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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Ken Cheng, Xing Cao, Limin Guo and Qing Xia

This study aims to examine the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between work connectivity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between work connectivity behavior after-hours (WCBA) and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 217 full-time employees of an Internet company in China at two points in time separated by about one month. Hierarchical regression and simple slope analyses were conducted to test hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that WCBA was negatively related to job satisfaction and that this relationship could be mitigated by POS. Moreover, psychological entitlement aggravated this relationship, and this aggravating effect was stronger when POS was at low levels.

Practical implications

Managers should avoid intervening employees' nonwork domains too much. If this is unavoidable, managers should provide adequate organizational support to help employees cope with the challenges brought by WCBA. Besides, managers need to pay close attention to highly entitled employees and take measures to modify their expectations.

Originality/value

First, this study enriches the understanding of what WCBA is and how WCBA works by investigating the influencing mechanism of WCBA from the perspectives of effort–reward imbalance and job demands–resources. Second, by verifying the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and POS, this study provides insights into the boundaries of the WCBA–job satisfaction relationship. Third, this study contributes to the literature on psychological entitlement by identifying its one applicable condition.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Robyn L. Brouer, Angela S. Wallace and Paul Harvey

This chapter presents an investigation of the relationship between psychological entitlement and stress. Empirical and conceptual evidence is considered suggesting that…

Abstract

This chapter presents an investigation of the relationship between psychological entitlement and stress. Empirical and conceptual evidence is considered suggesting that Conservation of Resources (COR) theory may apply differently to employees with a heightened sense of entitlement. Using attribution and COR theory, a conceptual framework is offered predicting that entitlement is positively associated with subjective stress, based on the logic that psychologically entitled employees develop unjustifiably inflated levels of self-evaluative internal coping resources such as self-esteem and self-efficacy that promote unmet expectations. It is also proposed that political skill and the ability to manage perceptions of competency may attenuate this relationship. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the challenges associated with managing psychologically entitled employees.

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Arefeh Rahaei and Reza Salehzadeh

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational justice on cyberloafing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational justice on cyberloafing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a cross-sectional research design based on a questionnaire method was used to collect the required data from a sample of 226 employees working at selected universities in the city of Isfahan, Iran. To test the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling was used.

Findings

According to the findings, psychological entitlement could have a significant impact on perceived organizational justice and consequently perceived organizational justice could significantly influence cyberloafing. Moreover, psychological entitlement could significantly influence cyberloafing and finally, psychological entitlement could have a significant effect on cyberloafing through perceived organizational justice.

Originality/value

This research provides valuable insight for studying the relationship among psychological entitlement, perceived organizational justice and cyberloafing.

Details

Vilakshan - XIMB Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0973-1954

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Emily M. Zitek and Verena Krause

When subordinates violate a policy, authority figures have to decide whether to be strict and make them face the consequences or be lenient and not enforce the policy. In…

Abstract

When subordinates violate a policy, authority figures have to decide whether to be strict and make them face the consequences or be lenient and not enforce the policy. In this chapter, we argue that when an authority figure treats a subordinate leniently, that subordinate is more likely to develop an elevated sense of entitlement, which then has various negative consequences for the authority figure and the subordinate’s group members. Drawing on the literature on the sources and consequences of psychological entitlement, we put forward propositions relating to authority leniency and subordinate entitlement. In summary, we propose (a) that single acts of leniency may lead subordinates to feel entitled to future leniency, (b) that repeated leniency may lead subordinates to develop a general sense of entitlement, and (c) that leniency and the resulting entitlement can have many negative consequences such as increasing group conflict and causing low performance. We report preliminary results in support of some propositions. For example, we show that leniency that can be attributed to something external to the subordinate may prevent the subordinate from feeling entitled. Last, we call for additional research. We hope that our chapter will cause authority figures to consider the consequences of treating subordinates leniently, including the possibility that the subordinates will subsequently feel entitled.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-504-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Kenneth J. Harris, Ranida B. Harris, Matthew Valle, John Carlson, Dawn S. Carlson, Suzanne Zivnuska and Briceön Wiley

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work and family. Specifically, we focus on intention to turnover in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work and family. Specifically, we focus on intention to turnover in the work domain, work-family conflict in the work-family domain, and family burnout in the family domain. Furthermore, this study examines the moderating role of entitlement, a personality variable, in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 253 people who were using technology to complete their work over two time periods, the relationships were examined using hierarchical moderated regression analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that both techno-overload and techno-invasion were significantly related to greater turnover intentions, higher work-family conflict, and greater family burnout. In addition, entitlement played a moderating role such that those who were higher in entitlement had stronger techno-overload-outcome and technostress invasion-outcome relationships.

Practical implications

These findings may provide managers key insights to help manage employees, especially those with an inflated sense of entitlement, to mitigate the serious negative outcomes associated with techno-overload and techno-invasion. In particular, both techno- overload and techno-invasion had minimal impact on negative outcomes when employee entitlement was lower. However, when employee entitlement was higher, techno-overload and techno-invasion had considerable negative effects.

Originality/value

Due to the ubiquitous nature of information-communication technology (ICT) in organizations today, individuals often experience techno-overload and techno-invasion. This research utilized conservation of resources theory to examine these relationships. This study established the relationships of both techno-overload and techno-invasion with key organizational and family outcomes and points to the critical role of the personality variable, entitlement, in this process. The results provide theoretical and practical advancement in the role of technology with people in organizations today.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Brett Martin, Carolyn Strong and Peter O’Connor

This paper aims to examine how a shopper’s level of psychological entitlement influences how consumers respond to different types of apology by a service provider.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how a shopper’s level of psychological entitlement influences how consumers respond to different types of apology by a service provider.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were performed. Study 1 tests the hypotheses that entitled shoppers prefer empathy apologies to norm violation apologies and that this effect is mediated by disgust and anger. Study 2 tests whether relative superiority apologies are more effective.

Findings

Study 1 shows that entitled shoppers prefer empathy apologies. Mediation analysis shows that entitled people feel disgust for norm violation apologies. Study 2 shows that entitled shoppers prefer relative superiority apologies. A standard apology results in negative perceptions of interactional justice, disgust and negative employee evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the scenario method. Implications include entitlement as a moderator of service recovery effectiveness, examining different types of apology and mediators which contribute to the marketing and entitlement literature.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for training employees in service recovery. Employees should not use a standard apology or an apology that treats entitled consumers as similar to other shoppers. Employees should express empathy or make them feel that they are a more valued customer than other store customers.

Originality/value

This research shows how entitlement moderates consumer responses to service recovery. The research answers calls to study different types of apology rather than studying a standard apology (vs no apology). The research is the first to relate entitlement to apologies and to show how disgust and justice perceptions underlie an entitled person’s judgments in service recovery.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mary Dana Laird, Paul Harvey and Jami Lancaster

Given the entitlement and job mobility associated with Generation Y, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the entitlement and job mobility associated with Generation Y, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and tenure on the felt accountability-job satisfaction relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from a sample of resident assistants were examined using hierarchical moderated regression analysis.

Findings

Entitled employees responded to accountability favorably, demonstrating lower job satisfaction than non-entitled employees when accountability was low, but nearly equal levels when accountability was high. All participants reported higher job satisfaction when job tenure was lower, but entitlement-driven satisfaction differences were observed only when accountability was low.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data warrants longitudinal replication to establish causation and to give insight into how much time must pass before accountability begins to reduce the negative effects of entitlement.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that managerial tactics that increase employees’ felt accountability could reduce the negative impact of psychological entitlement on job attitudes and related outcomes.

Originality/value

Using a unique sample of Generation Y employees, the results provide an indication of how supervisors from earlier generations can improve the workplace attitudes of younger workers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Alexandra Polyakova, Zachary Estes and Andrea Ordanini

Companies often provide preferential treatment, such as free upgrades, to customers. The present study aims to identify a costly consequence of such preferential treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies often provide preferential treatment, such as free upgrades, to customers. The present study aims to identify a costly consequence of such preferential treatment (i.e. opportunistic behavior) and reveal which type of customer is most likely to engage in that negative behavior (i.e. new customers).

Design/methodology/approach

Across two experimental studies, the authors test whether preferential treatment increases customers’ entitlement, which in turn increases their propensity to behave opportunistically. Moderated mediation analysis further tests whether that mediated effect is moderated by customers’ prior relationship with the company.

Findings

Preferential treatment increases feelings of entitlement, which consequently triggers customers’ opportunistic behaviors. New customers are more likely to feel entitled after preferential treatment than repeat customers, and hence new customers are more likely to behave opportunistically. Preferential treatment also increases customers’ suspicion of the company’s motives, but suspicion was unrelated to opportunistic behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may focus on other marketplace situations that trigger entitlement and explore whether multiple occurrences of preferential treatment provide different effects on consumers.

Practical implications

Present findings demonstrate that preferential treatment can evoke opportunistic behaviors among customers. The authors suggest that preferential treatment should be provided to customers who previously invested in their relationship with a company (i.e. repeat customers) rather than new customers.

Originality/value

Prior research has focused more on the ways companies prioritize their repeat customers than how they surprise their new customers. The present research instead examines preferential treatment based on customers’ relationship with a firm (i.e. both repeat and new customers) and demonstrates behavioral and contextual effects of entitlement.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Abstract

Details

Understanding Excessive Teacher and Faculty Entitlement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-940-5

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Joanna Phillips Melancon, Mary Jane Gardner and Vassilis Dalakas

The purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents of consumer entitlement among loyal consumers in response to a perceived brand failure, as well as the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents of consumer entitlement among loyal consumers in response to a perceived brand failure, as well as the effect of consumer entitlement on satisfaction and behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire asked 226 Game of Thrones viewers about their reactions to the final season of the series. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was the analysis method for testing the hypotheses.

Findings

Investment, perceived justice and collective fairness are all predictors of entitlement. Fan identification increases feelings of investment. Entitlement has a negative relationship with satisfaction, and satisfaction is positively related to relational behaviors.

Practical implications

Loyal, highly entitled consumers can make life difficult for a brand in customer service encounters, on social media and financially. The manuscript offers managers an understanding of which consumers and situations may elicit entitlement and how to mitigate entitlement.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to attempt to model antecedents of consumer entitlement and to study entitlement among highly loyal consumers in response to a perceived brand failure. The study furthers existing research by pointing out the effect of entitlement on the relationship with the brand and consequences for the brand, as opposed to past studies, which have largely explored the effects of working with entitled consumers on front-line employees.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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