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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Daniel C. Funk

The present data illustrate the effectiveness of utilizing theoretically guided models to develop consumer-based micro-segmentation strategies. The results provide…

Abstract

The present data illustrate the effectiveness of utilizing theoretically guided models to develop consumer-based micro-segmentation strategies. The results provide marketers with a powerful discriminant function calculated from six variables to profile consumers and make informed decisions regarding promotional content and channel delivery to stimulate processing of marketing communication. The function also enables marketers to carve out casual, moderate, and loyal market segments with 74.3 per cent accuracy utilizing only 18 survey questions.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Jason P Doyle, Thilo Kunkel and Daniel C Funk

The results from this study extend previous research by empirically testing the involvement based Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) segmentation procedure on sports…

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1151

Abstract

The results from this study extend previous research by empirically testing the involvement based Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) segmentation procedure on sports spectators. To date, the procedure has only been verified using sports participants, although the PCM was developed with a broader range of sports consumers in mind. The validity of the procedure is confirmed using two online surveys, which gather data from spectators at both the league (n=761) and team (n=623) level. A three-step segmentation procedure then places respondents into the PCM stages - awareness, attraction, attachment and allegiance. ANOVA tests indicate that the four groups significantly differ from one another on attitudinal and behavioural measures for both league and team spectators. Findings suggest that the PCM is an appropriate framework to investigate fan development at both league and team levels. Thus sports marketers are provided with a research segmentation tool capable of helping them to better understand their heterogeneous consumer bases and thus guide marketing decisions.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Munyaradzi W. Nyadzayo, Civilai Leckie and Heath McDonald

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by corporate social responsibility (CSR) in building relationship quality (RQ) in the context of sports…

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1967

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by corporate social responsibility (CSR) in building relationship quality (RQ) in the context of sports organisations. In turn, the link between RQ and customer loyalty is examined. Acknowledging that customers develop a psychological connection with the sports organisation over time, the study also examines whether the link between CSR and RQ is moderated by the psychological continuum model (PCM) stages (awareness, attraction, attachment and allegiance).

Design/methodology/approach

The survey data were drawn from almost 6,000 season ticket holders of a professional sports club. Structural equation modelling and the non-parametric bootstrapping regression technique were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results support the direct impact of CSR activities on RQ. RQ, in turn, drives customer loyalty. Importantly, RQ is found to fully mediate the relationship between CSR and customer loyalty. However, as customers move through the psychological connection stages, the effect of CSR on customer loyalty via RQ tends to diminish.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence of a direct impact of CSR activities on RQ, and also attests the role of psychological connection in sports organisations.

Originality/value

The incorporation of a multidimensional RQ construct and the PCM stages allows a deeper understanding of how CSR might be employed to achieve organisational goals.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Haozhou Pu and Jeffrey James

With the available technological tools, fans are able to access sport products regardless of geographic proximity. Through technology, fans can follow sports teams from…

Abstract

Purpose

With the available technological tools, fans are able to access sport products regardless of geographic proximity. Through technology, fans can follow sports teams from other countries. In contrast to previous research focused on the local fan, in this paper we report on a study of a group of distant fans – Chinese National Basketball Association (NBA) fans – as the focal object. The study was guided by three questions: RQ1: what motives drive a distant fan’s involvement with their favorite NBA team? RQ2: are there differences in the motives associated with the different stages of psychological connection among distant fans? RQ3: are there differences in the amount of media consumption at the different stages of psychological connection? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was distributed to consumers of a Chinese sports message board to assess the motives of distant fans (n=281) following teams in the NBA, and strength of psychological connection to the NBA based on the psychological continuum model (PCM).

Findings

There were significant differences in the motives for following a distant NBA team among the respondents at different stages of psychological connection. Significant differences were also found among Chinese NBA fans at the respective stages regarding media consumption.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the advancement of knowledge regarding sport fandom. It is one of the first studies to include an assessment of the sport consumption motives of distant fans, more specifically, motives influencing Chinese fans’ consumption of the NBA. Utilizing the PCM allows for the segmentation of a specific fan population and to ascertain whether there are differences in the motives and behaviors associated with different stages of an individual’s psychological connection with a team.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Dilini Edirisinghe, Alireza Nazarian, Pantea Foroudi and Andrew Lindridge

The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate how young female customers establish psychological relationships with small- to medium-scale retail stores over…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate how young female customers establish psychological relationships with small- to medium-scale retail stores over time forming purchase intentions, actual purchase patterns and repurchase behaviour. Role of various customer typologies was also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was implemented to collect and analyse data, where data was collected from 20 young female customers and ten clothing retailers using purposive sampling via semi-structured interviews. Interviews with customers were conducted in a place of their choice such as in a coffee shop, whereas data from retailers were collected in the retail stores. Both online and offline retail patronage was considered to incorporate the growing tendency towards online shopping. Results were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

This study managed to reveal a number of interesting findings on how female customers form and develop psychological relationships with clothing retailers over time that ultimately builds customer loyalty. Customer behaviour in pre-purchase, purchase and re-purchase stages can significantly vary according to their individual perceptions, whereas they have a few favourite clothing brands that they frequently shop for. Preference for online shopping was found to be minimal, most of them enjoying in store experiences. Further, word of mouth and unique designs emerged as key contributors in establishing retail brand loyalty.

Practical implications

This paper provides better insights for clothing retailers and industry practitioners in understanding how customer perceptions affect clothing purchase decisions.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the retail literature by emphasizing on various elements that should be amalgamated through proper synthesis to serve customers. The research is unique as it analyses customer behaviour using a recreational activity model as opposed to marketing models to demonstrate how customers develop relationships with retail brands overtime.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Debra Grace, Ceridwyn King and Joseph Lo Iacono

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effect of reciprocal and negotiated social exchanges in establishing workplace relationship cohesion, providing a…

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1232

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effect of reciprocal and negotiated social exchanges in establishing workplace relationship cohesion, providing a mediating influence between social constructed initiatives (i.e. internal socialization and support) and internal customers’ psychological connectedness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered via a national online survey of service employees in Australia, representing a diverse range of service industries (e.g. retail (food/non-food), health, financial, administrative support, real estate, household, insurance, education and training, etc.).

Findings

Reciprocal-exchange relationship quality fully mediates the relationship between internal socialization and psychological connectedness; and negotiated-exchange relationship quality partially mediates the relationship between internal support and psychological connectedness of internal customers.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings reported herein support the salience of interpersonal relationship quality enhancing the internal performance of the organization, it is essential to consider how the findings link to externally perceived performance (i.e. from the customer’s perspective). Future research is guided by a framework that the authors propose as a result of the study’s findings to facilitate research in this under-researched area.

Practical implications

The development of sound socially relevant internal marketing strategies is vital to the long-term health and prosperity of the firm and its internal counterparts necessitating a move beyond transactional internal marketing, reflecting “pay for service” organizational thinking.

Originality/value

The examination of internal relationship cohesion and how this effects internal customers’ allegiance to their organizations addresses an important research gap and, thus, provides a significant contribution to both theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Elizabeth A. Gregg, David A. Pierce, Kristi M. Sweeney and Jason W. Lee

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting participant awareness, attraction, and attachment to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s (NMSS) MS 150 PGA…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting participant awareness, attraction, and attachment to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s (NMSS) MS 150 PGA Tour Cycle to the Shore charitable bike ride utilizing the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) developed by Funk and James. In addition, the authors sought to outline variables sport organizations can use to predict donor behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this project were derived from an electronic survey distributed to race participants and was analyzed in SPSS® software. Regression analysis was employed.

Findings

The findings support previous research employing the PCM; wherein social situational variables have the greatest influence on the relational significance of hedonic and dispositional needs in attraction and attachment to sporting events. The work supports the inclusion of communities as an additional attachment outcome.

Practical implications

In all, 92 percent of riders were informed about the event through word of mouth (WOM) marketing, highlighting the importance this promotional technique in the awareness stage of the PCM. NMSS would be well served by capitalizing on the power of WOM.

Originality/value

The research provides insight into predictors of fundraising efficacy. In terms of fundraising effectiveness, participants with four or more years of participation were six times more likely than first-year riders to raise $1,000 or more.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Mohsen Behnam, Do Young Pyun, Jason P. Doyle and Vahid Delshab

The purpose of this research was to test the influence of consumer knowledge management on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty through service quality and psychological involvement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to test the influence of consumer knowledge management on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty through service quality and psychological involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants (N = 396) were recruited through a convenience sampling technique from non-profit sport clubs in Iran. Data were analyzed with the Structural Equation Modeling using Mplus 7.4.

Findings

The results revealed that the effects of service quality on psychological involvement were dependent on consumer knowledge management. Furthermore, there were the mediating effects of service quality and psychological involvement in the relationships between the consumer knowledge management and loyalty.

Practical implications

The research findings provide valuable insights for non-profit sport club managers seeking to better attract and retain their consumers by demonstrating the importance of investing in consumer knowledge management initiatives. Managers should thus integrate knowledge orientation into their marketing and relationship management strategies and apply the strategy into consumer knowledge within club services.

Originality/value

This study empirically highlights the important role of knowledge from, for and about the consumer on perceived service quality and loyalty building among the non-profit consumer base.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Fernando Lera-López and Manuel Rapún-Gárate

This paper analyses the determinants of sports participation and attendance in 40 sports and recreational activities in Spain. Ordered probit models are used to identify…

Abstract

This paper analyses the determinants of sports participation and attendance in 40 sports and recreational activities in Spain. Ordered probit models are used to identify determinants in each case and to test for possible relationships. The results show that the two types of involvement, participation and attendance, are very different, the former constrained by economic, sociological and psychological variables such as gender, age, time availability and motivational factors, the latter explained by variables such as age, gender and size of household.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Galen. T. Trail and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The…

Abstract

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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