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Book part
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Rashmi Malhotra, D.K. Malhotra and Robert Nydick

The economic crisis has its roots in the financial services industry, but it certainly impacted the higher education in a way that has far-reaching implications for the…

Abstract

The economic crisis has its roots in the financial services industry, but it certainly impacted the higher education in a way that has far-reaching implications for the colleges and universities in the United States. With unemployment rates of 8% and above, it made it difficult for families to send their kids to colleges and as a result colleges faced decline in enrollments and pressure to cut costs. Discount rates at almost all universities with an average size of 8,000 or less went up significantly. Academic departments at various universities came under pressure to get leaner and perform better with fewer resources. In this study, we benchmark the financial performance of public universities and private universities against each other as well as against themselves over the years by using data envelopment analysis model. The study also compares universities, public and private, with less than 3,000 students and more than 3,000 students against each other as well as over a period of time. The study is important as it will help university policy makers identify their strengths and weaknesses so that they can capitalize on their strong academic programs and make changes to fix weaker academic programs.

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Abdallah Mohammad Taamneh, Mohammad Taamneh, Abdallah Alsaad and Manaf Al-Okaily

The aims of this research are to present a comprehensive and holistic view of talent management (TM) at universities by exploring the current practices of TM among private…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this research are to present a comprehensive and holistic view of talent management (TM) at universities by exploring the current practices of TM among private and public universities in Jordan and make a comparison between the two sectors in regard to how they recruit, retain, train and develop, and measure the performance of talented people. Moreover, the practice of recruitment and selection, or so-called reflective or process-oriented practices, has given special attention to see how both public and private universities differ in regard to this process in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was utilized to elicit responses from participants on five selected constructs, recruitment and selection reflective or process-oriented practices, retention, training and development, and performance management. A convenient sampling approach was used to source participants for the study. The data has been analyzed, structured and organized utilizing SPSS software to analyze the results. Frequency tests have been used to test the demographic variables. Descriptive analysis was used to check the standard deviation and mean for total items. The reliability, discriminate validity, convergent validity and correlation matrix of all the questions have been tested using various methods. Moreover, exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) tests were performed. For testing the hypothesis and to examine whether or not there is a significant difference in TM practices between public and private universities in Jordan, independent sample t-tests have been employed.

Findings

The results show that the means of TM practices differ slightly between public and private universities. The public universities demonstrate a higher level of TM practices compared to private universities in all practices except that of performance management. However, while there are visible differences in TM practices between public and private universities, these differences were not statistically significant. On the other hand, we revealed a significant difference in the reflective or process-oriented practices between public and private universities. The results show that HR departments in public universities are more likely to have less power in performing the recruitment and selection processes as compared to private universities. We also compared the extent to which elite academics in public universities select candidates congruent with their own personal and scientific preferences to the extent their counterparts do so in private universities and the results indicate that this practice differs significantly between public and private universities being far more common in private universities. Finally, we compared the practice of academic talents being recruited through informal networks of scouts between private and public universities. The results show a slight and insignificant difference between private and public universities concerning this practice.

Originality/value

This study is built on the concept of “new managerialism” in higher education, which supports collaboration between HRM professionals and academics to enhance TM practices. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by combining “reflective or process-oriented practices” with other TM practices in an attempt to make a comparison of public and private institutions’ practices and provide a more comprehensive view of the TM process. However, the overwhelming majority of study on TM has been carried out in Western countries, with limited attention paid to non-Western contexts. Even though this growing body of research has advanced our theoretical and empirical knowledge of TM, there is still a need to comprehend TM practices in the rest of the globe, particularly when one considers the cultural and institutional disparities that exist between countries. Moreover, according to the researcher’s best knowledge, no previous studies have compared public and private universities regarding talent management, and it would be of great importance to investigate the implementation of TM practices in this vital sector.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Carlos Hernan Gonzalez-Campo, Guillermo Murillo-Vargas and Monica Garcia Solarte

A mission statement is the central axis of any organization and the cornerstone of its strategic planning. Universities have implemented this tool to define, among other…

Abstract

Purpose

A mission statement is the central axis of any organization and the cornerstone of its strategic planning. Universities have implemented this tool to define, among other things, its identity; however, the legal nature and functions of the mission statement have not been determined. In this article, the authors analyze the differences in the university mission statements of public and private higher education institutions in relation to the mission functions proposed by the 1992 legislation on higher education in Colombia – Law 30 – involving teaching, research, extension and social projection and internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

Through content analysis, the authors analyze the mission statements of two groups of institutions that make up the totality of universities in Colombia – 32 public and 53 private universities. The analysis is conducted along the four dimensions defined by the law as comprising the higher education mission, i.e. teaching, research, extension and social projection, and internationalization, due to its importance in the high-quality institutional accreditation process.

Findings

Based on the differences identified in the mission statements, the authors establish the university functions and determine how they give back to society in their legal capacity as public or private institutions.

Research limitations/implications

This research scenario is appropriate for answering research questions related to whether there are differences in the strategies of Colombian public and private universities based on their mission statements. Although the Colombian higher education system includes various types of tertiary institutions, only universities are included in the study.

Practical implications

Research has shown that regardless of their legal nature, based on their mission statements, Colombian universities are mainly geared towards teaching. However, when comparing additional dimensions, private universities are less involved in research processes and more focused on activities related to social impact than are public universities. Additionally, private universities are more engaged in internationalization than are public institutions, with mission statements focused on both national and international accreditation processes.

Social implications

The results of this research are intended to help society comprehend the differences between public and private universities in Colombia based on mission statements, which can contribute to understanding, among other factors, the academic programs offered by universities and how they should guide their activities.

Originality/value

This is the first such study in Colombia, a country that provides higher education through public and private institutions in very similar proportions, that analyses the differences in university mission statements and whose findings contribute to understanding whether universities are strategically oriented towards their own established policies or to contributing to the development of new public policies aimed at supporting the country's development process.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

George W. Breslauer

The University of California at Berkeley now delivers more to the public of California than it ever has, and it does this on the basis of proportionally less funding by…

Abstract

The University of California at Berkeley now delivers more to the public of California than it ever has, and it does this on the basis of proportionally less funding by the State government than it has ever received. This claim may come as a surprise, since it is often said that Berkeley is in the process of privatizing, becoming less of a public university and more in the service of private interests. To the contrary, as the State’s commitment to higher education and social-welfare programs has declined, UC Berkeley has struggled to preserve and even expand its public role, while struggling simultaneously to retain its competitive excellence as a research university. This paper delineates how UC Berkeley has striven to retain its public character in the face of severe financial pressures. A summary of the indicators invoked can be found in the Table near the end of the text. This paper then addresses the sustainability and generalizability of the Berkeley strategy.

Details

The University Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-831-5

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Frank Fernandez and David P. Baker

During the 20th century, the United States rapidly developed its research capacity by fostering a broad base of institutions of higher education led by a small core of…

Abstract

Purpose

During the 20th century, the United States rapidly developed its research capacity by fostering a broad base of institutions of higher education led by a small core of highly productive research universities. By the latter half of the century, scientists in a greatly expanded number of universities across the United States published the largest annual number of scholarly publications in STEM+ fields from one nation. This expansion was not a product of some science and higher education centralized plan, rather it flowed from the rise of mass tertiary education in this nation. Despite this unprecedented productivity, some scholars suggested that universities would cease to lead American scientific research. This chapter investigates the ways that the United States’ system of higher education underpinned American science into the 21st century.

Design

The authors present a historical and sociological case study of the development of the United States’ system of higher education and its associated research capacity. The historical and sociological context informs our analysis of data from the SPHERE team dataset, which was compiled from the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database.

Findings

We argue that American research capacity is a function of the United States’ broad base of thousands of public and broadly accessible institutions of higher education plus its smaller, elite sector of “super” research universities; and that the former serve to culturally support the later. Unlike previous research, we find that American higher education is not decreasing its contributions to the nation’s production of STEM+ scholarship.

Originality/Value

The chapter provides empirical analyses, which support previous sociological theory about mass higher education and super research universities.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Farzaneh Jalali Aliabadi, Muhammad Bilal Farooq, Umesh Sharma and Dessalegn Getie Mihret

The purpose of this study is to understand the efforts of key social actors in influencing the reform of Iranian public universities budgeting system, from incremental to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the efforts of key social actors in influencing the reform of Iranian public universities budgeting system, from incremental to performance-based budgeting (PBB), the tensions that arose as competing efforts of institutional change were undertaken, and ultimately the impact of these efforts on the extent to which the Iranian government transitioned to a system of PBB in public universities.

Design/methodology/approach

Data comprises of semi-structured interviews with managers and experts involved in the budget setting process and an analysis of budgetary policy documents, reports and archival material such as legislation. An institutional work lens is employed to interpret the findings.

Findings

While actors advocating the change were engaged in institutional work directed at disrupting the old budgetary rules by disassociating the rules moral foundations and creating new budgetary rules (through new legislation), universities undertook subtle resistance by engaging in extended evaluation of the new proposed PBB rules thereby maintaining the old budgetary rules. The reforms undertaken to introduce PBB in Iranian universities achieved minimal success whereby incremental budgeting continued to constitute by far a larger percentage of the budget allocation formula for university budgets. This finding illustrates change and continuity in university budgetary systems resulting from institutional work of actors competing to control the basis of resource allocation under the proposed PBB system by proposing contradicting models.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the importance of understanding the interplay of institutional work undertaken by competing social actors as they seek to advance their goals in shaping budgetary reforms in the public-sector. Such an understanding may inform policy makers who intend to introduce major reforms in public-sector budgeting approaches.

Originality/value

Unlike prior studies that largely focused on how organization-level budgeting practices responded to changes in public budgeting rules (i.e. at the site of implementation of the rules), this paper highlights how strategies of change and resistance are played out at the site of setting budgetary norms.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Aron Gottesman and Iuliana Ismailescu

This paper aims to investigate the relation between the creditworthiness of US institutions of higher education and their student selectivity (i.e. demand and quality).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relation between the creditworthiness of US institutions of higher education and their student selectivity (i.e. demand and quality).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors study whether the impact of student selectivity differs across public vs private universities; across the credit quality of the given public university’s state; and across the level of state appropriations for the given public university.

Findings

The authors find that student quality and demand measures are significantly associated with their corresponding institution’s creditworthiness, especially for private universities.

Originality/value

For public universities the association is weak and, contrary to the expectations, does not depend on the state credit quality or level of state funding. The findings are robust to the inclusion of control variables.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Nunzio Angiola, Piervito Bianchi and Letizia Damato

Considering a micro performance perspective, the purpose of this paper is to analyze whether and to what extent the adoption of better performance management systems could…

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Abstract

Purpose

Considering a micro performance perspective, the purpose of this paper is to analyze whether and to what extent the adoption of better performance management systems could improve the performance levels of a public university.

Design/methodology/approach

With reference to a period of four years (2011-2014), the quality of performance management systems of 29 Italian universities (response rate: 48 percent) was examined and the possible effects on performance levels of these institutions were analyzed by means of statistical methodologies (multiple regression analysis). Outcome indicators were considered.

Findings

The findings indicate the need to go further “measurement,” and to take care of performance “management,” especially in complex organizations as universities, where academicians identify themselves more with their professions than with the organization and where technicians and administrative employees might look at the performance-based reform with “bureaucratic eyes.” A fruitful cooperation between the professional soul and the bureaucratic one is paramount.

Originality/value

Studies which analyze organizational factors that could affect the adoption and implementation of performance management systems are rare, and use in prevalence qualitative methods or refer to machine bureaucracies, not many to professional ones as public universities. Moreover, the performance management literature in a public university context deepens the topic of the selection of KPIs and the focus is mainly on macro performance or on management tools for gathering and analyzing performance measures.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Vittoria Marino and Letizia Lo Presti

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the construct of online public engagement by identifying the modalities universities use to give visibility to their approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the construct of online public engagement by identifying the modalities universities use to give visibility to their approach on institutional websites.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory factor analysis outlined the principle dimensions that explain online public engagement starting from the analysis of a sample of American and English universities. To finish, a t-test shows the differences in the approaches to online public engagement in the sample universities.

Findings

The results of this analysis show that the construct of public engagement used for online communication has been investigated through three dimensions and that the American and English universities have different approaches in its declination.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis was conducted on a sample of American and English universities; however the study underlines the fact that the traditional approaches to public engagement can assume different connotations for online communication.

Practical implications

Coherent organization of the online communication of public engagement activities can reinforce the perception of the university in the eyes of both internal and external stakeholders. For this reason, research offers interesting input for evaluating which kind of strategy should be adopted for online public engagement in line with the desired positioning and as defined by the governing bodies of the university institutions. However, the universities still need to institutionalize public engagement.

Originality/value

This work constitutes the first attempt to investigate public engagement in the university context through the web, using quantitative methodologies in order to highlight the different strategic orientations and operative declinations.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Carme Casablancas-Segura, Joan Llonch and María-del-Carmen Alarcón-del-Amo

The purpose of this paper is to extend existing research on stakeholder orientation (SO) on higher education institutions (HEIs) by segmenting Spanish public universities

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend existing research on stakeholder orientation (SO) on higher education institutions (HEIs) by segmenting Spanish public universities based on their perceived levels of SO and describing the profiles of the different segments identified. Given that being stakeholder-oriented, as well as being market-oriented, is a matter of degree and not an absolute condition, the authors expect to find heterogeneity among public universities in terms of their levels of SO.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed a mail survey that was e-mailed to all managers of Spanish public universities, resulting in 795 usable questionnaires. A latent segmentation methodology was used to define the segmentation and profiling of the individuals.

Findings

Through latent class segmentation analysis, two clusters were identified: high stakeholder-oriented universities (HSOs) and low stakeholder-oriented universities (LSOs). Interestingly, HSOs universities perceive themselves to have greater organisational complexity and a lower level of reputation than LSOs, but that they are more active in terms of resource acquisition. LSOs universities are larger than HSOs and have a superior ranking.

Practical implications

This study will help university managers by providing useful information that will enable them to be more sensitive to the wants and needs of their stakeholders. It will also assist policy-makers who wish to support strategic decisions to promote differentiation among public universities, avoiding the mimetic effect.

Originality/value

Latent class segmentation can be a very useful technique to segment public universities based on their SO. Wherever heterogeneity exists, the latent class analysis will facilitate identification of the clusters of public universities and the profile of these different clusters according to their level of SO (either responsive or proactive).

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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