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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Sen Sendjaya, Nathan Eva, Mulyadi Robin, Lyfie Sugianto, Ivan ButarButar and Charmine Hartel

Interest in servant leadership has grown exponentially over the past decade as evident in the surge of academic- and practitioner-oriented publications on the subject…

Abstract

Purpose

Interest in servant leadership has grown exponentially over the past decade as evident in the surge of academic- and practitioner-oriented publications on the subject. While prior research has shown that servant leadership leads to citizenship behavior, no study has explored the ethical pathway as the underlying influence process despite the fact that servant leadership is an ethical approach to leadership. On the basis of social learning theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine psychological ethical climate as a key mediator between servant leadership and citizenship behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 123 leader–follower dyads from eight high-performing firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange, and analyzed using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The results showed that the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) (both for OCBI and OCBO) is mediated by psychological ethical climate.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates the value of using a servant leadership approach in order to foster a psychological ethical climate and increase OCBs. As such, the authors highlight the importance of a systematic approach to develop servant leaders in organizations.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the understanding of the ethical mechanism that explains the relationship between servant leadership and follower outcomes. Drawing on social learning theory, the findings show that servant leaders are ethical climate architects through their role modeling behaviors and interactions with followers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Joseph Mpeera Ntayi, Augustine Ahiauzu and Sarah Eyaa

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between psychological climate, catharsis, organizational anomie, psychological wellness and ethical

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between psychological climate, catharsis, organizational anomie, psychological wellness and ethical procurement behaviour in Ugandaʼs public sector, in order to understand better the conditions that foster or diminish procurement ethics in a developing country. Data for this study were collected from a sample of 1100 respondents out of which 460 usable questionnaires, representing a 42% response rate were received and analyzed. Results reveal that psychological climate, procurement planning and organizational anomie were significant predictors, accounting for 64% of the variance in ethical procurement behaviour. These results have both policy and managerial implications which we present and discuss in this paper.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Andrea M. Scheetz and Timothy J. Fogarty

Based on exchange theory and the generalized norm of reciprocity, psychological contracts perceived by employees are believed to have dysfunctional consequences for…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on exchange theory and the generalized norm of reciprocity, psychological contracts perceived by employees are believed to have dysfunctional consequences for organizations if breached. This paper aims to study the willingness of employees to report fraud, as such is an important aspect of internal control for organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 99 participants with diverse accounting backgrounds were first asked questions about their preconceived beliefs (psychological contract) regarding how reports of unethical conduct would be managed, and their reaction if these beliefs were broken (psychological contract violation). Participants were given a hypothetical situation of fraud and then asked to indicate their likelihood of reporting fraud to a supervisor.

Findings

The main hypotheses are that employees will be less likely to report fraud when the organization fails to signal the presence of a positive ethical environment or when management reacts weakly to previous reports of unethical activity. The data and findings support these hypotheses. Additional testing also reveals that a psychological contract violation mediates the relationship between the outcome of previous reports and the intention to report fraud.

Research limitations/implications

As with any experimental study, this study’s results come with limitations. Reading an overly simplistic scenario that omits real world details and providing intention to report is very different from actually reporting fraud in one’s own place of employment. Therefore, reporting intentions may vary from actual reporting behavior. Further, reporting motivation (self-defense, altruism, etc.) and concern over retaliation are not measured.

Practical implications

Employees have expectations surrounding ethical corporate environments. Psychological contract violations occur as a result of broken expectations and are common in the workforce. In this study, a breakdown in the internal control environment because of a poor ethical culture, caused an even greater breakdown in internal controls because of employees’ decreased reporting intentions.

Social implications

Psychological contract violations impact employees’ intention to report fraud. These violations need to be understood so that additional measures and safeguards can be instituted when employees are not acting as a fraud defense or detection mechanism. During such times when there is a breakdown in this type of internal control (that is, when employees might be hesitant to report fraud), extra safeguards against fraud, additional procedures to detect fraud, and enhanced employee training encouraging reporting of suspected unethical conduct, become even more important.

Originality/value

Strong experimental methods provide a rigorous way to evaluate a problem of our day: job insecurity caused by rampant organizational turbulence. The hidden cost is expressed in terms of how less can be expected of employees as a first line of defense against fraud.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Charles H. Schwepker, Jr, Christina K. Dimitriou and Todd McClure

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of formal [ethics training (ET)] and informal [psychological ethical climate (EC)] controls in reducing service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of formal [ethics training (ET)] and informal [psychological ethical climate (EC)] controls in reducing service sabotage (SS) and increasing employee commitment to service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were electronically collected from a national survey of hotel/motel customer contact employees leading to a usable sample of 316 employees. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings indicate that ET can be used to positively influence the EC of customer contact service employees, which, in turn, reduces their SS behavior and increases their commitment to service quality.

Practical implications

Management should incorporate both formal (ET) and informal (EC) controls to bring about less SS and greater commitment to service quality among customer contact employees in service settings.

Originality/value

This research furthers the understanding of SS by finding an important variable, EC that may be used to reduce its incidence in service settings. Further, it shows that EC is an important contributor to improving ECSQ. As such, this research gives important direction for companies wishing to improve the customer service experience.

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Brenda Tumuramye, Joseph Mpeera Ntayi and Moses Muhwezi

This study aims to investigate the whistle-blowing behaviour in Ugandan public procurement by using whistle-blowing supporting institutions, procuring and disposing entity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the whistle-blowing behaviour in Ugandan public procurement by using whistle-blowing supporting institutions, procuring and disposing entity (PDE) ethical climate and whistle-blowing expectancy.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 118 drawn from a population of 179 central government (PDEs). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, resulting in 222 usable questionnaires from 70 PDEs, representing a response rate of 62.71 per cent.

Findings

The results reveal that the whistle-blowing supporting institutions and PDE ethical climate are significant predictors of whistle-blowing intentions and behaviour, accounting for 30.2 per cent of the variance. The authors therefore recommend that whistle-blowing supporting institutions, like the Whistle Blowers Protection Act, should be reviewed and strengthened to promote whistle-blowing intentions and behaviour. This could be done through reviewing the Act to make it enforceable, giving power to the whistle-blowers, strengthening policies, developing safeguards against retaliation by making every chief executive officer in the public sector accountable, increasing whistle-blowing incentives and providing whistle-blowing hotlines for anonymous whistle-blowers. PDEs should also create conducive ethical climates that encourage people to voice their concerns internally or externally, and ethical committees should be established within PDEs and other bodies such as the Inspector General of Government for ensuring that whistle-blowing systems are in place and promoted. There is a need to increase whistle-blowing expectancy through the effective handling of reported cases to their conclusion and the use of role models.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Charles H. Schwepker and Thomas N. Ingram

The purpose of this paper is to attempts to better understand the role of ethical leadership in the business-to-business customer value creation process. Drawing on job…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempts to better understand the role of ethical leadership in the business-to-business customer value creation process. Drawing on job demands-resources theory (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001), this paper develops and tests a model that examines the relationships among ethical leadership, customer orientation, commitment to providing superior customer value and job stress in the salesforce.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample includes 408 business-to-business salespeople. Structural equation modeling is used to test the study’s hypotheses.

Findings

Findings suggest that ethical leadership directly and indirectly (via customer orientation) influences commitment to providing superior customer value. Furthermore, both ethical leadership and salesperson commitment to providing value directly influence salesperson job stress.

Originality/value

This paper develops and tests a model that examines the relationships among constructs not previously examined, as they relate to business customer value creation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Amos S. Engelbrecht, Gardielle Heine and Bright Mahembe

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how leader integrity and ethical leadership can influence trust in the leader and employee work engagement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how leader integrity and ethical leadership can influence trust in the leader and employee work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using an electronic web-based questionnaire completed by 204 employees from various business organisations. Data were analysed by means of item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling.

Findings

High levels of reliability were found for the measurement scales. Good model fit was demonstrated for the measurement and structural models. Empirical support was found for all the postulated relationships in the structural model.

Originality/value

This study is the first to analyse the joint relationships between leader integrity and work engagement through the mediating role of ethical leadership (i.e. moral management) and trust in the leader. The findings emphasise the key role played by ethical leaders in creating an ethical and trusting work climate conducive for employee engagement.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Larry W. Howard, S. Thomas Foster and Patrick Shannon

To examine the role of perceived team climate in facilitating leadership and sociotechnical optimization to affect quality related outcomes in a municipal government.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the role of perceived team climate in facilitating leadership and sociotechnical optimization to affect quality related outcomes in a municipal government.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to employees working in a municipal government, measuring leadership, perceived team climate, technical subsystem components, and team performance. Hypotheses were tested with multiple regression, and the fit of a path model implied by all hypotheses was tested with structural equation modeling.

Findings

Institution‐level communications and department‐level leadership had the greatest effects in shaping perceptions of team climate. Perceived team climate predicted process improvement, customer satisfaction, and employee satisfaction. Perceived team climate also substantially mediated relationships between leadership support for teamwork and technical components with these outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected at one point in time from a single source, workers in a US municipal government. Some measures were new. A longitudinal design would strengthen causal inferences regarding the origins and effects of team climates.

Practical implications

Soft controls such as norms influence the effectiveness of teams in process improvement. Mid‐level managers have the greatest impact among leaders in creating a team climate. Open communication makes a difference to virtually every aspect of performance.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the importance of shaping perceptions of a team climate to facilitate process and quality improvement. It emphasizes the importance of open communications and clarifies changing roles of leadership in modern organizations. Finally, it provides rare documentation of quality management in government.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Vaibhav Chawla, Teidorlang Lyngdoh, Sridhar Guda and Keyoor Purani

Considering recent changes in sales practices, such as the sales role becoming more strategic, increased reliance on technology for sales activities, increased stress from…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering recent changes in sales practices, such as the sales role becoming more strategic, increased reliance on technology for sales activities, increased stress from adding technological responsibilities to the sales role and decreased avenues of social support (such as traditional forms of community) to cope with work-related stressors, there is a need to reconsider Verbeke et al.’s (2011) classification scheme of determinants of sales performance, which was based on literature published before these critical changes became apparent. This paper aims to conduct a systematic review of sales performance research published during 1983–2018 to propose an extension to Verbeke et al.’s (2011) classification.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper followed a systematic approach to the literature review in five sequential steps – search, selection, quality control, extraction and synthesis – as suggested by Tranfield et al. (2003). In total, 261 peer-reviewed journal papers from 36 different journals were selected for extraction and synthesis.

Findings

The findings make the following additions to the classification: strategic and nonstrategic activities as a new category, technological drivers of sales performance and job-related psychosocial factors as a broader category to replace role perceptions. Derived from the job demand–control–support model, three subcategories within the category of job-related psychosocial factors are psychological demands (encompasses role perceptions and digital-age stressors such as technostress creators), job control and work-related social support.

Research limitations/implications

This paper identifies that manager’s role in facilitating technology skills, providing informal social support to remote or virtual salespeople using technology, and encouraging strategic behaviors in salespeople are future research areas having good potential. Understanding and building positive psychology aspects in salespeople and their effect on sales performance is another promising area.

Practical implications

Newly added technological drivers draw the attention of sales firms toward the influence of technology and its skilful usage on salesperson performance. Newly added strategic activities makes a case for the importance of strategic participation in salesperson performance.

Originality/value

This review extends Verbeke et al.’s (2011) classification scheme to include recent changes that sales profession and literature have undergone.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Jatin Pandey

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the macro level (i.e. the organisation). This paper aims to identify, analyse and synthesise factors that affect job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an extensive integrative review of literature, this study identifies and classifies the factors that affect job performance. A synthesised model based on the schema of demands, resources and stressors is also developed.

Findings

The demands identified are grouped into physical, cognitive and affective. Stressors adversely affecting job performance are classified at an individual level, job level and family level. Finally, resources are classified at an individual level, job level, organisational level and social level.

Research limitations/implications

This review enhances the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to job demands-resources-stressors (JD-R-S) model by identifying a separate category of variables that are neither job demands nor resources, but still impede job performance.

Practical implications

The subgroups identified under demands, resources and stressors provide insights into job performance enhancement strategies, by changing, managing or optimising them.

Originality/value

This study helps in better understanding the factors that go on to impact job performance differentially, depending on the group to which they belong. It gives a holistic picture of factors affecting job performance, thereby integrating classifying and synthesising the vast literature on the topic.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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