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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Oliver Cruz-Milan

One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been…

Abstract

One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been widely cited in journal articles, textbooks, and has also been used as a reference for planning and designing tourism marketing projects. However, empirical research on Plog’s psychographic model has yielded varied, inconclusive results, and the postulates of his conceptual framework are still subject to academic scrutiny. While some empirical investigations have corroborated the model, others have found partial or no support for it. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to offer an exhaustive review of 26 studies in the literature which have employed Plog´s venturesomeness concept to examine travellers’ personality traits, attitudes, and behaviour, as a way to synthetise empirical findings and draw conclusions from the cumulative results. A discussion of the model’s contribution to the current body of knowledge and managerial implications for tourism marketing practitioners are presented.

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2018

Chang-Keun Yoo, Donghwan Yoon and Eerang Park

The purpose of this study is to discuss prevalent socio-psychological models which examine how tourists’ needs and motivations affect their destination choices by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss prevalent socio-psychological models which examine how tourists’ needs and motivations affect their destination choices by collectively considering Plog’s (1974) psychographic profiles, Cohen’s (1979) tourist typology and Peace’s (1988) travel career ladder. The current study argues that no single model can adequately explain tourists’ destination selection process as well as travel behaviors and introduces a new integrated perspective of existing psychological models.

Design/methodology/approach

Examining responses from 202 Hong Kong residents who have travel experience, this study divides the respondents’ psychographics into three types.

Findings

Using multinomial logit model (MNL) analysis, the study finds that tourists’ travel motivations and destination settings can be varied by their psychographics types. The findings also reveal that tourist’s psychographic types can be varied by demographics, travel type, frequencies, duration, purpose and destination setting.

Originality/value

The study provides implications for tourism marketers as well as the tourism literature by suggesting an integrative approach for a better understanding of tourist motivations.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Thabet A. Edris and A. Meidan

One of the persisting problems that the consumer researcherfrequently encounters in using psychographics is the reliability of itsmeasures and analysis. Like any other…

Abstract

One of the persisting problems that the consumer researcher frequently encounters in using psychographics is the reliability of its measures and analysis. Like any other consumer behaviour measures, psychographics should be reliable enough to measure that which it is intended to measure and nothing else. Unreliable psychographic measures and analysis decrease the researcher′s ability to detect relationships between variables and reduce the confidence in the meaning of obtained relationships. This study addresses the problem of reliability in psychographic research, and attempts to find out how much concern has been given by consumer researchers to this problem in developing and analysing psychographic measures. An up‐to‐date review of the state‐of‐the‐art on the reliability of psychographic research is presented and provides a host of information and literature sources on this subject area. The study indicates that there are encouraging signs for measurement accuracy and methodology in consumer research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Sanjeev Verma

The purpose of this paper is to find the niche segmentation of green consumers as a solution to psychographic or demographic predicament. Age cohort and generational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the niche segmentation of green consumers as a solution to psychographic or demographic predicament. Age cohort and generational cohort (Gen Y and Gen Z) of young consumers are studied for individualization and customization.

Design/methodology/approach

Age cohorts (Gen Z and Gen Y customers) have their unique needs. Both Gen Y (1981-1995) and Gen Z (post-1995) belong to the young consumer segment in the age group of 20-30 years but their generational cohorts are different. Strategic marketing advocates both generational marketing based on age cohorts and segmented marketing for young consumers. Strategic marketing faces cross-road between youth segmentation and generational cohort (Gen Z and Gen Y) due to intersection between the two during the 20-30 age group. Primary data using the ecological conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) scale was collected and analyzed for understanding the individual and relative importance of psychographic and demographic factors in influencing green behavior. The traditional youth segment is sliced into four sub-groups (Young Nest 1-4), and their interaction effect with post hoc analysis was done for the identification of sources of difference between different age cohorts. The findings of the study were compared with previous studies and unique contributions of this study were identified.

Findings

The findings indicate multiple niche young segments with demographic as the primary criterion and psychographic as the building block. Niche level and individual level segments emerge due to the interaction of various factors within a given age cohort. The findings confirm the identity development process which considered age as an important factor that affects varying choices throughout life from adolescence to adulthood.

Practical implications

The findings of this study may be used for effective targeting and positioning strategy of green marketing. In the time of analytics, age cohorts and generational cohort of young consumers can be approached differently for yielding better environmental results. The magnified niche level segmentation of young consumers may be used to develop individualized and customized promotions for young customers in Young Nest 1-4 for an enhanced ECCB.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused more on consumer characteristics (demographic or psychographic) and their relative importance but niche level segmentation within given demographic segment was not attempted before. This study is unique in offering microscopic analysis of age cohorts of young consumers (Young Nest 1-4) and their interaction with other demographic variables (gender and income) for niche level segmentation.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Asli D.A. Tasci, Alan Fyall and Kyle Maurice Woosnam

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability practices by the tourism and hospitality industry. Socio-demographic and psychographic variables were tested for their influence on an individual’s self-assessment as a sustainable consumer, which was then tested for its influence on behavioral outcomes in the form of environmental and social sustainability concerns, objects of sustainability concerns, subjects considered responsible for sustainability and tourism choice vis-à-vis mass vs alternative forms of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Because of the paucity of a well-established and robust theory on the characteristics of sustainable consumers, both content analysis of the literature and quantitative analysis of survey data were used to identify the socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Plausible variables identified in the literature were filtered through principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis to fine-tune the variables a priori to develop a suitable model, which was subjected to partial least squares-structural equation modeling to further trim variables a posteriori by testing their reliability and validity.

Findings

Understanding who sustainable consumers are and what they are likely to believe and do is imperative for increasing sustainable practices by the industry. The study shows that people who consider themselves to be sustainable consumers are likely to have higher levels of ethical views, be more feminine and more liberal in personality, demonstrate concern with environmental and social sustainability issues, consider all pertinent parties responsible for sustainability and chose alternative forms of tourism over mass tourism. The study implies that general American consumers have the potential to buy into sustainability practices.

Originality/value

Despite researchers’ sporadic attempts to describe different characteristics of sustainable consumers and sustainable tourism consumers, past research has not substantiated a comprehensive description of who is a sustainable consumer in terms of socio-demographics, psychographics and behavioral characteristics. The literature on sustainable consumer characteristics is scarce and atheoretical; thus, the current study sets the stage for the development of this area of work across all sectors of the global tourism and hospitality industry. The model test results provide a clear profile of sustainable tourism consumers in socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral domains for the industry to respond to.

可持续旅游消费者:社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征

摘要

研究目的

本研究旨在揭示可持续消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征, 并以此作为推动旅游业和款待业对可持续发展实践需求的一种手段。本研究首先测试了两个变量:社会人口学特征和心理变数特征对个人作为可持续消费者的自我评估的影响; 然后测试了其对消费者行为性后果的影响, 包括对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 关注的主题, 对可持续性问题责任性的关注, 以及针对大众和其他旅游形式选择的比较。

研究设计/方法论/方案

由于缺乏关于可持续消费者特征的公认理论, 本研究采用了对相关文献内容的定性分析和对调查数据的定量分析来识别消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征。在建立合适的模型之前, 研究通过采用主成分分析(PCA)和普通最小二乘法(OLS)回归分析, 首先对文献中已识别的合理变量进行过滤和调整。继而基于偏最小二乘-结构方程建模(PLS- SEM)对可靠性和有效性的测试, 来进一步确定后验变量。

研究发现

了解可持续消费者的界定, 以及他们的信念和行为对于行业增加可持续性实践至关重要。该研究表明, 当人们认为自己是可持续消费者时, 他们便可能具有更高水平的道德观念, 具有更加女性化和自由的个性, 表现出对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 对可持续发展责任性的考虑更全面, 以及对其他旅游形式选择的偏爱。本篇研究的结果显示出普通美国消费者具有实践可持续性行为的潜力。

独创性/价值

尽管以往的研究曾零星地尝试描述可持续消费者和可持续旅游消费者的不同特征, 但并未从社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征这几个方面去全面地界定和证明可持续消费者。文献中依然缺乏关于对可持续消费者特征更加理论性地讨论。因此, 本研究旨在为全球旅游业和款待业的各个领域对于可持续旅游的讨论和发展奠定基础。模型测试的结果也为行业提供了一个关于可持续旅游消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征的理论框架, 以供行业响应。

El consumidor de turismo sostenible: Características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento

Propósito

Este estudio busca revelar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores responsables para promover la demanda de prácticas de sostenibilidad en la industria del turismo y la hospitalidad. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y psicográficas para determinar su influencia sobre la autoevaluación de un individuo como consumidor responsable, que después se evaluó para determinar su influencia en resultados conductuales, específicamente preocupaciones de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, objectos de preocupaciones de sostenibilidad, sujetos considerados responsables de la sostenibilidad, y la elección de turismo de masas versus turismo alternativo.

Diseño/metodología/método

Debido a la falta de teoría robusta y bien establecida sobre las características de los consumidores responsables, un análisis de contenidos de la literatura y un análisis cuantitativo de datos obtenidos a través de una encuesta se utilizaron para identificar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores. Las variables plausibles identificadas en la literatura fueron filtradas a través de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y un análisis de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO) para afinar a priori las variables para el desarrollo de un modelo adecuado, el cual fue evaluado utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales por el método de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS-SEM por sus siglas en inglés) que permitió seguir afinando las variables a posteriori por medio de la evaluación de su confiabilidad y validez.

Resultados

Entender quiénes son los consumidores responsables y qué son propensos a creer y hacer es imperativo para aumentar las prácticas sostenibles en la industria. El estudio demuestra que las personas que se consideran consumidores responsables son más propensas a tener niveles más altos de opiniones éticas, a tener personalidades más femeninas y liberales, a demostrar preocupación por los problemas de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, a considerar a todas las partes pertinentes como responsables de la sostenibilidad, y a escoger formas alternativas de turismo en vez de turismo de masas. El estudio sugiere que los consumidores americanos en general tienen el potencial de apoyar prácticas sostenibles.

Originalidad/valor

A pesar de los intentos esporádicos de otros investigadores para describir las diferentes características del consumidor responsable y de los consumidores de turismo sostenible, las investigaciones anteriores no han generado una descripción completa de quién es un consumidor responsable en términos de sus características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento. La literatura sobre las características del consumidor responsable es escasa y sin bases teóricas; por lo tanto, este estudio sienta las bases para el desarrollo de esta área de investigación en todos los sectores de la industria global del turismo y la hospitalidad. Los resultados de la evaluación del modelo proporcionan un perfil claro de los consumidores de turismo sostenible en los ámbitos sociodemográficos, psicográficos, y de comportamiento para que la industria responda.

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Ritu Narang

The current study aims to identify the role of psychographic characteristics in apparel store selection among Indian youth of a tier‐II city.

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to identify the role of psychographic characteristics in apparel store selection among Indian youth of a tier‐II city.

Design/methodology/approach

The research instrument was based on focus group discussions and in‐depth interviews of young people and retailers. It consisted of a psychographic scale and a store scale. Data were collected from young students aged between 19 and 24 years.

Findings

Cluster analysis found four psychographic clusters: “Get Going Adopters”, “Disinterested Introverts”, “Confused Followers” and “Independent Life Lovers”, and the differences between these segments were found to be statistically significant. The findings suggest that “Independent Life Lovers’ consider apparel shopping to be a recreational activity, whereas “Get Going Adopters” prefer to spend less time in stores; both these segments were driven by layout, ambience and the availability of the latest designs and styles in apparel store selection. “Confused Followers”, who struggle to maintain their old dress style, consider convenience, entertainment and recommendations from friends/relatives to be important in store patronage, while “Disinterested Introverts”, the fashion‐resistant group, are lured by attractive sales promotion techniques and the availability of preferred brands.

Research limitations/implications

The study was confined to the city of Lucknow, and the use of students from educational institutes neglects those who are college and school dropouts.

Practical implications

The current study provides valuable insights into the apparel store selection criteria adopted by Indian youth.

Originality/value

Knowledge of the different psychographic clusters of Indian youth and the criteria adopted by them in making store choice decision encourages a better understanding of customers and provides valuable guidelines to the modern marketer/retailer in designing the retail‐mix strategy in one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Robert D. Straughan and James A. Roberts

Looking to the future of green marketing, examines the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The study also provides a method of profiling and…

Abstract

Looking to the future of green marketing, examines the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The study also provides a method of profiling and segmenting college students based upon ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Findings indicate that, despite a significant amount of past research attention, demographic criteria are not as useful a profiling method as psychographic criteria. Consistent with past findings, the study indicates that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) provides the greatest insight into ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Further, the inclusion of altruism to the profile appears to add significantly to past efforts. Additional constructs examined suggest that environmental segmentation alternatives are more stable than past profiles that have relied primarily on demographic criteria.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Sudas Roy and Paromita Goswami

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to understand the frequent clothing purchase behavior of undergraduate urban college‐goers of India aged 18‐23 years and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to understand the frequent clothing purchase behavior of undergraduate urban college‐goers of India aged 18‐23 years and empirically prove the value‐psychographic traits‐clothing (VPC) purchase behavior hierarchy.

Design/methodology/approach

A stratified systematic sample of 275 respondents was used to test the hierarchy. The List of Values (LOV) scale was submitted to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal components analysis and varimax rotation. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to validate EFA results. Next, structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was used to empirically prove VPC of the urban Indian college‐goers.

Findings

The study finds that EFA of the LOV scale yielded two dimensions‐ outer‐directed values and inner‐directed values. Outer‐directed values influenced the psychographic traits – fashion‐consciousness and innovativeness positively, while fashion‐consciousness and innovativeness positively influenced clothing purchase frequency. Thus, VPC hierarchy is empirically proved with the help of SEM.

Research limitations/implications

In the context of frequent clothing purchases of college‐goers, values affect behavior indirectly through psychographic traits of fashion‐consciousness and innovativeness. Psychographic traits of fashion‐consciousness and innovativeness act as intervening variables between values and clothing purchase behavior. EFA and CFA were done on the same sample thereby limiting the scope of the study.

Practical implications

The marketer of clothing for college‐goers should frame his/her product and communication strategy in such a way that it appeals to the fashion‐conscious and innovative consumers with outer‐directed values.

Originality/value

An attempt has been made for the first time to prove the VPC hierarchy empirically in the context of frequent clothing purchases of young college‐goers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Barbara J. DeSanto

This paper discusses the contribution psychographics can make to the public relations process. While marketers and advertisers rely on building up groups through…

Abstract

This paper discusses the contribution psychographics can make to the public relations process. While marketers and advertisers rely on building up groups through individuals' consumer purchasing behaviour, public relations practitioners have traditionally assessed different groups' public opinion to provide guidance in developing communication. Psychographics offers practitioners a dimension between the individual and the group choices that takes into consideration the individuality of the marketing/advertising approach and the group mentality of the public opinion process. Correctly researched, psychographics can also add attitudinal and behavioural information to traditional demographic categories, allowing practitioners to tailor communication to match the attitudes and perceptions of their target publics. The key, of course, to making effective use of psychographics is carefully constructing the research to generate the genuine responses that accurately reflect target publics' feelings, motivations and values.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Shalini Kalra Sahi, Nand Dhameja and Ashok Pratap Arora

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a post hoc predictive segmentation procedure to find out the variables that are the most important predictors of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a post hoc predictive segmentation procedure to find out the variables that are the most important predictors of investor's preference for specific financial investment products.

Design/methodology/approach

The study considers various demographic, socio‐economic and psychographic variables for the purpose of understanding the investor's preferences. Using a sample of individual investors (n=377), a classification and regression tree (CART) methodology was used to determine whether psychographic variables were better predictors than demographic and socio‐economic variables for understanding an individual investor's preference for the investment alternatives.

Findings

The results showed that psychographic variables emerged as the most important predictors in the case of investment products with greater degree of risk, and the demographic and socio‐economic variables emerged as the most important for the investment instruments with lesser degree of risk. However, when the sample was divided based on occupation profile (government and non‐government), for both the fixed returns based instruments and the non‐fixed instruments, psychographic variables emerged as the most important predictors.

Practical implications

These results show the need for financial service providers to consider the psychographic variables along with demographic and socio‐economic variables, so as to better understand and advise the financial consumers. This would enable the financial service institutions to target their audience more sharply, so as to develop appropriate marketing strategies and further build the investor's trust.

Originality/value

This paper is a first of its kind to empirically identify the most important variable that determines the financial consumer's preference for investment products in India, using CART technique. This study contributes to furthering the understanding of investor behavior.

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