low-incidence learners and their families receive support in education and in their everyday life. The research section concentrates on studies that focus on participation and social interaction in an educational context (training school), which is an adapted education program for low-incidence learners characterized by its high staff ratio and individualized forms of teaching. Despite legislation, policies, and intentions that Swedish schools shall include all pupils, it is still a challenge for the Swedish school system to provide education for low-incidence learners in inclusive environments. Research shows that low-incidence learners primarily have vertical relations with teachers and assistants in school, and that there is a lack of horizontal relationships with peers. The greatest challenge is to create learning environments that contribute to building relationships between low-incidence learners and learners without disabilities.
This chapter presents a pedagogical tool for investigating at-risk children's attitudes towards the quality of school life. It has been developed from the questionnaire…
This chapter presents a pedagogical tool for investigating at-risk children's attitudes towards the quality of school life. It has been developed from the questionnaire originally by Williams and Batten (1981), Binkley, Rust, and Williams (1996) and Dinkes, Forrest, and Lin-Kelly (2007).
This chapter explores the use of three different approaches to capturing other perspectives in lesson study: lesson artefacts, pupil voice and pupil participatory…
This chapter explores the use of three different approaches to capturing other perspectives in lesson study: lesson artefacts, pupil voice and pupil participatory approaches. Lesson artefacts and pupil voice appear to be the more common, whereas pupil participatory approaches are more recent initiatives in a lesson study context. Observation of pupils provides one perspective, but is limited because, among other things, it does not include the pupils’ perspectives. These approaches, especially when used together in triangulation, can provide a broader and potentially deeper understanding of pupil learning.
This chapter argues that, if pupils experiencing SEBD are to be able regulate their behaviour, it is essential for them to be perceived as being able to exercise agency…
This chapter argues that, if pupils experiencing SEBD are to be able regulate their behaviour, it is essential for them to be perceived as being able to exercise agency, no matter how their difficulties are conceptualised. It also makes the case that, if we are to effect lasting change, it is necessary to impact at the level of values and beliefs, helping young people to come to an understanding of themselves and their relationships with others. The focus of the chapter is a case study evaluating a group work approach (Support groups), designed and implemented by the author, to support such pupils within a Scottish secondary school, situated in an area of multiple deprivation. The chapter examines the extent to which pupils participating within the intervention developed the capacity to regulate their behaviour with good judgement in a range of contexts, identifying variables which fostered or impeded progress. The study is principally qualitative but draws also from quantitative data. It focuses upon four cohorts of Support group pupils (N=69), inclusive of six case studies. The findings indicate that the intervention had impacted positively upon the capacity of the young people to self-regulate their behaviour, if to varying extents, and that pupil outcomes were highly context related. A range of factors came into play in effecting improvements in self-regulation in young people, such as the capacity of the Support group Leader to ‘see the good’ in the young person and hold onto them through difficult times. The quality of relationships between pupils and their Support group Leaders emerged as key as did the ethos of the group, providing an emotionally safe environment in which pupils could communicate without fear of reprisals.