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Book part
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Eduardo Costa, Rita Santos and Pedro Pita Barros

The provision of universal health care by the Portuguese NHS depends on the allocated government budget to health. Several reforms have been implemented over the last…

Abstract

The provision of universal health care by the Portuguese NHS depends on the allocated government budget to health. Several reforms have been implemented over the last decades to improve access while ensuring the financial sustainability of the health care system. However, a practical and useable definition of public health sustainability is hard to find. We show that under two alternative definitions – both related to fiscal space and compliance with sound public finances – public health spending increase is limited. Our analysis indicates that public health spending growth levels below 3% can be financially sustainable.

Taking into account that financial sustainability is a function of economic growth and will depend on the level of control of other public spending, our forecast for long-run health spending growth is compatible with the financial sustainability targets defined.

Details

The Sustainability of Health Care Systems in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-499-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Thanapan Laiprakobsup

The purpose of this paper is to examine how political regimes and political transition affect government decisions to allocate budgets to the public health sector in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how political regimes and political transition affect government decisions to allocate budgets to the public health sector in Southeast Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least squares with fixed-effects model is adopted to examine the effect of political regime on public health spending.

Findings

Examining the allocation of public health budgets in Southeast Asian countries, the paper finds that a democratic government positively leads to an increase in public health budget allocation, while autocratic government negatively affects the allocation of public health budgets. Further, political liberalization contributes to an increase in budget allocation to the public health sector.

Originality/value

Democratic politics and economic development aim to distribute public resources to social policy, such as policy on public health.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Uche Abamba Osakede

This paper aims to analyze the relationship between public health spending and health outcome using time series data in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2017, taking into…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the relationship between public health spending and health outcome using time series data in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2017, taking into account the role of governance by assessing how the quality of governance directly affects health status and indirectly as a mediator for the effectiveness of public health spending.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Hausman statistical tests to check for the existence of endogeneity, the proper method for estimating the model for this study is the two-stage least square regression model. The two-stage least squares regression model addresses the problem of endogeneity using instrumental variables. The mediating role of governance on the effectiveness of public health spending on health was considered by an interaction of governance indicators with public health spending.

Findings

The results showed that public health spending had no significant effect on health outcome except when interacted with governance quality. The interaction of government health spending with governance effectiveness as well as that for control of corruption improved health by inducing a fall in maternal deaths, whereas government health expenditure interacted with rule of law raised maternal mortality. Public health spending interacted with regulatory quality improved life expectancy while that for political stability with public health spending induced a fall in life expectancy, poor maternal and infant health. Political stability and the control of corruption had direct influence on maternal health.

Practical implications

Given the predominance of public health spending in promoting access to health care and population health status for developing economies, the effectiveness of such spending should be top priority in policy makers’ agenda. This again is important because for developing economies, government revenue is generated from a small tax base due to their highly informal nature. To improve health status from public intervention in the health sector, there is indeed need for improvement in the overall state of governance in Nigeria.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few country case studies which uses time series data to examine the role of governance on the efficacy of public health spending with extension of findings to maternal health and covering more measures of governance quality. The results fundamentally illuminate the importance of governance in fostering development in health and consequently enhancing economic development and growth.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Nikolaos Grigorakis and Georgios Galyfianakis

The empirical analysis dealt in this paper emphasizes on the impact of military expenditures on out of pocket (OOP) healthcare payments. A sizeable body of defence…

Abstract

Purpose

The empirical analysis dealt in this paper emphasizes on the impact of military expenditures on out of pocket (OOP) healthcare payments. A sizeable body of defence economics literature has investigated the trade-off between military and public health expenditure, by testing the crowding-out or growth-stimulating hypothesis; does military expenditure scaling up crowd-out or promote governmental resources for social and welfare programs, including also state health financing?

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, panel data from 2000 to 2018 for 129 countries is used to examine the impact of military expenditure on OOP healthcare payments. The dataset of countries is categorized into four income-groups based on World Bank's income-group classification. Dynamic panel data methodology is applied to meet study objectives.

Findings

The findings of this study indicate that military expenditure positively affects OOP payments in all the selected groups of countries, strongly supporting in this way the crowding-out hypothesis whereby increased military expenditure reduces the public financing on health. Study econometric results are robust since different and alternative changes in specifications and samples are applied in our analysis.

Practical implications

Under the economic downturn backdrop for several economies in the previous decade and on the foreground of a potential limited governmental fiscal space related to the Covid-19 pandemic adverse economic effects, this study provides evidence that policy-makers have to adjust their government policy initiatives and prioritize Universal Health Coverage objectives. Consequently, the findings of this study reflect the necessity of governments as far as possible to moderate military expenditures and increase public financing on health in order to strengthen health care systems efficiency against households OOP spending for necessary healthcare utilization.

Originality/value

Despite the fact that a sizeable body of defence economics literature has extensively examined the impact of military spending on total and public health expenditures, nevertheless to the best of our knowledge there is no empirical evidence of any direct effect of national defence spending on the main private financing component of health systems globally; the OOP healthcare payments.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Lloyd Ahamefule Amaghionyeodiwe

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not government health care spending reduces the poor‐rich differences in health status. Specifically, it aims to assess…

1747

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not government health care spending reduces the poor‐rich differences in health status. Specifically, it aims to assess the health status of the poor vis‐à‐vis government health spending in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis was carried out using the Ordinary Least Square method of estimation while secondary data was used.

Findings

It was found that despite the increase in most components of health care spending in Nigeria, the health status of the average Nigerian and the condition of health infrastructure has not improved appreciably. Also, the poor have significantly worse health status than the non‐poor and they (the poor) are more strongly affected by public spending on health care relative to the non‐poor. Thus, the difference in impact of spending between the poor and the non‐poor could be substantial.

Originality/value

This study provides information that will help reposition policies on government spending, especially on health care, so as to enhance and improve the heath status of the poor in Nigeria, thereby reducing the poor‐rich differences in health status.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Guillem López-Casasnovas and Héctor Pifarré i Arolas

This paper offers an overview of the defining traits of the Spanish National Health Service (Sistema Nacional de Salud, in Spanish), as well as an account of its current…

Abstract

This paper offers an overview of the defining traits of the Spanish National Health Service (Sistema Nacional de Salud, in Spanish), as well as an account of its current trends in both spending and organisational changes. Beyond a thorough description of the Spanish public health-care system and its main quantitative indicators, we offer a critical review of the ongoing decentralisation process of health-care provision and its recent trends in pharmaceutical spending.

The text is organised in the following two parts. Part 1 provides an overview of the Spanish health-care system, structured in several sections. It starts by placing Spain within a classification of international health-care systems and is followed by an account of the importance of public provision in the Spanish case. A relation of the guiding principles of the Spanish public system concludes the first part. The second part focuses on two key developments that have shaped the evolution of the Spanish health-care system in the recent decades. The first is the process of decentralisation of health-care; the section explains the challenges arising with the transference of health-care provision responsibilities from the central to regional governments. The second section critically reviews the recent expansion of drug-related spending in the Spanish health-care system, and the policy responses to attempt to contain health-care costs.

Details

The Sustainability of Health Care Systems in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-499-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Subhalaxmi Mohapatra

The purpose of this paper is to employ a two-step approach to investigate the bi-directional causal linkage between: economic growth (measured by GDP) and public

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to employ a two-step approach to investigate the bi-directional causal linkage between: economic growth (measured by GDP) and public expenditure on health; public expenditure on health and infant mortality rate (IMR); and economic growth and IMR in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses econometric analysis, namely, panel cointegration and Granger causality on 20-year panel data on 16 major Indian states to investigate the causality.

Findings

The results suggest GDP to Granger cause public expenditure on health both in the short run and in the long run, but public expenditure on health to Granger cause GDP only in the long run. Further, public expenditure on health and economic growth were found to Granger cause IMR in the long run. However, the reverse linkage from IMR to public expenditure on health and/or economic growth was not significant.

Research limitations/implications

The present study provides support to the existing literature on the effects of economic growth on health expenditure and health outcomes but also raises a question on the time required to realize the same.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for policy makers on the time frame and application of health expenditure to achieve better results.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to test the tripartite linkage between economic growth, public health expenditure and health outcomes at a state-level analysis.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Jorge Leandro Delconte Ferreira, Alexandre Florindo Alves and Emilie Caldeira

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of local public health expenditure in a decentralized health system, taking into account the electoral calendar…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of local public health expenditure in a decentralized health system, taking into account the electoral calendar and the effect of central and local elections, besides spatial interaction among municipalities and political alignment. The authors state that the expenditure in public health at the local level is positively influenced by vicinity and by elections calendar.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a Spatial Durbin Model with a balanced panel using the data from 399 Brazilian municipalities from 2005 to 2012. The authors use a distance-based spatial matrix, whose choose was based on simplicity and relevance of Moran’s I and Geary’s C coefficients for spatial autocorrelation. The authors also cluster the data in the estimations, according to the distribution of regional facilities in the entire period and considering the occurrence of regionalization in public health services.

Findings

The empirical contribution lies in four issues: first, the authors demonstrate a positive spatial effect in the public health expenditure. Second, the estimations show that election-year shifts public spent, as a response for vote-seeking incumbents’ behavior. Third, reelected mayors increase local public health allocations, as well as single candidates and incumbents from the same party of central governments. Finally, populational concentration directly decreases health expenditure (even if those municipalities represent a lower unit cost of acquiring votes, the optimization of public health infrastructure and mobility in achieving public health services negatively affect health spent).

Originality/value

This study supports the statement that public health spent at local level is positively influenced by vicinity and by occurrence of elections.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

George Miller, Charles Roehrig, Paul Hughes-Cromwick and Craig Lake

Purpose: We estimate national health expenditures on prevention using precise definitions, a transparent methodology, and a subdivision of the estimates into components to…

Abstract

Purpose: We estimate national health expenditures on prevention using precise definitions, a transparent methodology, and a subdivision of the estimates into components to aid researchers in applying their own concepts of prevention activities.

Methodology/Approach: We supplemented the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) with additional data to identify national spending on primary and secondary prevention for each year from 1996 to 2004 across eight spending categories.

Findings: We estimate that NHEA expenditures devoted to prevention grew from $83.2 billion in 1996 to $159.8 billion in 2004, in current dollars. As a share of NHEA, this represents an increase from 7.8 percent in 1996 to 8.6 percent in 2004. This share peaked at 9 percent in 2002 and then declined due to reductions in public health spending as a percent of NHEA between 2002 and 2004. Primary prevention represents about half the expenditures, consisting largely of public health expenditures – the largest prevention element.

Originality/Value of Paper: Our 2004 estimate that 8.6 percent of NHEA goes to prevention is nearly three times as large as the commonly cited figure of 3 percent, but depends on the definitions used: our estimate falls to 8.1 percent when the research component is excluded, 5.1 percent when consideration is limited to primary prevention plus screening, 4.2 percent for primary prevention alone, and 2.8 percent if we count only public health expenditures. These findings should contribute to a more informed discussion of our nation's allocation of health care resources to prevention.

Details

Beyond Health Insurance: Public Policy to Improve Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-181-7

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Nikolaos Grigorakis, Georgios Galyfianakis and Evangelos Tsoukatos

In this paper, the authors assess the responsiveness of OOP healthcare expenditure to macro-fiscal factors, as well as to tax-based, SHI, mixed systems and voluntary PHI…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors assess the responsiveness of OOP healthcare expenditure to macro-fiscal factors, as well as to tax-based, SHI, mixed systems and voluntary PHI financing. Although the relationship between OOP expenditure, macroeconomy, aggregate public and PHI financing is well documented in the existing empirical literature, little is known for the impact of several macro-fiscal drivers and the existing health financing arrangements associated with voluntary PHI on OOP expenditure.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors gather panel data by applying three official organizations’ databases. They elaborate static and dynamic panel data methodology to a dataset of 49 European and OECD countries from 2000 to 2015.

Findings

The authors’ findings do not indicate a considerable impact of GDP growth and general government debt as a share of GDP on OOP payments. Unemployment rate presents as a positive driver of OOP payments in all three compulsory national health systems post to the 2008 economic crisis. OOP payments are significantly influenced by countries’ fiscal capacity to increase general government expenditure to GDP in SHI and mixed health systems. Additionally, study findings present that government health financing, irrespective of the different health systems structure characteristics, and OOP healthcare payments follow different directions. Voluntary PHI financing considerably counteracts OOP payments only in tax-based health systems.

Practical implications

In the backdrop of a new economic crisis associated to the COVID-19 epidemic, health policy planners have to deal with the emerging unprecedented challenges in financing of health systems, especially for these economies that have to face the fiscal capacity constraints owing to the 2008 financial crisis and its severe recession.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no empirical consensus on the effects of macro-fiscal parameters, different compulsory health systems financing associated with the parallel voluntary PHI institution funding on OOP expenditure, for the majority of European and OECD settings.

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