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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Fan Jun, Juanni Jiao and Philip Lin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of gamification design elements of virtual corporate social responsibility (CSR) game on customers’ continuance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of gamification design elements of virtual corporate social responsibility (CSR) game on customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation and the mediation effect of psychological benefit.

Design/methodology/approach

Three scenario simulation experiments of the between-subjects design were conducted to examine the influencing mechanism of reward mechanism of virtual CSR game on customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation.

Findings

The findings indicated that: there are significant differences between the effect of behavior-based reward and result-based reward on customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation; the psychological benefit plays a moderating role between game reward mechanism and customers’ intention to continuously participate in social value co-creation; the game narrative mode plays a moderating role in the influence of game reward mechanism on customers’ intention to continuously participate in social value co-creation; the background for game placement moderates the interactions of game narrative mode and game reward mechanism on customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation, namely there is significant interaction of gamification design elements on psychological benefit and customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation.

Research limitations/implications

This research has the following limitations. First, restricted by research conditions, the game scene, as the experiment material, can only be exposed to the participants in the form of text, thus customers’ psychological benefit (especially the entertainment experience) may be affected. Second, theoretical argument and literature support were not enough when the authors put forward the research hypotheses, due to the lack of research on the application of gamification in the CSR field. Third, considering the complexity, the authors took the psychological benefit as a unidimensional variable, in this research; it may be funnier to divide it into three variables. Finally, because the game design elements form into a virtual customer environment that jointly influences customers’ psychological benefit, the method of qualitative comparative analysis can be considered in future research.

Practical implications

It provides insights for marketers on the planning and design of a CSR strategy. The conclusions of this research have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of CSR strategy and the practice of social value co-creation. First, enterprises can apply gamification to the design of virtual CSR projects to promote customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation. Second, on the consideration of customers’ psychological benefit, enterprises should reasonably match such game design elements as game placement background, game narrative mode and game reward mechanism, when designing a virtual CSR game, so as to promote customers continuously participating in a virtual CSR project.

Social implications

Virtual CSR projects are in fact the activities that enterprise co-create social value with their stakeholders. So, the research on customers’ continuous participation in virtual CSR projects is helpful for increasing social welfare.

Originality/value

This study confirms the effect of reward mechanism of a virtual CSR game on customers’ continuance intention to participate in social value co-creation from the perspective of customer psychological benefit. It also provides insights for marketers on the planning and design of a CSR strategy.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Qinxuan Gu, Dongqing Hu and Paul Hempel

Drawing on the motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between team reward interdependence and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between team reward interdependence and team performance, treating shared leadership as a mediator and team average job-based psychological ownership as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a field sample of 72 knowledge-based work teams comprised of 466 team members and their team leaders. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis and moderated path analysis.

Findings

Team reward interdependence was positively related to team performance through shared leadership. Team average job-based psychological ownership moderated both the relationship between team reward interdependence and shared leadership, and the indirect relationship between team reward interdependence and team performance.

Research limitations/implications

The shared leadership literature is extended by exploring the antecedents of shared leadership from the perspective of team incentives and by examining the moderating role of team average job-based psychological ownership.

Practical implications

Organizations and managers should pay attention to team pay system design and be aware of the importance of employees’ psychological ownership toward their jobs in promoting shared leadership in teams.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on the antecedents of shared leadership from motivated information processing perspective and examines antecedent boundary conditions through the moderating role of team average job-based psychological ownership.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Emerson Wagner Mainardes, Lázaro Silva Rodrigues and Aridelmo Teixeira

The purpose of this paper is to verify the relationship of job satisfaction in the banking sector with its antecedent constructs (financial rewards and psychological

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify the relationship of job satisfaction in the banking sector with its antecedent constructs (financial rewards and psychological rewards) and the mediating role of internal marketing in this relationship and to verify the relationship between job satisfaction in the banking sector and its consequent constructs (work engagement and the intention to leave) and the moderating effect of internal marketing on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional research methodology. Data are collected through an online questionnaire, which involves 355 bank employees. Partial least squares–structural equation modeling is used to verify the predicted relationships.

Findings

The results show that internal marketing tends to mediate the relationship between financial rewards and job satisfaction and the relationship between psychological rewards and job satisfaction. Internal marketing presents a moderating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and work engagement, but internal marketing does not moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and the intention to leave the bank.

Originality/value

This study expands the understanding of the scope of internal marketing by exploring its mediating and moderating effects on the interactions among the behaviors of banking sector employees.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Anthony Macari and Grace Chun Guo

This conceptual paper focuses on a common observation in the implementation stage of reward-based crowdfunding (RBC) – entrepreneurs' failures and delays in delivery of…

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper focuses on a common observation in the implementation stage of reward-based crowdfunding (RBC) – entrepreneurs' failures and delays in delivery of rewards to investors, which, in turn, may be perceived as violations of reward delivery obligations.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on entrepreneurial personality theory and psychological contract theory, this paper develops propositions and identifies factors related to both entrepreneurs (overconfidence and narcissism) and factors related to investors (types of motivators and psychological contracts) that may explain the perceived violations of reward delivery obligations. Implications for theory and practice are also discussed.

Findings

The theoretical analysis, by wielding two independently developed literatures, has demonstrated that it is important to investigate factors that are related to both investors and entrepreneurs in understanding issues and challenges at different stages of the RBC model. The authors believe that the current analysis provides an integrated understanding and a solid foundation for researchers to further examine these issues by empirically testing these propositions.

Originality/value

The authors examined two previously understudied psychological factors in the context of RBC – entrepreneurial traits, mainly overconfidence and narcissism, and the type of psychological contracts formed between investors and entrepreneurs, both of which, according to McKenny et al. (2017), need greater attention from researchers studying crowdfunding.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Nicholas Dew and Stuart Read

Tucked in the back of Venkataraman’s 1997 work on the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship (DDE) lies a pointer to a question each individual must face when choosing to…

Abstract

Tucked in the back of Venkataraman’s 1997 work on the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship (DDE) lies a pointer to a question each individual must face when choosing to start a new venture; “is entrepreneurship worth it?” Inventorying costs associated with risk, uncertainty, and illiquidity against surpluses from financial and psychological factors unique to entrepreneurship, Venkataraman tempts readers to tally entrepreneurial returns. The authors summarize and integrate an academic study of these various cost and return components over the past 20 years using Venkataraman’s original framework. The authors find the answer to the question of “is entrepreneurship worth it?” varies with time. Researcher’s answer to the question has shifted from an early view that entrepreneurs sacrifice financial gain in exchange for soft psychological benefits to a more positive view that entrepreneurs are rewarded both financially and psychologically for the unique costs borne in the DDE. But the rewards are not immediate. In entrepreneur time, break-even emerges by gradually overcoming an initial deficit. As surpluses accrue, returns to entrepreneurs likely eventually exceed those of their wage-earning peers.

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Albert A. Barreda, Khaldoon Nusair, Youcheng Wang, Fevzi Okumus and Anil Bilgihan

The study aims to develop a theoretical model that portrays the antecedents of emotional attachment in the travel context by combining branding, marketing and information…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to develop a theoretical model that portrays the antecedents of emotional attachment in the travel context by combining branding, marketing and information systems theories.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors gather empirical data through a Web-based questionnaire from 236 respondents. The proposed theory-driven model is examined empirically by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings suggest that social media rewards and benefits impact users’ brand commitment. Social media interactivity and rewards help building a stronger brand image. Brand commitment and brand image, in turn, affect emotional attachment positively.

Research limitations/implications

Other unexamined constructs may add to the explanation of building brands using social media platforms. As this is an exploratory study in relation to enhancing emotional attachment in an online travel setting, other constructs such as brand page commitment, annoyance, social benefits and telepresence may be considered in future studies.

Practical implications

Practitioners might encounter ways to influence favorable perceptions and brand commitment when consumers use social media sites. The model addresses questions regarding the significant role of social media activities on influencing brand image and brand commitment that in turn influence the development of a strong emotional attachment.

Social implications

This study examined the effects of social media activities including interactivity, psychological benefits and rewards on brand image and brand commitment, and the effects of brand image and brand commitment on emotional attachment in the travel context. The results offer further verification for the theory-based model presented in the study. Evidently, statistically significant and meaningful associations exist among the factors.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this study is that it presents and validates a theory-driven model that reveals the antecedents of sustainable emotional attachment. The proposed framework stresses the positive relationships among constructs and offers research basis for expansion in other settings.

论社交媒体活动对品牌形象和情感依恋的影响:旅游情境中的案例分析

研究目的

本论文结合品牌、营销、以及信息系统等理论, 建立了一个理论模型以描述在旅游情境中影响情感依恋的各种要素。

研究方法

作者通过网络问卷的形式收集了236份数据, 并且通过验证性因素分析和结构方程模型的手段来实际测量以理论为基础建立的模型。

研究结果

本论文研究结果表明社交媒体的奖励和好处影响用户的品牌承诺。社交媒体的交互性以及奖励帮助建立更强的品牌形象。品牌承诺和品牌形象对情感依恋有着积极促进的作用。

研究理论限制

社交媒体平台的品牌建立模型还存在一些其他变量尚未开发测量。本论文只是开拓了网络旅游平台的情感依恋研究的方向, 其他变量比如品牌专页承诺、烦恼、社交好处、以及网真等, 应该在未来的研究中得以深入。

研究实际意义

执业者可能会遇到多种方法, 通过社交媒体网站的方式影响消费者的主观感知和品牌承诺。本论文提出的模型可以帮助执业者解决关于社交媒体活动对品牌形象和品牌承诺显著影响从而达到强烈情感依恋效果的诸多问题。

研究社会意义

本论文研究了旅游产业中, 社交媒体活动, 包括交互性、心理好处和奖励对品牌形象和品牌承诺的影响, 以及品牌形象和品牌承诺对情感依恋的影响。研究结果进一步深入测量了提出的理论模型。很显然, 数据分析结果表明模型结构之间存在显著有意义的联系。

研究原创性/价值

本论文最重要的贡献在于它提出并验证了一个理论模型, 显示可持续情感依恋的动力起因。本论文提出的模型强调了结构之间的积极联系, 并且为在其他情境中的研究延申做出启示。

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Youjae Yi, Hoseong Jeon and Beomjoon Choi

The present study seeks to examine how perceived uncertainty of reward schedule and reward frame (i.e. segregated vs aggregated) affect consumers ' evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study seeks to examine how perceived uncertainty of reward schedule and reward frame (i.e. segregated vs aggregated) affect consumers ' evaluation of loyalty programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three experiments to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Ambiguity aversion was salient when the subjects perceived low uncertainty in the schedule of a loyalty program, which led to customers ' choice of a loyalty program with an aggregated frame. In contrast, the subjects displayed ambiguity proneness when they detected a high level of uncertainty in the reward schedule; as a result, the subjects preferred a loyalty program that employed a segregated frame.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that individuals adopt different types of attitudinal pattern and show dissimilar choice behaviors depending on reward schemes. The findings also provide insights to enhance the understanding concerning how consumers perceive the value of loyalty programs.

Practical implications

Previous research suggests the importance of random elements in relationship marketing. The present study supports this assertion by demonstrating that reward programs providing unexpected benefits can enhance the effectiveness of a loyalty program.

Originality/value

The results provide a more refined understanding about the relationship between perceived uncertainty and reward frame and the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Yi-Sheng Wang

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth exploration of the special context and user experiences of live video streaming and to provide insights regarding an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth exploration of the special context and user experiences of live video streaming and to provide insights regarding an interpretation of the contextualization experiences model.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used netnography, online interviews and the physical travel of researchers to the field for field participation and observations. The combination of netnography and online interviews combined online and offline studies to achieve greater consistency in the data collection, analysis and other processes.

Findings

The findings of the study can be classified into a three-stage situational context approach, which is presented in the form of propositions. Finally, the insights of the contextualization experiences model are presented.

Originality/value

This study resulted in the development of a substantive theory that provides insight into interpreting the contextualization experiences model. The theory was developed based on raw data to enable it to explain the phenomena in the context of similar instances of live video streaming.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Nan Wang, Jielin Yin, Zhenzhong Ma and Maolin Liao

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational rewards on two forms of knowledge sharing – explicit knowledge sharing and tacit knowledge sharing in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational rewards on two forms of knowledge sharing – explicit knowledge sharing and tacit knowledge sharing in virtual communities, and further to explore the mediating effect of intrinsic motivation on the effect of virtual community rewards on implicit knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on relevant knowledge sharing theories, this study develops an integrated framework to explore virtual community rewards and tacit and explicit knowledge sharing in a virtual context. This study then collected data from 429 virtual community users in four virtual communities via an online survey. Hierarchical regression analyzes were used to test the proposed research model.

Findings

The results of this study show that virtual rewards have a significantly positive linear relationship with explicit knowledge sharing but have an inverse U-shape relationship with tacit knowledge sharing in virtual communities. In addition, intrinsic motivations including enjoyment and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between rewards and tacit knowledge sharing.

Practical implications

This study suggests more virtual community rewards may not always lead to more tacit knowledge sharing. Instead, too many rewards may weaken the motivation for tacit knowledge sharing. Knowledge management practitioners should make full use of the positive impact of self-efficacy and enjoyment to set up appropriate reward incentives to encourage knowledge-sharing, in particular, tacit knowledge sharing and to better manage virtual communities.

Originality/value

This study explores knowledge-sharing behavior in virtual communities, an important step toward more integrated knowledge-sharing theories. While online communities have become increasingly important for today’s knowledge economy, few studies have explored knowledge and knowledge sharing in a virtual context and this study helps to bridge the gap. In addition, this study develops an integrated framework to explore the mechanism through which virtual community rewards affect knowledge sharing with intrinsic motivation mediating this relationship in online communities, which further enriches the understanding on how to use virtual rewards to motivate knowledge sharing behaviors in the virtual context.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2018

Gaatha Gulyani and Tanuja Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of total rewards components (monetary, material and non-monetary) on happiness of employees working in Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of total rewards components (monetary, material and non-monetary) on happiness of employees working in Indian technology-based new ventures. Further, with the theoretical lens of social exchange theory, the mediating role of work engagement between total rewards perceptions and work happiness relationship has also been evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 201 employees working in Indian technology-based new ventures was conducted. Structural equation modeling was utilized to measure the proposed theoretical model. Regression analysis was conducted to test the direct effects of the hypothesized relationships. Sobel test and bootstrapping analysis were utilized to test the indirect effects of the proposed hypothesized relationship.

Findings

The findings supported the hypotheses that employees’ perceptions of total rewards have a significant impact on employee work engagement and happiness at work. However, individual component of total rewards, i.e. monetary rewards, demonstrated an insignificant impact on the employee work happiness. Work engagement was positively related to work happiness and fully mediated the relationship between total rewards perceptions and work happiness.

Practical implications

Special attention should be given to enhance the material and non-monetary rewards, specifically strengthening the feeling of appreciation, learning and growth opportunities and improving feedback functions. Given the challenges of new ventures (productivity and efficiency of talent), management of total rewards mix should be considered as the main concern of human resource (HR) managers and management (founders). The paper also provides important implications for designing a reward system that enhances employee productivity and efficiency in the unstructured and ambiguous work environment of new ventures.

Originality/value

The present study has significant contributions to the HR, entrepreneurship and positive psychology literature. It is an attempt to understand the association between total rewards components and work happiness via mediating mechanism, i.e. work engagement in new ventures. It also extends research in the entrepreneurial context. The emergence and growth of new ventures in India has meant a growing importance for understanding employees’ needs and expectations and guaranteeing their happiness. The findings of the study contribute to social exchange theory, Vroom’s expectancy and self-determination theory. This research is also a rare investigation of employees’ perspectives in an entrepreneurial context.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

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