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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Harry Barton and Malcolm J. Beynon

The UK police service has a major challenge to introduce innovative ways of improving efficiency and productivity, whilst at the same time improving public opinion as to…

Abstract

Purpose

The UK police service has a major challenge to introduce innovative ways of improving efficiency and productivity, whilst at the same time improving public opinion as to their effectiveness in the “fight against crime”. The purpose of this paper is to outline an exploratory study of the ability to cluster police forces based on their sanction detection levels over a number of different offence groups and whether these clusters have different associated public opinions towards them.

Design/methodology/approach

Using secondary data and the fuzzy c‐means clustering technique to exposit clusters of police forces based on sanction detection levels, relating them in a statistical analysis with public opinion on the police.

Findings

The clustering analysis shows how police forces can be considered relative to each other, based on their sanction detection levels of certain offence groups, including; burglary, fraud and forgery and criminal damage. Using the established clusters of police forces, in respect of independent variables relating to public opinion, including confidence in police; there does appear to be statistically significant differences amongst the clusters of police force.

Research limitations/implications

The results demonstrate the connection between the police's attempt to fight crime and public opinion. With the public opinion measures considered post the establishing of police forces’ clusters, the results show the public does notice the level of sanction detections achieved. The identified disconnect of the public with the criminal justice system is something that can be improved on in the future.

Practical implications

Demonstrates that there is a significant link in the relationship between the levels of sanction detection levels of police forces and public opinion about their ability to fight crime.

Originality/value

This paper employs fuzzy c‐means, a modern clustering technique nascent in this area of research.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2007

Adelaide H. Villmoare

During the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the onslaught of flooding, the single most important role for government and the public sphere was deemed to be law…

Abstract

During the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the onslaught of flooding, the single most important role for government and the public sphere was deemed to be law and order, at times to the exclusion of other public responsibilities. Law and order were articulated almost exclusively as a policing matter with the emphasis on order rather than law. Policing took different public and private forms in the early days of the flooding. This chapter examines the nature of that policing and the unquestioned presence of private police as a key element of the law and order response to Katrina in New Orleans.

Details

Special Issue Law and Society Reconsidered
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1460-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Olga Semukhina

– The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors responsible for unwillingness of Russian respondents to contact police in life-threatening situations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors responsible for unwillingness of Russian respondents to contact police in life-threatening situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a survey data (n=5,088) collected during 1998-2007 in Volgograd, Russia. The multivariate regression is employed for data analysis.

Findings

Findings of this study suggest that pervasive public distrust and dissatisfaction of police institution coupled with fear of police abuse and negative previous experiences with crime reporting are responsible for citizens’ unwillingness to contact Russian police.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that both instrumental and normative approaches to the police legitimacy are useful when explaining the issues of public-police cooperation in Russia.

Practical implications

Paper also has practical implications pertinent to the 2011 police reform in Russia.

Originality/value

The study also provides an original empirical research in previously under-research area of public-police cooperation in Russia and advances the understanding of Russian police by using the process-based model of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Carlos Wing‐Hung Lo and Albert Chun‐Yin Cheuk

This paper is an in‐depth analysis of community policing in Hong Kong. It includes an outline of the evolution of community policing in Hong Kong, identifies the…

Abstract

This paper is an in‐depth analysis of community policing in Hong Kong. It includes an outline of the evolution of community policing in Hong Kong, identifies the structural arrangements for the practice of community policing, examines major community‐based programs that have been launched, evaluates the performance of this strategy, and considers constraints on these policy initiatives. It shows that this community effort has already gone beyond the confines of promoting community relations in Hong Kong. The results have been encouraging. They include a significant improvement in the quality of policepublic interactions, the engagement of the public and their increased support in crime control and prevention, and the beginning of the conversion of traditional police enforcement to that of police services. However, the Force's use of community policing schemes predominantly for the pragmatic purpose of crime control has accounted for the lack of breakthroughs in forging a strategic partnership with the public to promote a secure and harmonious environment.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Alana Saulnier and Scott N. Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to explore institutional realities and public perceptions of police use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in Canada in relation to each…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore institutional realities and public perceptions of police use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in Canada in relation to each other, drawing attention to areas of public misunderstanding and concern.

Design/methodology/approach

Public perceptions data are drawn from a national survey (n=3,045) of UAV use. Institutional realities data are drawn from content analyses of all Special Flight Operation Certificates issued by Transport Canada from 2007 to 2012 and flight logs of a regional service kept from 2011 to 2013. Officer interviews (n=2) also provide qualitative insights on institutional realities from this same regional service.

Findings

The data reveal disparities between institutional realities and public perceptions. Although federal, provincial and regional services currently use UAVs, awareness of police use of UAVs relative to traditionally piloted aircraft was low. Further, support for police use of UAVs was significantly lower than traditionally piloted craft; but, support also varied considerably across UAV applications, with the greatest opposition tied to tasks for which police do not report using UAVs and the greatest support tied to tasks for which police report using UAVs.

Originality/value

This research provides previously unknown descriptive data on the institutional realities of police use of UAVs in Canada, positioning that knowledge in relation to public perceptions of police use of the technology. The findings raise concerns over how UAVs may negatively shape police/civilian relations based on procedural justice literature which demonstrates that a lack of public support for the technology may affect the police more broadly.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

J. Robert Daleiden

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate historical theories of political economy as means better to clarify and classify contemporary state police and private policing

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate historical theories of political economy as means better to clarify and classify contemporary state police and private policing practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A diverse historical investigation of largely, non‐traditional public police history was conducted by utilizing a selective variety of social, political, and economic sources.

Findings

The paper finds that several theoretical features of eighteenth and nineteenth century Marxian, classical, and neoclassical political economy have contributed in defining the origins of contemporary American public police and private policing practices. Born from these perspectives, public goods theories frameworks, in conjunction with Wilson's police officer job function typologies in Varieties of Police Behavior, more clearly illustrate the current political and economically defined state supported police relative to private market arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

This research describes the positioning of this mixed economy in theoretical fashion, but does not provide contemporary private sector market growths or publicly supplied police trends that are a suitable next step for further research.

Practical implications

The public “monopoly” of state supported police is largely rejected. More interdisciplinary research approaches should be pursued in the twenty‐first century that better reflect the American political and economic realities of public and private forms of policing.

Originality/value

This paper is highly original when considering the paucity of theory utilized in describing simultaneous state and private policing scenarios.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Ashley K. Farmer and Allen Copenhaver

This study, a content analysis, aims to analyze general communications from law enforcement via agency websites about the COVID-19 pandemic and how this affected police

Abstract

Purpose

This study, a content analysis, aims to analyze general communications from law enforcement via agency websites about the COVID-19 pandemic and how this affected police roles. The authors study the extent to which police departments used their websites to inform the public about COVID-19, changes to their policies and additional information they felt necessary to give members of the public. This is important for understanding how the police inform the public during a pandemic and how the pandemic affected their police role.

Design/methodology/approach

The data gathered for this project came from a content analysis of the official websites of the largest municipal police departments in the USA. The researchers collected quantitative data from the official websites of law enforcement agencies who serve the 200 largest cities in the USA in March 2020 and coded the information from the websites to determine what themes were most prevalent.

Findings

The messages most often provided on department websites included information about COVID-19 (52% of websites included this information), modifications to services (33%) and informing users that services such as fingerprinting would be altered (42%). Websites also reminded the public of restrictions on public gatherings (25%) and stay-at-home orders (38%). Further logistic regression analyses explored significant associations among these variables to understand how police/public communications influenced the role of law enforcement during the pandemic.

Originality/value

Little is known about how law enforcement communicates online with the public during a global pandemic like COVID-19 or how this might affect the police role. Police departments can use their websites to communicate important information to citizens and keep communities updated. Policy implications suggest that agencies continue to update websites with important information and be direct about expectations from the public regarding compliance while also being transparent about how police roles might change.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Police Occupational Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-055-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Julie Berg and Clifford Shearing

Policing in much of the developing world has always been, in many respects, both dominated by the nonstate and pluralised. Yet, plurality and the nonstate are…

Abstract

Policing in much of the developing world has always been, in many respects, both dominated by the nonstate and pluralised. Yet, plurality and the nonstate are predominantly conceptualised, by scholars and practitioners alike, as problematic, noninclusive and/or undemocratic. Yet the reality is far more complex than this. In this chapter, we turn the tables on conventional wisdom by looking to the positive features of plural or polycentric forms of security governance by asking how these features might be utilised to provide for more inclusive forms of security governance in the Global South. Drawing on empirical research in South Africa on plural policing arrangements, this chapter considers how Sustainable Development Goal 16 which seeks to ‘promote peaceful and inclusive societies’ might be realised within plural governance systems. This chapter seeks to demonstrate that certain conditions need to be in place for plural or polycentric systems of security governance to coprovide effective and inclusive security for the collective good and, furthermore, that the positive features of the nonstate can be harnessed to give effect to the SDGs.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-355-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

D.O. Adebayo

Concerned with the pervasive unfriendly relationship between the Nigeria police and the public, and the need to improve upon this relationship, the present study was…

Abstract

Purpose

Concerned with the pervasive unfriendly relationship between the Nigeria police and the public, and the need to improve upon this relationship, the present study was designed to examine the moderating roles of perceived organizational support and public recognition in the relationship between unethical attitudes and prosocial behaviour among a sample of Nigeria police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross‐sectional survey design, data was collected from a total of 163 participants randomly drawn among officers and men of the Nigeria Police Force, Oyo State Command, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Findings

Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses reveal an inverse relationship between unethical attitudes and prosocial behaviour among police officers with high or average levels of perceived organizational support and public recognition, while among police officers with low perceived organizational support and public recognition there was a positive relationship between unethical attitudes and prosocial behaviour. The concepts of social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity were used to explain these findings.

Research limitations/implications

Statements on causality with respect to the present findings must be made with caution because of the non‐experimental nature of the study. Furthermore, perceived organizational support and public recognition were used as global concepts; future studies could explore different facets of these constructs and see how they moderate the relationship between unethical attitudes and prosocial behaviour.

Originality/value

The results of the study suggest that the Nigerian police must be supported and accorded their due recognition if they must behave ethically and prosocially to the Nigerian public.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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