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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Veli Durmuş

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between economic activity in a country, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP) and the control of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between economic activity in a country, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP) and the control of the COVID-19 pandemic outcomes, as measured by the rate of incidence and mortality increase per 100,000 population in different countries using up-to-date data, in the light of public health security capacities including prevention, detection, respond, enabling function, operational readiness, as measured by the 2019 State Party self-assessment annual reporting (SPAR) submissions of 100 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

For this analytical study, multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each variable with the COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates, while controlling for Human Development Index (HDI) and GDP.

Findings

Countries with higher income levels were significantly more likely to have a higher incidence and mortality rate per 100,000 population. Among the public health capacity categories, prevention of the infectious disease and detection of the pathogens were significantly associated with lower incidence and mortality of the COVID-19 pandemic. The country-level income was found to be an important negative predictor of COVID-19 control.

Practical implications

These findings present to decision-makers in organizing mitigation strategies to struggle emerging infectious pandemics and highlight the role of country-level income while trying to control COVID-19. In order to determine the priority settings for the fight against pandemic, national policy-makers and international organizations should notice that countries in a high-income group had better health security capacities than that of other income groups, particularly in low- and lower-middle-income groups. The results of the capabilities of health security by the income group can assist health policy makers and other international agencies in resource allocation decisions and in mitigating risk with more informed resource planning.

Social implications

The income level of countries may have a positive effect on public health strategies to mitigate the risk of infection of COVID-19. This study may assist the local public authorities to gain a better level of understanding on the relationship country-level income and COVID-19 outcomes in order to take appropriate measures at the local level. The results also highlighted the importance role of public health security capacities for the pandemic control policy.

Originality/value

Although previous studies have examined to assess the public health capability by country-level and to describe cases and deaths by continent and by country, very limited studies have evaluated the rate of incidence and mortality of COVID-19 by country-level income and by health expenditure using the data on the health security capacities with analytical and practical approaches.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Abstract

Details

From Human to Post Human Security in Latin America: Examples and Reflections from Across the Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-253-9

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

Roya Malekzadeh, Samereh Yaghoubian, Edris Hasanpoor and Matina Ghasemi

Responsiveness is a reaction to the reasonable expectations of patients regarding ethical and non-clinical aspects of the health-care system. Responsiveness is a…

Abstract

Purpose

Responsiveness is a reaction to the reasonable expectations of patients regarding ethical and non-clinical aspects of the health-care system. Responsiveness is a characteristic of health-care system and the observance of the patient’s rights. The purpose of this study is to compare the responsiveness of the health-care system based on the hospital ownership in Mazandaran province in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

The cross-sectional study design was used on 1,083 patients referred to public and private hospitals and hospitals affiliated to social security organization in Mazandaran province in 2017. The World Health Organization’s responsibility questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA results are presented is the results section.

Findings

All responsiveness dimensions were salient for respondents. The response rate in the selected hospitals was very close, which ranged from 85.7 to 90.2%, and there was no significant difference between public, private and social security hospitals (p > 0.05). The most crucial responsiveness dimension in hospitals was autonomy.

Originality/value

In the current study, the dimensions of communication and confidentiality were identified as priority dimensions based on the least score for breeding actions to improve the responsiveness of the health-care system. At the end, some useful recommendations such as re-engineering the processes, training to engage the employees with patients and encouraging them to fill the gap were suggested.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Sevilay Ece Gümüş Özuyar

Introduction − Covid-19, which first emerged in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China, in January 2020, with an unknown source, spread to all countries of the world very…

Abstract

Introduction − Covid-19, which first emerged in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China, in January 2020, with an unknown source, spread to all countries of the world very quickly and caused the death of over two million people world-wide. This ever-increasing global need for health care has created a radical transformation in terms of not only in health care, but also in all public services. Transportation services for the transfer of patients to health institutions, education services due to the dangers of face-to-face training, justice services due to the postponement of non-urgent court proceedings, security services in terms of restriction sanctions and all public services in general due to the disruption of access to public services due to flexible working hours applied to public personnel has entered into an unplanned provision.

Purpose: The aim of this chapter is to identify the problems that arise in the provision of public goods and services due to the global epidemic of Covid-19, and to bring a new interpretation to the theoretical discussions about the optimal delivery level of public services when there is a situation of communicable disease.

Methodology: The principles of public goods and service provision of G20 countries, Covid-19 mortality rates, indicators of the well-being of healthcare delivery such as the number of bed and personnel, the type and number of devices used to diagnose the Covid disease, and the public service restrictions taken to eliminate Covid-19, have been evaluated by employing descriptive analysis. In order to prevent income and advanced levels from becoming distinctive features, G20 countries with similar income and development levels were selected for this research.

Findings: Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been a distortion in the preference of provision of almost all public goods, and it has been observed that the delivery level of public services affects each other since all are linked like a chain. Failure to achieve what is expected from international organizations, which should be in a regulatory position in this regard, has increased concerns about the optimal presentation level of all public goods, especially health, in the future. As long as there is a global pandemic and countries do not take effective measures, a bad second best position that is far from optimal results but provides that instant solutions.

Details

Insurance and Risk Management for Disruptions in Social, Economic and Environmental Systems: Decision and Control Allocations within New Domains of Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-140-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Beth Ann Fiedler

The purpose of this paper is to forward specific policy proposals permitting greater sharing of health data across multi-level government agencies with the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to forward specific policy proposals permitting greater sharing of health data across multi-level government agencies with the purpose of improving rapid identification of bioterrorist attack or disease epidemics while protecting patient privacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review searched the following keyword phrases: knowledge sharing in the public sector, raw data sharing, interagency information systems, federal data sharing technology network and network theory on five primary databases.

Findings

The volunteer nature of data sharing must evolve through public health policy to permit interagency data access agreements while minimizing privacy infringement. A multi-level information infrastructure network linking agencies tasked to develop medical countermeasures is recommended.

Originality/value

This study optimizes the health data collection process to create a medical countermeasure network, demonstrates the utility of operationalizing data metrics for a US federal agency and advances meaningful use of electronic medical records.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2022

Lida Wang, Xian Rong and Lingling Mu

This study aims to investigate the basic public service level in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region under the impact of COVID-19.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the basic public service level in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region under the impact of COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

This study constructed a basic public service-level evaluation system from the five dimensions of education, culture, health, social security and infrastructure and environment, and measures the basic public service level in 13 cities in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei using the entropy method. The spatial pattern and dynamic evolution of the public service level are analysed from the perspective of dynamic trends in time series and spatial distribution, along with the reasons for the evolution of spatial distribution.

Findings

(1) The basic public service level in the 13 cities is generally on the rise, but the trend is unstable. (2) The basic public service level in space shows a general trend of attenuation from northeast to southwest, with significant spatial imbalance and orientation. (3) The regional differences first increase and then decrease. (4) The inter-group mobility of different basic public service levels is low, and cities with lower initial levels find it difficult to achieve leapfrog development. Moreover, the health service level of the region is still at a low stage, which is not conducive to effectively preventing and controlling the epidemic.

Originality/value

From the perspective of this research, the spatial pattern and dynamic evolution of basic public service were adopted to analyse the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Furthermore, this study discusses how to improve the basic public service level to ensure sustainable operation in the region under the impact of COVID-19.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Eduardo Botti Abbade

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between obesogenic severity, the public health situation, environmental impacts, and health care expenditures…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between obesogenic severity, the public health situation, environmental impacts, and health care expenditures in populations worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This ecological study is based on official data available for approximately 140 countries worldwide. This study defines four main variables: obesogenic severity, environmental impact, public health implications (PHI), and health expenditures, all measured through specific indicators. Data were obtained mainly from the WHO, World Bank, and IDF. The indicators were reduced to the main variables through factorial reduction and multiple regression analyses were used to test the main hypotheses.

Findings

Obesogenic severity strongly and positively affects environmental impacts (β=0.6578; p<0.001), PHI-1 (cardiovascular risk factor) (β=0.3137; p<0.001) and PHI-2 (blood glucose and diabetes diagnoses) (β=0.3170; p<0.001). Additionally, environmental impacts strongly and positively affect PHI-1 (β=0.4978; p<0.001) but not PHI-2. Thus, results suggest that environmental impact, PHI-1, and PHI-2 strongly affect health expenditures (β=0.3154; p<0.001, β=0.5745; p<0.001, and β=−0.4843; p<0.001, respectively), with PHI-2 negatively affecting the health expenditures.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that can aid in decision making regarding public and private efforts to better align budgets and resources as well as predict the needs and expenditures of public health care systems.

Originality/value

This investigation finds that the main variables addressed are strongly associated at the worldwide level. Thus, these analytical procedures can be used to predict public health and health care cost scenarios at the global level.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Maya K. Gislason

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that when produced through relations of power, West Nile virus (WNV), as it exists on the Public Health Agency of…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that when produced through relations of power, West Nile virus (WNV), as it exists on the Public Health Agency of Canada's (PHAC) website, is an effect of the kinds of knowledge, techniques of power, and disciplinary apparatuses that operate on the website and in society.

Methodology/approach – The approach used in the in-depth research project which informs this chapter is an elaboration of Michel Foucault's work on relations of power which offers an effective way of studying the PHAC's website as a collection of authoritative knowledges and as a product of a set of systems, structures, and processes which have helped to assemble and distribute knowledge about WNV.

Findings – The findings discussed in this chapter offer a critical reading of the PHAC's overall production of WNV, focusing particularly on its initial emergence starting in 2001. Cumulatively, this chapter argues that myriad relations of power have produced WNV as a bio-socio-administrative construct.

Contribution to the field – This research illustrates one way that Foucault's theories of power can be used to conduct a critical analysis of both the discursive and material dimensions of the production of contemporary public health issues. Such an approach is useful to scholars who wish to place the emergence of a disease phenomenon within political, institutional, economic, cultural, and social relations of power; thereby drawing attention to how specific spaces, places, individuals, and institutions contribute to the production of contemporary health alarms.

Details

Understanding Emerging Epidemics: Social and Political Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-080-3

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2022

Elisavet Athanasia Alexiadou

Health sector corruption constitutes a pervasive challenge and a major obstacle to the equitable enjoyment of the right to health by exacerbating health inequalities…

Abstract

Purpose

Health sector corruption constitutes a pervasive challenge and a major obstacle to the equitable enjoyment of the right to health by exacerbating health inequalities within societies, while often eroding public trust primarily amid public health crises that threaten human security. The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of advancing right to health considerations in national legislative and regulatory responses against health sector corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds on existing evidence, with focusing attention on international standards that are relevant to the topic under discussion. The literature research included publicly available reports, peer-reviewed studies and other documents primarily of human rights bodies at the United Nations level.

Findings

Advancing right to health considerations in national responses against health sector corruption offers comprehensive guidance for the deployment of a strong regulatory anti-corruption framework for action by the governments as part of their health rights obligations. Essentially, the implementation of such a national framework for action, encompassing accountability, participatory decision-making and transparency, constitutes a necessary and an important step towards maintaining well-functioning health systems and a robust social pressure for continued political commitment with the ultimate goal the provision of equitable access to quality health services at all times.

Originality/value

By using a rights-based approach, the paper identifies a national framework for state action consisting of legal obligations and tools towards guiding governments, while at the same time empowering civil society groups to demand the implementation of core human rights principles of transparency, participation and accountability within health system governance. It provides insights for the future development, reinforcement and/or reform of national law, policies and practices towards minimizing and eradicating vulnerabilities to health sector corruption.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2009

Jesse McEntee

Food deserts are an attractive metaphor, but because defining this phrase and actually identifying food deserts as geographic places are a contentious endeavour, it is…

2664

Abstract

Purpose

Food deserts are an attractive metaphor, but because defining this phrase and actually identifying food deserts as geographic places are a contentious endeavour, it is more revealing to discuss related terms. Inherent in the debate around food deserts (i.e. how they are defined, if and where they exist) is the topic of access. The central purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that access is a more accurate and less misleading concept than food deserts when it comes to highlighting food inequalities.

Design/methodology/approach

Social exclusion, choice, food security, and public health are fields on which the paper draws. The proposition is that food security studies have entered a postmodern food security paradigm, which can readily be seen in US‐based community food security efforts.

Findings

Progressing beyond the initial attention‐grabbing nature of the food desert term, a conceptually thin foundation is discovered that impedes universal understanding and acknowledgment that areas of inadequate food access do exist. Food access, on the other hand, is an established phrase that has evolved and been applied in different arenas to address food security. Food access is a readily understood concept that can be tailored to specific applications; whether it is physical, economic, or informational food access.

Originality/value

It is proposed here that access is a more accurate and less misleading concept than food deserts when it comes to highlighting food inadequacies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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