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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Deborah Morris and Nathalie Gray

The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of the “Living with a Personality Disorder” group (Morris, 2011a). This intervention is a psycho-education group…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of the “Living with a Personality Disorder” group (Morris, 2011a). This intervention is a psycho-education group for women with an intellectual disability (ID) and a personality disorder (PD). It draws on psycho-education, biosocial theory (Linehan, 1993) and compassionate mind approaches (Gilbert, 2009). It aims to increase knowledge of personality, PDs, to increase awareness of the “non-disordered” parts of self and to increase knowledge of psychological treatments for PD’s.

Design/methodology/approach

The intervention was delivered to women detained in a specialist women’s learning disability forensic service. It was delivered over 12 group and two individual sessions. The Knowledge of Personality Disorders Questionnaire (D’Silva and Duggan, 2002), the Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003), the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale (McConnaughy et al., 1983) and a series of Likert scale questions and statements were used to assess the utility of the intervention. The intervention was piloted between 2012 and 2014 in a series of small groups. The lead facilitator for each intervention was a registered psychologist with training in dialectical behaviour therapy.

Findings

Completing the intervention resulted in an increase in knowledge of PDs, treatments, increased self-compassion and therapeutic optimism and awareness of the limitations of a PD diagnosis.

Originality/value

A new intervention that may increase knowledge of PDs, of personal strengths and increase optimism about change that may be a useful component to the treatment for service users with PDs and an ID.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Marc Samuel Tibber, Nicola Piek and Sara Boulter

This study is a post hoc service level investigation into the efficacy of a forensic dual diagnosis intervention. The treatment programme incorporated the principles of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a post hoc service level investigation into the efficacy of a forensic dual diagnosis intervention. The treatment programme incorporated the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy and Motivational Interviewing, and was comprised of three stages: psycho-education into the links between mental/physical health, substance use and offending, the cultivation of coping strategies and relapse prevention planning. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Treatment outcome was tracked using pre- and post- stage 1 and 2 measures, and included self-report questionnaires that probed service users’ readiness for change, motivations for treatment and perceived effectiveness of coping strategies (n=80 and 37 patients for stages 1 and 2, respectively). In addition, service users undertook a knowledge “quiz”, which probed information retention.

Findings

The results show that whilst psycho-education (stage 1) increased service users’ knowledge of key issues, this had no parallel effects on other measures. In contrast, completion of stage 2 led to an increase in external motivation for treatment, although this did not translate into a shift in service users’ readiness for change.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are consistent with the Motivational Interviewing literature and highlight the need for a shift in internalised motivation for treatment if change is to be elicited. Further, they point towards the viability of using self-report measures to monitor treatment outcome in a secure forensic setting.

Originality/value

These findings have a number of implications for the design and on-going evaluation of forensic dual diagnosis services, an area of research that is currently under-represented in the literature.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2011

John Burns, Charlotte Aspinall and Chris Matthews

Individuals with learning disabilities (LD) who offend are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than those who do not. There is strong evidence to suggest that…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals with learning disabilities (LD) who offend are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than those who do not. There is strong evidence to suggest that interventions for alcohol problems can be effective; this paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The pre and post assessment scores from an alcohol awareness group (AAG) were collected from 34 service users with LD or a dual diagnosis of LD and mental health problems. The programme was manual led and included 12 sessions. The data collected were used to evaluate the programme.

Findings

Clients' level of knowledge and self efficacy increased after programme completion. Post group, those with a lower IQ had gained a greater level of alcohol‐related knowledge compared to those with a higher IQ. Clients with a learning disability alone scored slightly higher than those with a dual diagnosis.

Originality/value

The AAG has been successful in increasing motivation to change drinking behaviour, knowledge of problems related to alcohol, and “safe drinking” practice. These outcomes have been achieved across a wide range of cognitive abilities suggesting that those with an IQ below 60 can also benefit from this type of intervention.

Details

Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0927

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Les Jennings, Brian Harris, Jan Gregoire, Jane Merrin, Jackie Peyton and Liz Bray

This paper looks at the outcomes of a mental health education group for patients in a high secure setting. The effects measured included assessments of knowledge about…

Abstract

This paper looks at the outcomes of a mental health education group for patients in a high secure setting. The effects measured included assessments of knowledge about schizophrenia and its treatments, insight into the illness, drug compliance and attitude, and self esteem. The results from the measures were broadly consistent with findings from previous studies in non‐forensic settings: notably, that patients were able to acquire knowledge about their illness and its treatment and also that psycho‐education could have a positive impact on their attitudes towards taking medication and their levels of insight.The study outlines the structure and content of the group sessions and the teaching methods used. It offers discussion on the findings and concludes with recommendations about high secure service issues that may have relevance for wider service settings.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

John Charles Cole

The purpose of this project was to determine if consumers of Older People’s Mental Health (OPMH) recovering from depression and/or anxiety would benefit, in terms of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this project was to determine if consumers of Older People’s Mental Health (OPMH) recovering from depression and/or anxiety would benefit, in terms of a reduction in symptomatology and an increase in overall quality of life, from a group program approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The Active & Healthy Group Program was developed drawing on evidenced-based psycho-education, psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and research on the effects of diet and activity on well-being. The program consists of six weekly sessions, each consisting of 50 min of psycho-education followed by physical and social activity of similar duration. Pre-and post-testing was undertaken using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Kessler 10 (K10) and European Health Interview Survey-Quality of Life-8 Item Index. In addition, participants completed a qualitative post-group survey focussing on their evaluation of the group, strengths and suggested improvements. The pre- and post-group measures were subjected to statistical analysis.

Findings

According to pre- and post-test measures, the majority of group participants showed significant reductions in depressive symptoms and psychological distress (GDS and K10). This aligned with an overall increase in measures of quality of life (WHO QOL 8).

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the emerging evidence that older people are often open to education and change, given a friendly non-confrontational environment where evidence is presented that challenges the negative stereotypes so often put forward about old age. Given the nature of the outcomes, Active & Healthy, perhaps, has the potential to impact on service transformation to incorporate group work of this type as a valuable adjunct to core service provision.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2015

Claire Bone, Pat Dugard, Panos Vostanis and Nisha Dogra

The purpose of this paper is to examine students’ understandings of mental health and their learning preferences, in order to provide guidance for developing targeted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine students’ understandings of mental health and their learning preferences, in order to provide guidance for developing targeted mental health education.

Design/methodology/approach

A study-specific self-administered questionnaire was used at two English schools (n=980; ages 11-18), incorporating a combination of open-ended and fixed-choice items. Data were subject to content analysis, cross-tabulation of frequencies and statistical analyses.

Findings

Overall, students understood mental health in terms of personal attributes or disorder, however older students were more likely to talk about relationships. Males were less likely to say they wanted to learn about mental health than females, believing they had no need to learn more. White students were also less interested in learning about mental health than Indian students. Overall, students said they would not use social media to learn, however Indian students were most likely to want to use it. Younger students preferred school-based learning to online.

Research limitations/implications

The questionnaires were study specific and self-report. However interesting demographic variations in responses were found, worthy of further exploration.

Social implications

Policymakers should consider targeted mental health interventions in schools and research the potential roles/barriers of the internet and social media. Long-term possible benefits relate to improved preventative strategies within schools.

Originality/value

Previous research has focused on the delivery of mental health promotion/education in schools, whereas the current study drew on a large sample of students to understand how they define mental health for themselves, as well as how they prefer to learn about it.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2011

Mona Botros, Nicole Letch and Jeremy Turk

This report explores the relationship between the autosomal recessive disorder Schwachman‐Diamond syndrome (SDS) and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit…

Abstract

This report explores the relationship between the autosomal recessive disorder Schwachman‐Diamond syndrome (SDS) and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), mixed receptive‐expressive language disorder and intellectual disability. It also reflects on the management of associated developmental, emotional and behavioural challenges. A six‐year‐old boy with SDS underwent comprehensive psychiatric and psychological assessment and was found to meet DSM‐IV‐TR (APA, 2000) diagnostic criteria for ADHD combined type and to have mild intellectual disability. A diagnosis of ASD was excluded. Management of his ADHD included psycho‐education, behaviour modification, educational recommendations and medication. This study adds to knowledge of Shwachman‐Diamond syndrome and management of co‐morbid neurodevelopmental disorders.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Debbie Spain, Lucy O'Neill, Laura Harwood and Eddie Chaplin

Empirical research indicates that adults who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can derive clinically and statistically meaningful benefits from individual and…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical research indicates that adults who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can derive clinically and statistically meaningful benefits from individual and group-based psychological interventions, specifically those which employ skills-based, behavioural, and cognitive techniques. Given the inherent socio-communication, executive functioning, and theory of mind impairments that individuals with ASD can experience, it is deemed necessary to modify the design and delivery of interventions so as to enhance engagement and outcomes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This general review provides a summary of the extant literature and clinical guidelines for the provision of psychological interventions for adults with ASD.

Findings

Adaptations to the structure, process, content, and outcome measurement are outlined. It is likely that optimal treatment gains for adults with ASD are contingent on a prolonged assessment phase, pre-therapy interventions including psycho-education and skills-based interventions, thoughtful regard to the formulation of presenting difficulties, and consideration of, and methods to overcome, the difficulties that may arise when seeking to implement change, identify goals, and manage endings.

Originality/value

This is one of the first reviews to condense the clinical implications for providing psychological interventions for adults with ASD.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2014

Verity Chester and Marie Henriksen

Research investigating the experience and management of pain in people with intellectual disabilities has mainly been carried out in community services. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Research investigating the experience and management of pain in people with intellectual disabilities has mainly been carried out in community services. The purpose of this baseline audit aims to examine this area in a forensic intellectual disability setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A baseline audit of pain management was carried out. Audit standards were derived from recent research, and the performance on each measured. Patients and nurses were interviewed. The audit included 82 patients, of which 64 were interviewed. Twelve nurses were interviewed. Health Action Plans and medication files were accessed for information.

Findings

There were interesting differences and similarities in the experience and management of pain between community and forensic intellectual disability patients. Within this sample, most patients were able to communicate their pain, and access appropriate treatment. However, a minority required further support. Nurse decision making about providing pain treatment was affected by fears of manipulation, contributing to addition and disbelieving the patient. Additionally, a number of patients appeared to have insufficient knowledge about how to best manage pain.

Practical implications

Results suggested that a standardised approach to pain management, incorporating policy, staff training, and health promotion and psycho-education for patients, would have benefits for both patients and staff within secure intellectual disability services.

Originality/value

At present, there is little research focusing on pain experience and management in forensic intellectual disability settings.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2007

S Hearne, K Garner, B O'Mahony, C Thomas and R Alexander

This paper describes an innovative, multi‐modular group therapy programme based on cognitive‐behavioural principles and psycho‐education. It introduces participants to…

Abstract

This paper describes an innovative, multi‐modular group therapy programme based on cognitive‐behavioural principles and psycho‐education. It introduces participants to strategies and skills to assist with deficits such as poor social skills, low self‐esteem, poor emotional regulation and problematic inter‐personal relationships. The manual‐based format of this programme enables members to be introduced to working in a group, and enables facilitators to obtain qualitative information about group members to promote existing skills in future treatment programmes. The core deficit areas targeted by the programme are not by any means exclusive to individuals in in‐patient forensic learning disability settings, so the programme can be useful for clients with learning disability and offending behaviours who are resident in the community.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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