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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Vaseem Akram and Badri Narayan Rath

The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergence analysis of public debt among Indian states using annual data from 1990‒1991 to 2014‒2015.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergence analysis of public debt among Indian states using annual data from 1990‒1991 to 2014‒2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests this hypothesis using club convergence technique propounded by Phillips and Sul (2007).

Findings

The results reveal the existence of debt divergence for overall Indian states. States are formed into four clubs on the basis of their level of debt, and three clubs support the hypothesis of club convergence. Further, the total public debt decomposes into three compositions such as market loans, bank loans and loans and advances from the central government. The existence of convergence is found for market loans and bank loans; however, the presence of divergence is found in case of loans and advances for overall states.

Practical implications

Since public debt plays an important role for fiscal health of the Indian states, findings of this study suggest to squeeze the fiscal consolidation further for Indian states whose debts as a percentage to gross state domestic product are on the higher side. Further, the examination of debt convergence helps to manage debt level among the states because heavy dependence on public debt could retard investment and economic growth.

Originality/value

Whereas bulk of empirical studies emphasize on examining the linkage between public debt and economic growth, and issue on debt sustainability across Indian states, examination of convergence of debt and its compositions (markets borrowings, bank loans and loans and advances from the central government) among the Indian states is scanty.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Rosaria Rita Canale and Rajmund Mirdala

This chapter is devoted to fiscal policy theory and to how its evolution influenced the policy principles implemented from the end of the World War II to the present. It…

Abstract

This chapter is devoted to fiscal policy theory and to how its evolution influenced the policy principles implemented from the end of the World War II to the present. It shows how the theoretical foundations evolved, from the Keynesian theory according to which public expenditure was conceived as an instrument to sustain aggregate demand and achieve full employment, to the present theoretical framework in which, following the intertemporal approach, it has been downgraded to an external shock. The public debt issue is examined with the aim of explaining why sound public finance represents a primary policy objective in the Eurozone.

Details

Fiscal and Monetary Policy in the Eurozone: Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Evidence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-793-7

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Attahir Babaji Abubakar and Suleiman O. Mamman

This study examines the effect of public debt on the economic growth of OECD countries by disentangling the effect into permanent and transitory components. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effect of public debt on the economic growth of OECD countries by disentangling the effect into permanent and transitory components. The study covers 37 OECD countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The Mundlak decomposition was employed to decompose the effect of public debt into its transitory and permanent effect on economic growth. To account for potential endogeneity problem, the Hausman and Taylor estimator was employed to estimate the decomposed model. Further, the study disaggregated the OECD model into country group models for further analysis of the dynamics of the relationship between the variables.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that in the full OECD model public debt exerts a significant negative permanent and positive transitory effect on economic growth. This was robust to alternative model specifications. The magnitude of the negative permanent effect of debt was found to be larger than the positive transitory effect. Further, the estimates of the disaggregated models reveal that though public debt has a negative permanent effect across all the country groups, it was not the case for the transitory effect of debt. Also, a net public debt model was estimated, and its effect on public debt was found to be largely insignificant, exhibiting a Ricardian-like behaviour.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study, particularly in the OECD context that employed the Mundlak transformation to examine the permanent versus transitory effect of public debt on economic growth.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Tiago Cardao-Pito

In the euro’s initial years, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain observed capital flow bonanzas and credit-booms, two cycles known to precede banking crises…

Abstract

In the euro’s initial years, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain observed capital flow bonanzas and credit-booms, two cycles known to precede banking crises. Domestic banks fuelled those cycles via funding obtained from foreign financial institutions. Yet, these countries’ banking and financial crises have unfolded in different modes. In Ireland and Spain, credit-booms propelled real-estate bubbles, which dragged banks into crises, with governments’ accounts later being affected when rescuing banks (Spanish regional banks, and all Irish major banks). In Greece and Italy, extra monetary means perpetuated government imbalances (e.g. debt levels above 100% of GDP, large yearly deficits). More severely in Greece, banks were brought into crises by sovereign crises. In Portugal, a mixture of private and public sector–led crises have occurred. Our comparative study finds that these crises: (1) are connected to shocks and imbalances caused by dangerous banking sector cycles during the monetary integration process; (2) were not mere expansions of the US subprime crisis; (3) were not only caused by country-specific features and institutions; and (4) followed distinct paths, therefore, a uniform model encompassing all post-euro crises cannot exist.

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Subhadra Ganguli

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was set up in 1981 between Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait for strengthening cooperation and economic…

Abstract

Purpose

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was set up in 1981 between Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait for strengthening cooperation and economic development in the region. The GCC has made strides towards economic consolidation by forming a customs union and a common market. The long-term vision is to create an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) with a single currency. Progress towards the EMU has been slow and the recent oil price plunge has led to concerns regarding sustainable growth of member countries due to their significant dependence on oil and lack of diversification. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the scope of an EMU in the GCC against the backdrop of current oil crisis and examine sustainability of such a union. The paper studies convergence criteria similar to the ones followed by the accession countries of the European EMU in the 1990s preceding the introduction of the single currency Euro.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws its practical approach from the experience of the European Monetary Union, though the original idea of the single currency in Optimum Currency Areas was conceived by Mundell (1961). The present paper analyses macroeconomic time-series variables (e.g. GDP, budget deficits, debt, growth rates, inflation rates, exchange rates) for GCC during the period 2005-2014. Data has been sourced from United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), The World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) databases to study the convergence criteria adopted by the EMU countries for the introduction of the Euro.

Findings

The paper concludes that GCC economies are similar in terms of their structural and economic fundamentals. Most elements of the convergence criteria that were followed by the accession countries in Europe are fulfilled by the GCC member states, particularly during 2011-2014. The GCC states look similar in terms of sustainable growth, price stability and exchange rate stability – three aspects of convergence met by the European Union states. However, heavy dependence on oil and lack of diversification from oil and hydrocarbon-related products in the gross domestic product (GDP) composition of GCC states pose severe risks to the potential union. Fiscal vulnerabilities of these economies to oil price shocks, such as the current oil price crisis, create concerns for such a union during oil price lows. Widely divergent fiscal deficit-to-GDP ratios and rising debt-to-GDP ratios during periods of low oil prices imply the lack of sound and unsustainable public finances for some of the GCC states. The divergence has stemmed from widely different break-even oil prices for government budgets within the GCC and also due to varying degrees of oil dependencies between the member states. The scope of a successful and more sustainable EMU can be further explored once the GCC economics have achieved adequate diversity from oil.

Originality/value

The study is useful to policy makers, central banks, businesses and researchers since it highlights the EMU as a feasible option for the GCC states. The sustainability of the EMU is contingent on diversification of these economies in the future from oil and oil-related products. The study can be utilized by policy makers as a strategy to further restructure GCC economies towards greater resilience and integration prior to accession to the GCC EMU.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Book part
Publication date: 16 February 2006

Nico Groenendijk

In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal…

Abstract

In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the EU-10 countries). All countries except Estonia and Slovenia were urged to reduce their general government deficits, or to pursue low budget deficits in a credible and sustainable way within the multi-annual framework of EU budgetary surveillance. Some countries have received additional recommendations (the Czech Republic to reform its health care and pension systems, Estonia and Lithuania to avoid pro-cyclical policies, and Poland to reform its pension system). Most new Member States will consequently have to reduce their fiscal deficits and/or will have to avoid pro-cyclical fiscal policies to comply with the BEPGs, but also because of the required convergence within the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Bearing in mind that the government balance for the new Member States was –5.7 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003, the required reduction of fiscal deficits will not be easy. This has been acknowledged by the Commission, which has argued that the need to reach and maintain sound budgetary positions will require an appropriate time path between the necessary consolidation and the appropriate fiscal stance supporting the transition. Particular attention will also need to be given to country-specific circumstances, in particular to initial budgetary positions, to ongoing structural shifts in the new Member State economies, and to the possible risks resulting from current account imbalances and strong credit growth.

Details

Emerging European Financial Markets: Independence and Integration Post-Enlargement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-264-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Arcade Ndoricimpa

The purpose of this study is to seek to re-examine the threshold effects of public debt on economic growth in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to seek to re-examine the threshold effects of public debt on economic growth in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies panel smooth transition regression approach advanced by González et al. (2017). The method allows for both heterogeneity as well as a smooth change of regression coefficients from one regime to another.

Findings

A debt threshold in the range of 62–66% is estimated for the whole sample. Low debt is found to be growth neutral but higher public debt is growth detrimental. For middle-income and resource-intensive countries, a debt threshold in the range of 58–63% is estimated. As part of robustness checks, a dynamic panel threshold model was also applied to deal with the endogeneity of debt, and a much higher debt threshold was estimated, at 74.3%. While low public debt is found to be either growth neutral or growth enhancing, high public debt is consistently detrimental to growth.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study show that there is no single debt threshold applicable to all African countries, and confirm that the debt threshold level is sensitive to modeling choices. While further analysis is still needed to suggest a policy, the findings of this study show that high debt is detrimental to growth.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is twofold. Contrary to previous studies on Africa, this study applies a different estimation technique which allows for heterogeneity and a smooth change of regression coefficients from one regime to another. Another novelty distinct from the previous studies is that, for robustness checks, this study divides the sample into low- and middle-income countries, and into resource- and nonresource intensive countries, as debt experience can differ among country groups. Further, as part of robustness checks, another estimation method is also applied in which the threshold variable (debt) is allowed to be endogenous.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Abstract

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Martha del Pilar Rodríguez, Klender Cortez and Alma Berenice Méndez

This chapter aims to analyze whether member countries of the Pacific Alliance agreement showed economic and financial convergence during the 2010–2016 period. The sample…

Abstract

This chapter aims to analyze whether member countries of the Pacific Alliance agreement showed economic and financial convergence during the 2010–2016 period. The sample consists of four Latin American countries that are members of the Alianza del Pacífico (Pacific Alliance): Mexico, Chile, Colombia, and Peru. We use an economic convergence index (ECI) to classify the degree of the countries’ convergence regarding a given monetary area, considering the size of their economy, and compute three criteria: (1) nominal variables (used to define the Maastricht criteria), which are inflation, long-term interest rates, public debt, fiscal deficit as percentages of gross domestic product (GDP), and exchange rate volatility; (2) real and cyclical variables such as real GDP growth, gap between real GDP and potential GDP, unemployment, current account balance as a percentage of GDP, and short-term interest rates; and (3) a conditional combination that unequally weights nominal and real variables. We also use correlation analysis to compare coefficients. The results can be analyzed in the medium term in terms of descriptive statistics of their real and nominal variables, convergence indexes, and correlation analysis. The results show that the countries of the Pacific Alliance under study are converging in terms of nominal variables such as interest rate, exchange rate, fiscal deficits, and government debt. Also it can be observed that convergence occurs in real and weighted variables, although to a lesser magnitude. In relation to real variables related to GDP growth and foreign trade, these variables adjust less quickly than nominal ones.

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